omega chloroacetophenone


Summary: A potent eye, throat, and skin irritant. One of its uses is as a riot control agent.

Top Publications

  1. Bredemeier M, Lopes L, Eisenreich M, Hickmann S, Bongiorno G, d Avila R, et al. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors for prevention of cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Quality of evidence was generally low to moderate. Purine-like XOI may reduce the incidence of adverse CV outcomes. However, higher doses of allopurinol (>?300 mg/day) may be associated with loss of CV protection. ..
  2. Engle S, Watson D. Natriuretic Peptides as Cardiovascular Safety Biomarkers in Rats: Comparison With Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Weight. Toxicol Sci. 2016;149:458-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies support the use of natriuretic peptides and heart rate to detect changes in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in short-duration rat studies. ..
  3. Wang Y, Li T, Liu Y, Liu B, Hu X, Wang Y, et al. [Effect of the ischemic post-conditioning on the prevention of the cardio-renal damage in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2017;45:277-282 pubmed publisher
    ..06%(18/128)?p?0.034]??????1???????????????????[7.32%(9/123)?15.63%(20/128)?p?0.040]? ??? stemi???ppci????ipc?????????????????????????1??????????????????????????????????????????????????chictr?icr?15006590?. ..
  4. Rezende F, Moll F, Walter M, Helfinger V, Hahner F, Janetzko P, et al. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice. Redox Biol. 2018;15:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response. ..
  5. Zhou X, Chen J, Zhang Q, Shao J, Du K, Xu X, et al. Prognostic Value of Plasma Soluble Corin in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:2008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that corin is a valuable prognostic marker of MACE in patients with AMI, independent of established conventional risk factors. ..
  6. Leone A, D Amario D, Teofili L, Basile E, Cannatà F, Graziani F, et al. The combined effect of subcutaneous granulocyte- colony stimulating factor and myocardial contrast echocardiography with intravenous infusion of sulfur hexafluoride on post-infarction left ventricular function, the RIGENERA 2.0 trial: study protocol . Trials. 2016;17:97 pubmed publisher NCT02502747 (29 June 2015); EudraCT: 2015-002189-21 (10 July 2015). ..
  7. Kajbafzadeh A, Sabetkish N, Sabetkish S. Establishment of colonic dialysis model in uremic rats by right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy. J Pediatr Urol. 2018;14:159.e1-159.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..CD with an efficient PD solution through a MACE stoma may be a valuable option when conventional methods are not available. ..
  8. Hung S, Huang Y, Hsu L, Chen C, Yang H, Sun J, et al. Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers complicated by major cardiac events. Can J Diabetes. 2015;39:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MACE should be prevented during treatment for limb-threatening DFU in high-risk patients. Acute stress might have caused MACE during the first 10 days after admission or a major procedure. ..
  9. Battes L, Akkerhuis K, Cheng J, Garcia Garcia H, Oemrawsingh R, de Boer S, et al. Circulating acute phase proteins in relation to extent and composition of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular outcome: results from the ATHEROREMO-IVUS study. Int J Cardiol. 2014;177:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the APPs displayed consistent associations with composition of atherosclerosis or plaque vulnerability. ..

More Information


  1. Steely A, Callas P, Bertges D. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibition is safe in the preoperative period surrounding carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63:715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these metrics, the use of preoperative ACEI and/or ARB appears safe before CEA. ..
  2. Winther S, Svensson M, Jørgensen H, Rasmussen L, Holm N, Gormsen L, et al. Prognostic Value of Risk Factors, Calcium Score, Coronary CTA, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and Invasive Coronary Angiography in Kidney Transplantation Candidates. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018;11:842-854 pubmed publisher
    ..Applying a combination of risk factors and CACS and subsequently coronary CTA seems to be the most appropriate strategy. (Angiographic CT of Renal Transplantation Candidate Study [ACToR]; NCT01344434). ..
  3. She J, Deng Y, Wu Y, Xia Y, Li H, Liang X, et al. Hemoglobin A1c is associated with severity of coronary artery stenosis but not with long term clinical outcomes in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:97 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether longer term follow-up could further identify the prognosis effect of HbA1c on MACE. ..
  4. Shao A, Qi X, Li Q, Jia W, Wei L, Hou W, et al. [Dynamic changes of complement level in patients with acute coronary syndrome and its relationships with myocardial injury]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2017;29:515-519 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Serum complements activation was found in the acute phase of ACS patients. Serum complement C3, C4 and C5b-9 are involved in the process of myocardial injury, and may reflect severity of myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. ..
  5. Niu X, Zhang J, Bai M, Peng Y, Sun S, Zhang Z. Effect of intracoronary agents on the no-reflow phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a network meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more rigorous RCTs are needed to verify the role of this inexpensive and well-tolerated regimen. ..
  6. Warren J, Mehran R, Baber U, Xu K, Giacoppo D, Gersh B, et al. Incidence and impact of acute kidney injury in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with coronary artery bypass grafting: Insights from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI). Am Heart J. 2016;171:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the need for AKI prevention strategies in patients undergoing CABG. ..
  7. Cho S, Jabin Z, Park K, Kim J, Kang S, Kwon S, et al. Clinical values of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony assessment by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with acute myocardial infarction and multivessel disease. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44:259-266 pubmed publisher
    ..LVMD measured by GMPS showed added prognostic value in acute MI with multivessel disease. GMPS could serve as a comprehensive evaluation imaging tool in patients with acute MI and multivessel disease. ..
  8. Goodrich J, Reddy P, Naidoo R, Asharam K, Batterman S, Dolinoy D. Prenatal exposures and DNA methylation in newborns: a pilot study in Durban, South Africa. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2016;18:908-17 pubmed publisher
  9. Kazi D, Moran A, Coxson P, Penko J, Ollendorf D, Pearson S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA. 2016;316:743-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Reducing annual drug prices from more than $14,000 to $4536 would be necessary to meet a $100,000 per QALY threshold. ..
  10. Cacoub P, Nahon P, Layese R, Blaise L, Desbois A, Bourcier V, et al. Prognostic value of viral eradication for major adverse cardiovascular events in hepatitis C cirrhotic patients. Am Heart J. 2018;198:4-17 pubmed publisher
  11. Navarese E, Robinson J, Kowalewski M, Kolodziejczak M, Andreotti F, Bliden K, et al. Association Between Baseline LDL-C Level and Total and Cardiovascular Mortality After LDL-C Lowering: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2018;319:1566-1579 pubmed publisher
    ..This association was not present when baseline LDL-C level was less than 100 mg/dL, suggesting that the greatest benefit from LDL-C-lowering therapy may occur for patients with higher baseline LDL-C levels. ..
  12. Dias A, Franco E, Koshkelashvili N, Bhalla V, Pressman G, Hebert K, et al. Antiplatelet therapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: does it improve cardiovascular outcomes during index event?. Heart Vessels. 2016;31:1285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..4-11.5); P < 0.01. In our study, aspirin and DAPT were independent predictors of a lower incidence of MACE during hospitalization for TCM. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. ..
  13. Evans M, Kozlovski P, Paldánius P, Foley J, Bhosekar V, Serban C, et al. Factors that may Account for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Vildagliptin, in Young Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Novartis. ..
  14. Prasad A, Clopton P, Ayers C, Khera A, de Lemos J, Witztum J, et al. Relationship of Autoantibodies to MDA-LDL and ApoB-Immune Complexes to Sex, Ethnicity, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1213-1221 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher baseline IgG MDA-LDL titers independently associate with new MACE. These findings may contribute to the understanding of differences in ethnic-specific MACE events. ..
  15. Krafcik B, Farber A, Eberhardt R, Kalish J, Rybin D, Doros G, et al. Preoperative Antiplatelet and Statin Use Does Not Affect Outcomes after Carotid Endarterectomy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2018;46:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients who are not on statins or antiplatelet medications, CEA can safely be performed before consideration is given to their initiation. ..
  16. Gaggin H, Liu Y, Lyass A, van Kimmenade R, Motiwala S, Kelly N, et al. Incident Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in a Cohort of Patients Undergoing Coronary or Peripheral Arterial Angiography. Circulation. 2017;135:116-127 pubmed publisher
    ..36-3.43; P=0.001). T2MI is common and associated with poor prognosis. Studies evaluating treatment strategies for management of T2MI are needed. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00842868. ..
  17. Borghi C, Omboni S, Reggiardo G, Bacchelli S, Esposti D, Ambrosioni E. Effects of the concomitant administration of xanthine oxidase inhibitors with zofenopril or other ACE-inhibitors in post-myocardial infarction patients: a meta-analysis of individual data of four randomized, double-blind, prospective studies. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:112 pubmed publisher
    ..169]. Our retrospective analysis suggests an improved survival free from MACE in post-AMI patients treated with a combination of an urate lowering drug with antioxidant activity and an ACEI, with best effects observed with zofenopril. ..
  18. Rodrigues P, Joshi A, Williams H, Westwood M, Petersen S, Zemrak F, et al. Diagnosis and Prognosis in Sudden Cardiac Arrest Survivors Without Coronary Artery Disease: Utility of a Clinical Approach Using Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10:e006709 pubmed publisher
  19. Karataş M, Çanga Y, Özcan K, İpek G, Güngör B, Onuk T, et al. Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio as a new prognostic marker in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;34:240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04; P < .01) independently predicted MACE. Admission MHR values were found to be independently correlated with inhospital MACE and mortality after primary PCI. ..
  20. Udell J, Yuan Z, Rush T, Sicignano N, Galitz M, Rosenthal N. Cardiovascular Outcomes and Risks After Initiation of a Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor: Results From the EASEL Population-Based Cohort Study (Evidence for Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Real Wo. Circulation. 2018;137:1450-1459 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains unclear whether the below-knee lower extremity amputation risk extends across the class of medication, because the study was not powered to make comparisons among individual treatments. ..
  21. Tona F, Silvestre C, Rigato M, Famoso G, Marchini F, Bonfante L, et al. Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction Predicts Long-Term Outcome in Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In SPKT, CFR ? 2 may be a reliable marker for MACE, independent of coronary artery disease diagnosis. However, this role seems to be reduced over time. This finding suggests a gradual reduction of cardiovascular risk in SPKT patients. ..
  22. Fisman E, Tenenbaum A. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:129 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, for the time being, a definite relationship between gliptins treatment and improved cardiovascular outcomes remains uncertain and needs yet to be proven. ..
  23. Cervellione R, Hajnal D, Varga G, Rakoczy G, Kubiak R, Kaszaki J, et al. New alternative Mitrofanoff channel based on spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring. J Pediatr Urol. 2015;11:131.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of an animal model and the relative short-term observation are the limitations of this study. ..
  24. Kumar P, Flora S, Pant S, Sachan A, Saxena S, Gupta S. Toxicological evaluation of 1-chloroacetophenone and dibenz[b,f]-1,4-oxazepine after repeated inhalation exposure in mice. J Appl Toxicol. 1994;14:411-6 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that CN is not only more toxic than CR in absolute terms but is also more toxic at the 5% level of their LC50. ..
  25. De A, Ganguly T. Electron transfer compatible molecular design of benzothiophene-acetophenone bichromophores: a theoretical approach. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2001;57:545-9 pubmed
    ..The charge transfer in this bichromophoric system is computed by semiemperical theoretical calculation. Ground state and excited state dipole moment difference of the bichromophore 4MBA indicates a large electron transfer probability. ..
  26. Hu H, Fine J, Epstein P, Kelsey K, Reynolds P, Walker B. Tear gas--harassing agent or toxic chemical weapon?. JAMA. 1989;262:660-3 pubmed
    ..There is an ongoing need for investigation into the full toxicological potential of tear gas chemicals and renewed debate on whether their use can be condoned under any circumstances. ..
  27. Blain P. Tear gases and irritant incapacitants. 1-chloroacetophenone, 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile and dibenz[b,f]-1,4-oxazepine. Toxicol Rev. 2003;22:103-10 pubmed
    ..There is no evidence that a healthy individual will experience long-term health effects from open-air exposures to CS or CR, although contamination with CR is less easy to remove. ..
  28. Kumar P, Vijayaraghavan R, Pant S, Sachan A, Malhotra R. Effect of inhaled aerosol of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) and Dibenz (b,f)-1,4 oxazepine (CR) on lung mechanics and pulmonary surfactants in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1995;14:404-9 pubmed
    ..However, CR induced inflammatory reaction and enlargement of respiratory air spaces. It is concluded that of the two sensory irritants (tear gases) examined, CN is potentially more toxic compared to CR in rats. ..
  29. Claman F, Patterson D. Personal aerosol protection devices: caring for victims of exposure. Nurse Pract. 1995;20:52, 54-6, 58 pubmed
    ..This article provides a thorough discussion of PAPDs and will assist the clinician in delivering primary care and health education to victims of PAPD exposures. ..
  30. Yamakido M, Ishioka S, Hiyama K, Maeda A. Former poison gas workers and cancer: incidence and inhibition of tumor formation by treatment with biological response modifier N-CWS. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104 Suppl 3:485-8 pubmed
  31. Solodenko W, Brochwitz C, Wartchow R, Hashem M, Dawood K, Vaultier M, et al. 2-Pyridinealdoxime, a new ligand for a Pd-precatalyst: application in solid-phase-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Mol Divers. 2005;9:333-9 pubmed
    ..Several concepts for the immobilization of this catalytic system are presented and compared in order to develop an efficient catalytic tool for high-throughput synthesis. ..
  32. Xie Q, Wu J, Xu G, Yang L. Asymmetric reduction of o-chloroacetophenone with Candida pseudotropicalis 104. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:1301-4 pubmed
    ..The optimum reaction time, the effect of substrate concentration, cosubstrate type and concentration, and cell concentration in the reaction were investigated in this paper. ..
  33. Xie Y, Xu J, Xu Y. Isolation of a Bacillus strain producing ketone reductase with high substrate tolerance. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:1054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. values. These results suggest the potential of this strain for the industrial production of chiral halogenated aromatic alcohols. ..
  34. Fuchs T, in der Wiesche M. [Contact allergies to CN and CS ("tear gas") in participants in demonstrations]. Z Hautkr. 1990;65:288-92, 295 pubmed
    ..8 further patients showed mild reactions to CN and CS. We did not find any indication of cross reactions between CN and chloroacetamide. ..
  35. Ou Z, Wu J, Yang L, Cen P, Liu L, Qi N. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae B5 efficiently and stereoselectively reduces 2'-chloroacetophenone to R-2'-chloro-1-phenylethanol in the presence of 5% ethanol]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2003;19:206-11 pubmed
    ..The yeast can be reused up to 15 times. This research paves the way for economical preparation of chiral 2'-chloroacetophenone to R-2'-chloro-1-phenylethanol. ..
  36. Recer G, Johnson T, Gleason A. An evaluation of the relative potential public health concern for the self-defense spray active ingredients oleoresin capsicum, o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, and 2-chloroacetophenone. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;36:1-11 pubmed
  37. Ou Z, Wu J, Yang L, Cen P. [Preparation of chiral alcohol by stereoselective reduction of acetophenone and chloroacetophenone with yeast cells]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2003;43:523-6 pubmed
    ..Ethanol is the best cosubstrate and its optimal concentration is 5%. ..
  38. Bonetti F, Chilosi M, Menestrina F, Lestani M, Scarpa A, Todeschini G, et al. Blastic OKT6-positive proliferation preceding malignant histiocytosis. Histol Histopathol. 1986;1:391-7 pubmed
    ..The relevance of this observation in the debate on the origin of Langerhans cells and the relationships existing between macrophages and dendritic cells is discussed. ..
  39. Brand C, Schmidli J, Ballmer Weber B, Hunziker T. [Lymphocyte stimulation test, a possible alternative for verifying chloroacetophenone sensitization]. Hautarzt. 1995;46:702-4 pubmed
    ..This diagnostic bias can be overcome by the lymphocyte proliferation assay. ..
  40. Rocha L, Ferreira H, Pimenta E, Berlinck R, Seleghim M, Javaroti D, et al. Bioreduction of alpha-chloroacetophenone by whole cells of marine fungi. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:1559-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The biocatalytic reduction of 1 was more efficient at neutral rather than acidic pH values and in the absence of glucose as co-substrate. ..
  41. Havel J, Reineke W. Microbial degradation of chlorinated acetophenones. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59:2706-12 pubmed
    ..was able to grow as a pure culture with 4-chloroacetophenone as a sole source of carbon and energy. Several mono-, di-, and trichlorinated acetophenones were mineralized by the Arthrobacter sp. ..
  42. Degrauwe S, Pilgrim T, Aminian A, Noble S, Meier P, Iglesias J. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Open Heart. 2017;4:e000651 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides a contemporary state-of-the-art review of the current evidence on DAPT for secondary prevention of patients with CAD and its future perspectives...
  43. Pei T, Chen C, Dormer P, Davies I. Expanding the [1,2]-aryl migration to the synthesis of substituted indoles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:4231-3 pubmed publisher
  44. Kumar P, Zachariah K, Rai G, Vijayraghavan R. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours. Biomed Environ Sci. 1992;5:142-8 pubmed
    ..This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions. ..
  45. Berkley D, Hazlett L. Examination of mouse exorbital lacrimal gland after exposure to 2-chloroacetophenone vapor. Ophthalmic Res. 1987;19:187-92 pubmed
    ..By 60 min after exposure, the gland is not readily distinguishable from the unexposed, control gland. ..
  46. Suganthi R, Rajamani S, Ravichandran M, Anuradha C. Effect of food seasoning spices mixture on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. J Med Food. 2007;10:149-53 pubmed
    ..The positive effect of SM on the oxidant-antioxidant balance could be attributed to the active constituents of the different spices present in the mixture...
  47. Chhabra S, Rao A. Transmammary modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in liver of mouse pups by mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;42:169-77 pubmed
    ..001) and the lower dose for 14 days (P < 0.05). Only the 14-day-old pups of dams receiving either mace dose showed significantly elevated (P < 0.001) levels of hepatic glutathione peroxidase. ..
  48. Pant S, Kumar P. Time dependent histomorphological assessment of lung damage induced by inhaled dibenz(b,f)-1-4-oxazepine (CR) and 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) in rats. Funct Dev Morphol. 1993;3:181-4 pubmed
    ..On the other hand CR caused degenerative changes which disappeared on 30th day. ..
  49. Vaca F, Myers J, Langdorf M. Delayed pulmonary edema and bronchospasm after accidental lacrimator exposure. Am J Emerg Med. 1996;14:402-5 pubmed
    ..A case of accidental prolonged lacrimator exposure inducing pulmonary edema and bronchospasm is presented. ..
  50. Treudler R, Tebbe B, Blume Peytavi U, Krasagakis K, Orfanos C. Occupational contact dermatitis due to 2-chloracetophenone tear gas. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:531-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, an improvement of safety measures in occupational CN gas use is needed, especially aiming at avoidance of accidental leakage of canisters. ..
  51. Pfruender H, Amidjojo M, Kragl U, Weuster Botz D. Efficient whole-cell biotransformation in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004;43:4529-31 pubmed
  52. Yadav A, Bhatnagar D. Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices. Biofactors. 2007;31:219-27 pubmed
    ..FRAP values for cloves were also the highest, while other spices showed comparatively lesser FRAP values. The results show that the spices tested are strong antioxidants and may have beneficial effects on human health...
  53. Brône B, Peeters P, Marrannes R, Mercken M, Nuydens R, Meert T, et al. Tear gasses CN, CR, and CS are potent activators of the human TRPA1 receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;231:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition these results may contribute to the basic knowledge of the TRPA1 channel that is gaining importance as a pharmacological target. ..
  54. Mele J. Personal protection devices: a case for noisemakers. J Healthc Prot Manage. 1993;9:117-20 pubmed
    ..The author explores alternative methods for preventing and responding to an attempted assault and presents a convincing argument for the use of noisemakers. ..
  55. Smith J, Greaves I. The use of chemical incapacitant sprays: a review. J Trauma. 2002;52:595-600 pubmed
  56. Husain K, Kumar P, Malhotra R. A comparative study of biochemical changes induced by inhalation of aerosols of o-Chloroacetophenone & Dibenz (b,f)-1,4-oxazepine in rats. Indian J Med Res. 1991;94:76-9 pubmed
    ..All the parameters became normal within seven days after the exposure. Inhalation of CN aerosols can thus lead to tissue damaging effects in rats. ..