acetoin

Summary

Summary: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.

Top Publications

  1. Le Bars D, Yvon M. Formation of diacetyl and acetoin by Lactococcus lactis via aspartate catabolism. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:171-7 pubmed
    ..conversion into acetolactate was less efficient than at pH 5, and acetolactate was mainly decarboxylated to acetoin. Acetoin and diacetyl can be formed as a result of aspartate or alanine catabolism by L...
  2. Tolasch T, Sölter S, Toth M, Ruther J, Francke W. (R)-acetoin-female sex pheromone of the summer chafer Amphimallon solstitiale (L.). J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:1045-50 pubmed
    ..a well known, widely distributed and rather common European scarab beetle, were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-EAD. Acetoin - (R):(S) > 9:1 - as well as 2,3-butanediol - (2R,3R): (2S,3S):meso = 1:1:9 - were present in extracts of both ..
  3. Xiao Z, Xu P. Acetoin metabolism in bacteria. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2007;33:127-40 pubmed
    b>Acetoin is an important physiological metabolite excreted by many microorganisms...
  4. Oppermann F, Schmidt B, Steinbuchel A. Purification and characterization of acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Pelobacter carbinolicus acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:757-67 pubmed
    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DHLDH), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DHLTA), and acetoin: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase (Ao:DCPIP OR) were purified from acetoin-grown cells of Pelobacter carbinolicus...
  5. Gao C, Zhang L, Xie Y, Hu C, Zhang Y, Li L, et al. Production of (3S)-acetoin from diacetyl by using stereoselective NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase and glucose dehydrogenase. Bioresour Technol. 2013;137:111-5 pubmed publisher
    Production of (3S)-acetoin ((3S)-AC), an important platform chemical, is desirable but difficult to perform...
  6. Ehsani M, Fernández M, Biosca J, Julien A, Dequin S. Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..have great potential for reducing the ethanol contents in wines, one major side effect is the accumulation of acetoin, having a negative sensory impact on wine...
  7. Nadal I, Rico J, Perez Martinez G, Yebra M, Monedero V. Diacetyl and acetoin production from whey permeate using engineered Lactobacillus casei. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:1233-7 pubmed publisher
    The capability of Lactobacillus casei to produce the flavor-related compounds diacetyl and acetoin from whey permeate has been examined by a metabolic engineering approach. An L...
  8. Chen T, Liu W, Fu J, Zhang B, Tang Y. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for acetoin production from glucose and xylose mixtures. J Biotechnol. 2013;168:499-505 pubmed publisher
    As a vital flavor compound, acetoin is extensively used in dairy products and drinks industry. In this study, Bacillus subtilis was engineered to metabolize glucose and xylose as substrates for acetoin production...
  9. Bertagnolli B, Hager L. Role of flavin in acetoin production by two bacterial pyruvate oxidases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;300:364-71 pubmed
    ..requires FAD both for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate and CO2 and for the formation of acetoin from pyruvate and acetaldehyde...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kruger N, Steinbuchel A. Identification of acoR, a regulatory gene for the expression of genes essential for acetoin catabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:4391-400 pubmed
    ..upstream from acoXABC, which encodes the Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 structural genes essential for cleavage of acetoin, the 2,004-bp acoR gene was identified. acoR encodes a protein of 668 amino acids with a molecular mass of 72...
  2. Grundy F, Waters D, Takova T, Henkin T. Identification of genes involved in utilization of acetate and acetoin in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 1993;10:259-71 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the acuABC genes resulted in poor growth or sporulation on acetoin or butanediol...
  3. Nielsen D, Yoon S, Yuan C, Prather K. Metabolic engineering of acetoin and meso-2, 3-butanediol biosynthesis in E. coli. Biotechnol J. 2010;5:274-84 pubmed publisher
    The functional reconstruction of acetoin and meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli have been explored systematically...
  4. García Quintáns N, Repizo G, Martin M, Magni C, Lopez P. Activation of the diacetyl/acetoin pathway in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264 by acidic growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1988-96 pubmed publisher
    ..fermentative microorganism, which cometabolizes glucose and citrate to yield aroma compounds through the diacetyl/acetoin biosynthetic pathway. Our previous results have shown that under acidic growth Lactococcus bv...
  5. Yang S, Dunman P, Projan S, Bayles K. Characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus CidR regulon: elucidation of a novel role for acetoin metabolism in cell death and lysis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:458-68 pubmed
    ..studies identified additional CidR-regulated operons including the IrgAB and alsSD encoding proteins involved in acetoin production...
  6. Said I, Renou M, Morin J, Ferreira J, Rochat D. Interactions between acetoin, a plant volatile, and pheromone in Rhynchophorus palmarum: behavioral and olfactory neuron responses. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:1789-805 pubmed
    ..Synthetic PV blends synergizing pheromone contain acetoin (A) and ethyl acetate (EtAc). R, A, and EtAc are detected by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)...
  7. Moons P, Van Houdt R, Vivijs B, Michiels C, Michiels C, Aertsen A. Integrated regulation of acetoin fermentation by quorum sensing and pH in Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3422-7 pubmed publisher
    During fermentation of sugars, a number of bacterial species are able to switch from mixed acid production to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol production in order to avoid lethal acidification of their environment, although the regulation of ..
  8. Xiao Z, Ma C, Xu P, Lu J. Acetoin catabolism and acetylbutanediol formation by Bacillus pumilus in a chemically defined medium. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5627 pubmed publisher
    ..e. acetylbutanediol (ABD, 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-one), by acetoin metabolism...
  9. Ali N, Bignon J, Rapoport G, Debarbouille M. Regulation of the acetoin catabolic pathway is controlled by sigma L in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2497-504 pubmed
    ..subtilis grown in media containing amino acids or glucose secretes acetate, pyruvate, and large quantities of acetoin into the growth medium...
  10. Payne K, Hough D, Danson M. Discovery of a putative acetoin dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..hetero-tetramer possessing the catalytic activity characteristic of the first component enzyme of an acetoin dehydrogenase multienzyme complex...
  11. Otsuka M, Harada N, Itabashi T, Ohmori S. Blood and urinary levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and C4 compounds such as diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol in normal male students after ethanol ingestion. Alcohol. 1999;17:119-24 pubmed
    ..The student with the inactive form of ALDH2 was flushed and his levels of 2,3-butanediol and acetaldehyde in blood and urine were found to be the highest...
  12. Cho S, Kim K, Ahn J, Lee J, Kim S, Um Y. Selective production of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin by a newly isolated bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca M1. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;170:1922-33 pubmed publisher
    A newly isolated bacterium, designated as Klebsiella oxytoca M1, produced 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) or acetoin selectively as a major product depending on temperature in a defined medium. K. oxytoca M1 produced 2,3-BDO mainly (0.32~0...
  13. Frädrich C, March A, Fiege K, Hartmann A, Jahn D, Härtig E. The transcription factor AlsR binds and regulates the promoter of the alsSD operon responsible for acetoin formation in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1100-12 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus subtilis forms acetoin under anaerobic fermentative growth conditions and as a product of the aerobic carbon overflow metabolism...
  14. Yoshida K, Fujita Y, Ehrlich S. An operon for a putative ATP-binding cassette transport system involved in acetoin utilization of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5454-61 pubmed
    ..It is known that B. subtilis produces acetoin as an external carbon storage compound and then reuses it later during stationary phase and sporulation...
  15. Kovacikova G, Lin W, Skorupski K. Dual regulation of genes involved in acetoin biosynthesis and motility/biofilm formation by the virulence activator AphA and the acetate-responsive LysR-type regulator AlsR in Vibrio cholerae. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:420-33 pubmed
    ..One set of genes strongly repressed by AphA is involved in the biosynthesis of acetoin, a product synthesized by a variety of bacteria that plays a role in preventing intracellular acidification and ..
  16. Passerini D, Laroute V, Coddeville M, Le Bourgeois P, Loubiere P, Ritzenthaler P, et al. New insights into Lactococcus lactis diacetyl- and acetoin-producing strains isolated from diverse origins. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;160:329-36 pubmed publisher
    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strains are used in the dairy industry for generating acetoin and notably diacetyl which imparts a high level of buttery flavor notes...
  17. Kobayashi K, Kusaka K, Takahashi T, Sato K. Method for the simultaneous assay of diacetyl and acetoin in the presence of alpha-acetolactate: application in determining the kinetic parameters for the decomposition of alpha-acetolactate. J Biosci Bioeng. 2005;99:502-7 pubmed
    A simultaneous assay method for diacetyl and acetoin was developed to investigate the formation of diacetyl during the brewing of alcoholic beverages...
  18. Silbersack J, Jürgen B, Hecker M, Schneidinger B, Schmuck R, Schweder T. An acetoin-regulated expression system of Bacillus subtilis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;73:895-903 pubmed
    ..The acoABCL operon codes for the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, which is the major enzyme system responsible for the catabolism of acetoin in B. subtilis...
  19. Zhang X, Zhang R, Bao T, Yang T, Xu M, Li H, et al. Moderate expression of the transcriptional regulator ALsR enhances acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;40:1067-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetoin, a major extracellular catabolic product of Bacillus subtilis cultured on glucose, is widely used to add flavor to food and also serves as a precursor for chemical synthesis...
  20. Sun J, Zhang L, Rao B, Shen Y, Wei D. Enhanced acetoin production by Serratia marcescens H32 with expression of a water-forming NADH oxidase. Bioresour Technol. 2012;119:94-8 pubmed publisher
    Cofactor engineering was employed to enhance production of acetoin by Serratia marcescens H32. 2,3-Butanediol was a major byproduct of acetoin fermentation by S. marcescens H32...
  21. Zhang Y, Li S, Liu L, Wu J. Acetoin production enhanced by manipulating carbon flux in a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Bioresour Technol. 2013;130:256-60 pubmed publisher
    A new strain, FMME044, exhibited a remarkable ability to synthesize acetoin and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens...
  22. Liu Z, Qin J, Gao C, Hua D, Ma C, Li L, et al. Production of (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and (3S)-acetoin from glucose using resting cells of Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:10741-4 pubmed publisher
    Production of highly pure (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol ((2S,3S)-2,3-BD) and (3S)-acetoin ((3S)-AC) in high concentrations is desirable but difficult to achieve...
  23. Wahlbom C, Hahn Hägerdal B. Furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetoin act as external electron acceptors during anaerobic fermentation of xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;78:172-8 pubmed
    The electron acceptors acetoin, acetaldehyde, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were added to anaerobic batch fermentation of xylose by recombinant, xylose utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB 3001...
  24. Geckil H, Barak Z, Chipman D, Erenler S, Webster D, Stark B. Enhanced production of acetoin and butanediol in recombinant Enterobacter aerogenes carrying Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2004;26:325-30 pubmed
    Microbial production of butanediol and acetoin has received increasing interest because of their diverse potential practical uses. Although both products are fermentative in nature, their optimal production requires a low level of oxygen...
  25. Romano P, Granchi L, Caruso M, Borra G, Palla G, Fiore C, et al. The species-specific ratios of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin isomers as a tool to evaluate wine yeast performance. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003;86:163-8 pubmed
    The isomers of 2,3-butanediol [R,R; S,S; R,S (meso-form)] and of acetoin (R,S) were determined in laboratory wine fermentations carried out by 50 yeast strains, 10 for each of the following species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kloeckera ..
  26. Xiao Z, Liu P, Qin J, Xu P. Statistical optimization of medium components for enhanced acetoin production from molasses and soybean meal hydrolysate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:61-8 pubmed
    The nutritional requirements for acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis CICC 10025 were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments using indigenous agroindustrial by-products...
  27. Thanh T, J rgen B, Bauch M, Liebeke M, Lalk M, Ehrenreich A, et al. Regulation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol utilization in Bacillus licheniformis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:2227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription at the acoA promoter is repressed by glucose but induced by acetoin as soon as the preferred carbon source glucose is exhausted...
  28. Grundy F, Turinsky A, Henkin T. Catabolite regulation of Bacillus subtilis acetate and acetoin utilization genes by CcpA. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4527-33 pubmed
    The Bacillus subtilis acsA (acetyl coenzyme A synthetase) and acuABC (acetoin utilization) genes were previously identified in the region downstream from the ccpA gene, which encodes a protein required for catabolite repression of the ..
  29. Zhang X, Zhang R, Yang T, Zhang J, Xu M, Li H, et al. Mutation breeding of acetoin high producing Bacillus subtilis blocked in 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:1783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis. Selected mutants were tested for the activities of acetoin reductase (AR) and BDH. According to further batch fermentation, one mutant named JNA-UD-6 that produced 24...
  30. Zeppa G, Conterno L, Gerbi V. Determination of organic acids, sugars, diacetyl, and acetoin in cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:2722-6 pubmed
    ..some free fatty acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric), diacetyl, and acetoin were separated on an Aminex HPX-87H column using a simple isocratic HPLC method and identified by retention times ..
  31. Huang M, Oppermann Sanio F, Steinbuchel A. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the Bacillus subtilis acetoin catabolic pathway. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3837-41 pubmed
    A recent study indicated that Bacillus subtilis catabolizes acetoin by enzymes encoded by the acu gene cluster (F. J. Grundy, D. A. Waters, T. Y. Takova, and T. M. Henkin, Mol. Microbiol...
  32. Renna M, Najimudin N, Winik L, Zahler S. Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis alsS, alsD, and alsR genes involved in post-exponential-phase production of acetoin. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:3863-75 pubmed
    b>Acetoin is a major extracellular product of Bacillus subtilis grown on glucose and other fermentable carbon sources...
  33. Stasiewicz M, Wiedmann M, Bergholz T. The transcriptional response of Listeria monocytogenes during adaptation to growth on lactate and diacetate includes synergistic changes that increase fermentative acetoin production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5294-306 pubmed publisher
    ..and a shift from fermentative production of acetate and lactate to energetically less favorable, neutral acetoin. These data suggest that additional treatments that interfere with cellular energy generation processes could ..
  34. Wang M, Fu J, Zhang X, Chen T. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for enhanced production of acetoin. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1877-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Acetoin is widely used in food and other industries. A bdhA and acoA double-knockout strain of Bacillus subtilis produced acetoin at 0.72 mol/mol, a 16.4 % increased compared to the wild type...
  35. Gao J, Xu Y, Li F, Ding G. Production of S-acetoin from diacetyl by Escherichia coli transformant cells that express the diacetyl reductase gene of Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013;57:274-81 pubmed publisher
    S-acetoin (S-AC) is an important four-carbon chiral compound that has unique industrial applications in the asymmetric synthesis of valuable chiral specialty chemicals...
  36. Gonzalez E, Fernández M, Marco D, Calam E, Sumoy L, Parés X, et al. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the metabolism of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:670-9 pubmed publisher
    NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner...
  37. Nicholson W. The Bacillus subtilis ydjL (bdhA) gene encodes acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6832-8 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus subtilis is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol from acetoin by fermentation, but to date, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible, acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH), has remained unknown...
  38. Cha D, Landolt P, Adams T. Effect of Chemical Ratios of a Microbial-Based Feeding Attractant on Trap Catch of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Environ Entomol. 2017;46:907-915 pubmed publisher
    ..be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol...
  39. Ziadi M, Wathelet J, Marlier M, Hamdi M, Thonart P. Analysis of volatile compounds produced by 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis isolated from leben (Tunisian fermented milk) using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. J Food Sci. 2008;73:S247-52 pubmed
    ..Aeration (0.1 mL/min) and agitation enhanced the production of diacetyl, acetoin, 3-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanol. Fermentation at pH 5 had no effect on volatile production.
  40. Hsu J, Peng H, Chang H. The ATP-binding motif in AcoK is required for regulation of acetoin catabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:121-7 pubmed publisher
    Many bacterial species utilize acetoin as a carbon source...
  41. Marquez Villavicencio M, Weber B, Witherell R, Willis D, Charkowski A. The 3-hydroxy-2-butanone pathway is required for Pectobacterium carotovorum pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22974 pubmed publisher
    ..Alkalinization of the milieu via this pathway may aid in plant cell maceration since Pectobacterium pectate lyases are most active at alkaline pH...
  42. Zhu B, Xu Y, Fan W. High-yield fermentative preparation of tetramethylpyrazine by Bacillus sp. using an endogenous precursor approach. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;37:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The high yield of TTMP and the inexpensiveness of the agro-industrial product used as the substrate (soybean meal) indicate the potential of this process for industrial application. ..
  43. Song G, Qin T, Liu H, Xu G, Pan Y, Xiong F, et al. Quantitative breath analysis of volatile organic compounds of lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer. 2010;67:227-31 pubmed publisher
  44. Chavan A, Raghunathan A, Venkatesh K. Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a study on production of buttery flavors, namely diacetyl and acetoin, by growing Lactobacillus rhamnosus on a starch medium containing the enzyme glucoamylase...
  45. Callon C, Berdagué J, Dufour E, Montel M. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:3840-50 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, one milk was distinguished by a higher content of acetoin, and lower 2-butanone and 3-methylpentanone concentrations...
  46. Torino M, Taranto M, Font de Valdez G. Citrate catabolism and production of acetate and succinate by Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15807. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;69:79-85 pubmed
    ..4-3.7 mM), while acetoine, dyacetile or butanediol were not detected. The mixed-acid profile displayed by L. helveticus ATCC 15807 was linked to NADH(2) oxidase activity rather than the acetate kinase enzyme. ..
  47. Mallouchos A, Komaitis M, Koutinas A, Kanellaki M. Evolution of volatile byproducts during wine fermentations using immobilized cells on grape skins. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2402-8 pubmed
    ..Acetaldehyde and acetoin were synthesized in the early stages of fermentation. Afterward, their amount decreased...
  48. Sergienko E, Jordan F. New model for activation of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase by substrate consistent with the alternating sites mechanism: demonstration of the existence of two active forms of the enzyme. Biochemistry. 2002;41:3952-67 pubmed
    ..Addition of pyruvamide or acetaldehyde to YPDC results in the appearance of additional conformations of the enzyme. ..
  49. Biebl H, Zeng A, Menzel K, Deckwer W. Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1998;50:24-9 pubmed
    ..5, whereas formation of acetate and ethanol declined in this p range 2,3-Butanediol and acetoin were also found among the products in chemostat cultures grown at pH 7 under conditions of glycerol excess but ..
  50. Legako J, Dinh T, Miller M, Adhikari K, Brooks J. Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds of grilled beef steaks from three USDA Quality Grades. Meat Sci. 2016;112:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..While the measured attributes and volatiles may not be causative of flavor, this data indicates potential for prediction of flavor through their measurement. ..
  51. Meng W, Xiao D, Wang R. Enhanced production of tetramethylpyrazine in Bacillus licheniformis BL1 by bdhA disruption and 2,3-butanediol supplementation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;32:46 pubmed publisher
    ..99% higher than that produced by the parent BL1 strain. In addition, the yield of acetoin, which is a TMP precursor, also increased by 28.98% in BLA...
  52. Goupil Feuillerat N, Cocaign Bousquet M, Godon J, Ehrlich S, Renault P. Dual role of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:6285-93 pubmed
    ..leucine, the alpha-acetolactate produced by the biosynthetic acetohydroxy acid synthase IlvBN is transformed to acetoin by AldB and, consequently, is not available for valine synthesis...
  53. Peng H, Yang Y, Deng W, Chang H. Identification and characterization of acoK, a regulatory gene of the Klebsiella pneumoniae acoABCD operon. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:1497-504 pubmed
    ..clone containing the region upstream of the acoABCD operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be required for acetoin-inducible expression of the operon in Escherichia coli...