Summary: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.

Top Publications

  1. Creely K, Hughson G, Cocker J, Jones K. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:609-21 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK...
  2. Fisseler Eckhoff A, Bartsch H, Zinsky R, Schirren J. Environmental isocyanate-induced asthma: morphologic and pathogenetic aspects of an increasing occupational disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:3672-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products...
  3. Wisnewski A, Liu J. Molecular determinants of humoral immune specificity for the occupational allergen, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate. Mol Immunol. 2013;54:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g. ovalbumin, transferrin), but did not bind unconjugated proteins, or protein conjugates prepared with other isocyanates (e.g. TDI, HDI)...
  4. Selgrade M, Boykin E, Haykal Coates N, Woolhiser M, Wiescinski C, Andrews D, et al. Inconsistencies between cytokine profiles, antibody responses, and respiratory hyperresponsiveness following dermal exposure to isocyanates. Toxicol Sci. 2006;94:108-17 pubmed
    ..Previously, we reported cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles for dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and six isocyanates: toluene diisocyanate, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, isophorone ..
  5. Wisnewski A, Liu J, Redlich C. Antigenic changes in human albumin caused by reactivity with the occupational allergen diphenylmethane diisocyanate. Anal Biochem. 2010;400:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also describes new applications of contemporary proteomic methodology for characterizing and standardizing MDI-albumin conjugates destined for use in clinical research. ..
  6. Ferrazzoni S, Scarpa M, Guarnieri G, Corradi M, Mutti A, Maestrelli P. Exhaled nitric oxide and breath condensate ph in asthmatic reactions induced by isocyanates. Chest. 2009;136:155-162 pubmed publisher
    ..pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for monitoring airway response after specific inhalation challenges with isocyanates in sensitized subjects...
  7. Seldén A, Andersson L, Barlas G, Westberg H. Isocyanate exposure in bathtub refinishing: à propos a case of occupational asthma. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20:287-90 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that only full-piece, self-contained respirators would suffice to protect technicians from serious pulmonary disease. ..
  8. Mishra P, Panwar H, Bhargava A, Gorantla V, Jain S, Banerjee S, et al. Isocyanates induces DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in cultured human lymphocytes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008;22:429-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Isocyanates, a group of low molecular weight aromatic and aliphatic compounds containing the isocyanate group (-NCO), are important raw materials with diverse industrial applications; however, pathophysiological implications resulting ..
  9. Bakerly N, Moore V, Vellore A, Jaakkola M, Robertson A, Burge P. Fifteen-year trends in occupational asthma: data from the Shield surveillance scheme. Occup Med (Lond). 2008;58:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Isocyanates were the commonest offending agents responsible for 21% of reports followed by metal working fluids (MWFs) (11%)..

More Information


  1. Hesp K, Bergman R, Ellman J. Expedient synthesis of N-acyl anthranilamides and ?-enamine amides by the Rh(III)-catalyzed amidation of aryl and vinyl C-H bonds with isocyanates. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:11430-3 pubmed publisher
    A Rh(III)-catalyzed protocol for the amidation of anilide and enamide C-H bonds with isocyanates has been developed...
  2. Bello D, Herrick C, Smith T, Woskie S, Streicher R, Cullen M, et al. Skin exposure to isocyanates: reasons for concern. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:328-35 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates (di- and poly-), important chemicals used worldwide to produce polyurethane products, are a leading cause of occupational asthma...
  3. Reeb Whitaker C, Whittaker S, Ceballos D, Weiland E, Flack S, Fent K, et al. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate ..
  4. Bhargava A, Punde R, Pathak N, Dabadghao S, Desikan P, Jain A, et al. Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: a study after two decades. Ind Health. 2010;48:204-8 pubmed
    ..A toxin induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns. ..
  5. Gustavsson M, Meiby E, Gylestam D, Dahlin J, Spanne M, Karlsson D, et al. Adsorption efficiency of respirator filter cartridges for isocyanates. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010;54:377-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the filter cartridges using impinger flasks or dry samplers with di-n-butylamine as derivatization reagent for isocyanates followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis...
  6. Bello D, Redlich C, Stowe M, Sparer J, Woskie S, Streicher R, et al. Skin exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in the auto body repair and refinishing industry: II. A quantitative assessment. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:117-24 pubmed publisher
    Skin exposure to isocyanates, in addition to respiratory exposures, may contribute to sensitization and asthma. Quantitative skin exposure data are scarce and quantitative methods limited...
  7. Bolsover J, Rajan Sithamparanadarajah B, Vaughan N. Workplace protection of air-fed visors used in paint spraying operations. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:219-29 pubmed
    Air-fed visors are commonly used for protection against exposure to airborne isocyanates during paint spraying...
  8. Boutin M, Dufresne A, Ostiguy C, Lesage J. Determination of airborne isocyanates generated during the thermal degradation of car paint in body repair shops. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:385-93 pubmed
    ..During thermal degradation, such polymeric systems can generate powerful asthmatic sensitizing agents named isocyanates. In body repair shops, the thermal degradation of car paint can occur during abrasive processes that generate ..
  9. Kumar A, Dongari N, Sabbioni G. New isocyanate-specific albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1975-83 pubmed publisher
    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma...
  10. Baur X. Evidence for allergic reactions in isocyanate asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:757-8; author reply 758 pubmed
  11. Mishra P, Bhargava A, Raghuram G, Jatawa S, Akhtar N, Khan S, et al. Induction of genomic instability in cultured human colon epithelial cells following exposure to isocyanates. Cell Biol Int. 2009;33:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis through ISSR PCR demonstrated increased microsatellite instability. The results imply that isocyanates can cause genomic instability in colonocytes.
  12. Yu R, Rovis T. Enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition of alkenyl isocyanates and terminal alkynes: application to the total synthesis of (+)-lasubine II. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:12370-1 pubmed
    ..ligands on rhodium allows for the incorporation of terminal alkynes in the [2+2+2] cycloaddition with alkenyl isocyanates. Terminal aliphatic alkynes provide bicyclic lactams, while the use of aryl alkynes provides complementary ..
  13. Svensson Elfsmark L, Koch B, Gustafsson A, Bucht A. Rats repeatedly exposed to toluene diisocyanate exhibit immune reactivity against methyl isocyanate-protein conjugates. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;150:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Isocyanates were administrated either as single vapor exposures or as repeated intranasal instillations in rats...
  14. Wisnewski A, Jones M. Pro/Con debate: Is occupational asthma induced by isocyanates an immunoglobulin E-mediated disease?. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:1155-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Isocyanates, low-molecular weight chemicals essential to polyurethane production, are one of the most common causes of occupational asthma, yet the mechanisms by which exposure leads to disease remain unclear...
  15. Wei Y, Liu J, Lin S, Ding H, Liang F, Zhao B. Acetoacetanilides as masked isocyanates: facile and efficient synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted ureas. Org Lett. 2010;12:4220-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetoacetanilide substrates can be considered as masked reagents that liberate reactive isocyanates in situ.
  16. Wilson A, Garcia A, Houle S, Sadovski O, Vasdev N. Synthesis and application of isocyanates radiolabeled with carbon-11. Chemistry. 2011;17:259-64 pubmed publisher
    Carbon-11 labeled isocyanates are efficiently prepared by dehydration of [(11) C]carbamate salts, which in turn are easily formed from cyclotron-produced [(11) C]CO(2) and amines in the presence of a CO(2) fixation agent...
  17. Mishra P, Khan S, Bhargava A, Panwar H, Banerjee S, Jain S, et al. Regulation of isocyanate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in cultured human neutrophils: isocyanate-induced neutrophils apoptosis. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010;26:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Isocyanates with functional group (-NCO), are considered as highly reactive molecules with diverse industrial applications...
  18. Mapp C, Boschetto P, Miotto D, De Rosa E. Asthma induced by isocyanates: a model of IgE-independent asthma. Acta Biomed. 2005;76 Suppl 2:15-9 pubmed
    Developments in the understanding of causes and natural history of asthma induced by isocyanates may allow improved preventive strategies for occupational asthma (OA), and may also lead to improved understanding of mechanisms involved in ..
  19. Mishra P, Gorantla V, Akhtar N, Tamrakar P, Jain S, Maudar K. Analysis of cellular response to isocyanate using N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate exposure in cultured mammalian cells. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2009;50:328-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Isocyanates (R--N==C==O), one of the highly reactive industrial intermediates, possess the capability to modulate the bio-molecules by forming toxic metabolites and adducts which may cause adverse health effects...
  20. Al Batanony M, Abdel Rasoul G, Abu Salem M, Al Ahmar I, Al Badry A. Cohort study on respiratory and neurological disorders among workers in a bone glue factory in Egypt. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2012;3:84-91 pubmed
    ..The low molecular weight agents which cause occupational lung disease have generally included the isocyanates exposure to which could result in asthma among workers...
  21. Redlich C, Herrick C. Lung/skin connections in occupational lung disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;8:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to isocyanates and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge ..
  22. Bessac B, Sivula M, von Hehn C, Caceres A, ESCALERA J, Jordt S. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. FASEB J. 2009;23:1102-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema...
  23. Schreiber J, Knolle J, Sennekamp J, Schulz K, Hahn J, Hering K, et al. Sub-acute occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to low-level exposure to diisocyanates in a secretary. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The present authors conclude that concentrations of diisocyanates far below current exposure limits may induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible subjects. ..
  24. Hur G, Koh D, Choi G, Park H, Choi S, Ye Y, et al. Clinical and immunologic findings of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma in a car upholstery factory. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of work-related lower-respiratory symptoms and serum-specific IgG antibodies to an MDI-human serum albumin conjugate may be used to predict MDI-induced occupational asthma/eosinophilic bronchitis in MDI-exposed workers. ..
  25. Raghuram G, Pathak N, Jain D, Pandey H, Panwar H, Jain S, et al. Molecular characterization of isocyanate-induced male germ-line genomic instability. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2010;29:213-34 pubmed
    ..b>Isocyanates, such as methyl isocyanate (MIC), with their wide industrial applications, are known to exert severe ill health ..
  26. Sabbioni G, Dongari N, Schneider S, Kumar A. Synthetic approaches to obtain amino acid adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:2704-14 pubmed publisher
    ..necessary to have sensitive and specific biomarkers such as blood protein adducts to monitor people exposed to isocyanates. For the discovery of new isocyanate adducts with blood proteins present in vivo, new synthetic standards are ..
  27. Minov J, Karadzinska Bislimovska J, Vasilevska K, Risteska Kuc S, Stoleski S. Work-related asthma in automobile spray painters: two case reports. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2008;59:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data confirm that spray painting is an occupation with increased risk of respiratory impairment and asthma. ..
  28. Singh R, Lange T, Kim K, Shaw S, Brard L. A novel indole ethyl isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7Me-IEITC is a potent and growth-suppressing agent to cell lines derived from ovarian cancers by causing deactivation of survival signals, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest. ..
  29. Pauluhn J. Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI): impact of vehicle for topical induction. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;50:144-54 pubmed
    ..This animal model provides a versatile and robust experimental tool to evaluate and assess at least some features of MDI-related asthma...
  30. Bello D, Smith T, Woskie S, Streicher R, Boeniger M, Redlich C, et al. An FTIR investigation of isocyanate skin absorption using in vitro guinea pig skin. J Environ Monit. 2006;8:523-9 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates may cause contact dermatitis, sensitization and asthma. Dermal exposure to aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates can occur in various exposure settings. The fate of isocyanates on skin is an important unanswered question...
  31. Liu Y, Stowe M, Bello D, Woskie S, Sparer J, Gore R, et al. Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:234-49 pubmed
  32. Jones M, Floyd A, Nouri Aria K, Jacobson M, Durham S, Taylor A, et al. Is occupational asthma to diisocyanates a non-IgE-mediated disease?. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:663-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that diisocyanate-induced asthma is a non-IgE-mediated disease, at least in patients in whom specific IgE antibodies to diisocyanates are undetectable. ..
  33. Cocker J. Biological monitoring for isocyanates. Ann Occup Hyg. 2011;55:127-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Isocyanates are reactive chemicals and thousands of workers may be exposed to them during their manufacture and use in a wide range of products. They are classed as sensitizers and are a major cause of occupational asthma in the UK...
  34. Hur G, Choi G, Sheen S, Lee H, Park H, Choi S, et al. Serum ferritin and transferrin levels as serologic markers of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..48 microg/mL for transferrin. When these 2 parameters were combined, the sensitivity was 71.43% and the specificity was 85.71%. Serum ferritin and transferrin levels are associated with the phenotype of MDI-OA. ..
  35. Mishra P, Bhargava A, Raghuram G, Gupta S, Tiwari S, Upadhyaya R, et al. Inflammatory response to isocyanates and onset of genomic instability in cultured human lung fibroblasts. Genet Mol Res. 2009;8:129-43 pubmed
    ..b>Isocyanates such as methyl isocyanate are the chief metabolic intermediates in many industrial settings with diverse ..
  36. Bernstein D, Wang N, Campo P, Chakraborty R, Smith A, Cartier A, et al. Diisocyanate asthma and gene-environment interactions with IL4RA, CD-14, and IL-13 genes. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:800-6 pubmed
    ..4; 95% CI, 1.57-26.12; P = .01). Gene-environmental interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of DA, and gene-gene interactions may modulate this relationship. ..
  37. Hettick J, Ruwona T, Siegel P. Structural elucidation of isocyanate-peptide adducts using tandem mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20:1567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the chemical species produced when isocyanates are reacted with model peptides, tandem mass spectrometry was employed to unambiguously identify the binding ..
  38. Baur X, Budnik L. [New data on occupational exposure to isocyanates]. Pneumologie. 2009;63:656-61 pubmed publisher
    During recent decades the industrial use of isocyanates has expanded enormously due to the huge product palette with a variety of different properties...
  39. Mishra P, Samarth R, Pathak N, Jain S, Banerjee S, Maudar K. Bhopal Gas Tragedy: review of clinical and experimental findings after 25 years. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22:193-202 pubmed publisher
  40. Mishra P, Raghuram G, Panwar H, Jain D, Pandey H, Maudar K. Mitochondrial oxidative stress elicits chromosomal instability after exposure to isocyanates in human kidney epithelial cells. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:718-28 pubmed publisher
    The role of oxidative stress is often attributed in environmental renal diseases. Isocyanates, a ubiquitous chemical group with diverse industrial applications, are known to undergo bio-transformation reactions upon accidental and ..
  41. Baur X. [Bronchial challenge tests]. Pneumologie. 2011;65:340-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If allergic symptoms of conjunctiva or the upper respiratory tract are of prime importance the performance of a specific conjunctival or nasal challenge test is recommended. ..
  42. Mishra P, Bhargava A, Pathak N, Desikan P, Maudar K, Varshney S, et al. Molecular surveillance of hepatitis and tuberculosis infections in a cohort exposed to methyl isocyanate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2011;24:94-101 pubmed publisher
  43. Sabbioni G, Dongari N, Kumar A. Determination of a new biomarker in subjects exposed to 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. Biomarkers. 2010;15:508-15 pubmed publisher
    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma...
  44. Wisnewski A. Developments in laboratory diagnostics for isocyanate asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7:138-45 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates, reactive chemicals used to generate polyurethane, are a leading cause of occupational asthma worldwide. Workplace exposure is the best-recognized risk factor for disease development, but is challenging to monitor...
  45. Ott M, Jolly A, Burkert A, Brown W. Issues in diisocyanate antibody testing. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007;37:567-85 pubmed
    ..Sources of assay heterogeneity are discussed and suggestions are offered for improving test performance and interpretability. ..
  46. Lee S, Koh D. Lessons from an isocyanate tragedy. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:372-5 pubmed
    ..The difficulties posed by the variability of the presentation, not least because of the relatively long latency, as well as the sensitising nature of the hazard, are discussed. ..
  47. Rihs H, Barbalho Krölls T, Huber H, Baur X. No evidence for the influence of HLA class II in alleles in isocyanate-induced asthma. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32:522-7 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates are one of the main causes of occupational asthma...
  48. Valks R, Conde Salazar L, Barrantes O. Occupational allergic contact urticaria and asthma from diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanatae. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:166-7 pubmed
  49. Piirilä P, Wikman H, Luukkonen R, Kääriä K, Rosenberg C, Nordman H, et al. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes and allergic responses to diisocyanate exposure. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:437-45 pubmed
    ..0, 95% CI 2.19-55.3). The results suggest, for the first time, that the polymorphic GSTs, especially the mu class GSTs, play an important role in inception of ill effects related to occupational exposure to diisocyanates. ..
  50. Larsen T, Gregersen P, Jemec G. Skin irritation and exposure to diisocyanates in orthopedic nurses working with soft casts. Am J Contact Dermat. 2001;12:211-4 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that diisocyanates are primarily irritants rather than sensitizers in the professional setting studied. The skin symptoms of irritation were all mild and temporary. ..
  51. Tarlo S, Liss G, Dias C, Banks D. Assessment of the relationship between isocyanate exposure levels and occupational asthma. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32:517-21 pubmed
    ..05). This provides some evidence that facilities having OA claims have higher isocyanate exposures than do those without claims. ..
  52. Lemiere C, Romeo P, Chaboillez S, Tremblay C, Malo J. Airway inflammation and functional changes after exposure to different concentrations of isocyanates. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:641-6 pubmed
    b>Isocyanates are a common cause of occupational asthma (OA)...
  53. Bello D, Woskie S, Streicher R, Liu Y, Stowe M, Eisen E, et al. Polyisocyanates in occupational environments: a critical review of exposure limits and metrics. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46:480-91 pubmed
    ..An analysis of existing problems in the measurement and regulation of isocyanates is presented based on the published analytical, toxicological, and regulatory literature, and the authors' own ..
  54. Bernstein D, Cartier A, Cote J, Malo J, Boulet L, Wanner M, et al. Diisocyanate antigen-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis has greater test efficiency than specific antibodies for identification of diisocyanate asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:445-50 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that the MCP-1 stimulation assay has greater sensitivity and specificity than the specific antibody assays in correctly identifying DA. ..
  55. Dhara V, Dhara R. The Union Carbide disaster in Bhopal: a review of health effects. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57:391-404 pubmed
  56. Dhara V, Dhara R, Acquilla S, Cullinan P. Personal exposure and long-term health effects in survivors of the union carbide disaster at bhopal. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:487-500 pubmed
    ..04). The results show that total exposure weighted for distance has met the criteria for a successful index by being associated with most respiratory symptoms as well as FEF(25-75), features of obstructive airways disease. ..
  57. Karlsson D, Dahlin J, Skarping G, Dalene M. Determination of isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines in air formed during the thermal degradation of polyurethane. J Environ Monit. 2002;4:216-22 pubmed
    An air sampling method for the determination of isocyanates, aminoisocyanates and amines formed during the thermal degradation of polyurethane (PUR) is presented...
  58. Wikman H, Piirilä P, Rosenberg C, Luukkonen R, Kääriä K, Nordman H, et al. N-Acetyltransferase genotypes as modifiers of diisocyanate exposure-associated asthma risk. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:227-33 pubmed
    ..20, 95% CI 1.51 to 11.6). The results suggest for the first time that in addition to GSTs, the NATs play an important role in inception of asthmatic reactions related to occupational exposure to diisocyanates. ..
  59. Liu Q, Wisnewski A. Recent developments in diisocyanate asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;90:35-41 pubmed
    ..The potential long-term adverse effects of diisocyanate exposure in sensitized patients underscore the need for further studies to elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease and identify biomarkers for sensitization and susceptibility. ..
  60. Pronk A, Tielemans E, Skarping G, Bobeldijk I, van Hemmen J, Heederik D, et al. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Ann Occup Hyg. 2006;50:1-14 pubmed
    ..However, since respiratory protection is less extensively used during other tasks, lower level exposure during these other tasks may significantly contribute to the internal dose. ..