Summary: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.

Top Publications

  1. Goren M, Onat F. Ethosuximide: from bench to bedside. CNS Drug Rev. 2007;13:224-39 pubmed
    b>Ethosuximide, 2-ethyl-2-methylsuccinimide, has been used extensively for "petit mal" seizures and it is a valuable agent in studies of absence epilepsy. In the treatment of epilepsy, ethosuximide has a narrow therapeutic profile...
  2. Capovilla G, Beccaria F, Veggiotti P, Rubboli G, Meletti S, Tassinari C. Ethosuximide is effective in the treatment of epileptic negative myoclonus in childhood partial epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 1999;14:395-400 pubmed
    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethosuximide in the treatment of epileptic negative myoclonus, a motor disorder that can occur in childhood partial epilepsy...
  3. Polack P, Charpier S. Ethosuximide converts ictogenic neurons initiating absence seizures into normal neurons in a genetic model. Epilepsia. 2009;50:1816-20 pubmed publisher
    Absence epilepsy is a form of generalized epilepsy commonly seen in children. The neuronal process by which ethosuximide (ETX), a first choice anti-absence drug, prevents absence seizures is still unresolved...
  4. Dudra Jastrzebska M, Andres Mach M, Ratnaraj N, Patsalos P, Czuczwar S, Luszczki J. Isobolographic characterization of the anticonvulsant interaction profiles of levetiracetam in combination with clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model. Seizure. 2009;18:607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the interactions between levetiracetam (LEV) and the conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures ..
  5. Russo E, Citraro R, Scicchitano F, De Fazio S, Di Paola E, Constanti A, et al. Comparison of the antiepileptogenic effects of an early long-term treatment with ethosuximide or levetiracetam in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1560-9 pubmed publisher
    ..WAG/Rij rats were treated for ?3.5 months (starting at 1.5 months of age, before seizure onset) with either ethosuximide (ETH; drug of choice for absence epilepsy) or levetiracetam (LEV; a broad-spectrum AED with antiabsence and ..
  6. Gomora J, Daud A, Weiergräber M, Perez Reyes E. Block of cloned human T-type calcium channels by succinimide antiepileptic drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60:1121-32 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that both ethosuximide and the active metabolite of methsuximide, alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS), block human T-type ..
  7. Flatters S, Bennett G. Ethosuximide reverses paclitaxel- and vincristine-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Pain. 2004;109:150-61 pubmed
    ..b>Ethosuximide (i.p...
  8. Manning J, Richards D, Leresche N, Crunelli V, Bowery N. Cortical-area specific block of genetically determined absence seizures by ethosuximide. Neuroscience. 2004;123:5-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, microinfusion of ethosuximide (ETX), a first choice anti-absence drug, into either the ventrobasal thalamus or RTN of the genetic absence ..
  9. Coulter D, Huguenard J, Prince D. Characterization of ethosuximide reduction of low-threshold calcium current in thalamic neurons. Ann Neurol. 1989;25:582-93 pubmed
    The mechanism by which ethosuximide reduces thalamic low-threshold calcium current (LTCC) was analyzed using voltage-clamp techniques in acutely isolated ventrobasal complex neurons from rats and guinea pigs...

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  1. Luszczki J, Zuchora M, Sawicka K, Kozinska J, Czuczwar S. Acute exposure to caffeine decreases the anticonvulsant action of ethosuximide, but not that of clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58:652-9 pubmed
    ..benzoate (CAF) on the anticonvulsant action of four conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: clonazepam - CZP, ethosuximide - ETS, phenobarbital - PB and valproate - VPA) against pentetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice...
  2. Evason K, Collins J, Huang C, Hughes S, Kornfeld K. Valproic acid extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Aging Cell. 2008;7:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the mechanism of action of VA is distinct from that of trimethadione, and demonstrate that lifespan-extending drugs can be combined to produce additive effects. ..
  3. Collins J, Evason K, Kornfeld K. Pharmacology of delayed aging and extended lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41:1032-9 pubmed
    ..elegans aging as a bioassay, which led to the identification of the anticonvulsant medicines ethosuximide and trimethadione. There has been exciting progress in the analysis of compounds that influence C...
  4. Barton M, Eberle E, Shannon H. The antihyperalgesic effects of the T-type calcium channel blockers ethosuximide, trimethadione, and mibefradil. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;521:79-85 pubmed
    ..present study was to explore the analgesic effects of the low voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channel blockers ethosuximide, trimethadione, and mibefradil in persistent and acute nociceptive tests...
  5. Posner E, Mohamed K, Marson A. A systematic review of treatment of typical absence seizures in children and adolescents with ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine. Seizure. 2005;14:117-22 pubmed
    To evaluate the role of ethosuximide, sodium valproate and lamotrigine in children and adolescents with typical absence seizures (AS)...
  6. Zhang C, Kwan P, Zuo Z, Baum L. In vitro concentration dependent transport of phenytoin and phenobarbital, but not ethosuximide, by human P-glycoprotein. Life Sci. 2010;86:899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETAs) were performed for phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), and ethosuximide (ESM) using wildtype Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II cell line MDCKII and porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-..
  7. Luszczki J, Andres Mach M, Barcicka Klosowska B, Florek Luszczki M, Haratym Maj A, Czuczwar S. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (a synthetic cannabinoid) on the protective action of clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate against pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CB2 receptor agonist) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: clonazepam [CZP], ethosuximide [ETS], phenobarbital [PB], and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure ..
  8. Mountney A, Shear D, Potter B, Marcsisin S, Sousa J, Melendez V, et al. Ethosuximide and phenytoin dose-dependently attenuate acute nonconvulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1973-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5-187...
  9. Subramanyam K, David J, Joseph T. Interaction of flunarizine with sodium valproate or ethosuximide in gamahydroxybutyrate induced absence seizures in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:998-1001 pubmed
    Sodium valproate(VPA), ethosuximide(ESM), 200 mg/kg ip and flunarizine (FLU) 5 or 10 mg/kg ip were first administered independently to rats in order to study their effects on behavioural and EEG aspects of spike and wave discharges (SWDs) ..
  10. Greenhill S, Morgan N, Massey P, Woodhall G, Jones R. Ethosuximide modifies network excitability in the rat entorhinal cortex via an increase in GABA release. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:807-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethosuximide is the drug of choice for treating generalized absence seizures, but its mechanism of action is still a matter of debate...
  11. Russo E, Citraro R, De Fazio S, Marra R, Gitto R, Chimirri A, et al. Enhancement of anti-absence effects of ethosuximide by low doses of a noncompetitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the study described here, we tested the potential effect of such a compound alone or co-administered with ethosuximide in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rat...
  12. Williams A, Bautista C, Chen R, Dave J, Lu X, Tortella F, et al. Evaluation of gabapentin and ethosuximide for treatment of acute nonconvulsive seizures following ischemic brain injury in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;318:947-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we sought to compare the antiseizure profile of ethosuximide (EXM; 125-312.5 mg/kg i.v.) and gabapentin (GBP; 0.3-50 mg/kg. i.v...
  13. Collins J, Evason K, Pickett C, Schneider D, Kornfeld K. The anticonvulsant ethosuximide disrupts sensory function to extend C. elegans lifespan. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000230 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethosuximide is a medication used to treat seizure disorders in humans, and we previously demonstrated that ethosuximide can delay age-related changes and extend the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
  14. Kobayashi T, Hirai H, Iino M, Fuse I, Mitsumura K, Washiyama K, et al. Inhibitory effects of the antiepileptic drug ethosuximide on G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:499-506 pubmed publisher
    Antiepileptic drugs protect against seizures by modulating neuronal excitability. Ethosuximide is selectively used for the treatment of absence epilepsy, and has also been shown to have the potential for treating several other ..
  15. Dezsi G, Ozturk E, Stanic D, Powell K, Blumenfeld H, O Brien T, et al. Ethosuximide reduces epileptogenesis and behavioral comorbidity in the GAERS model of genetic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2013;54:635-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethosuximide (ESX) is a drug of choice for the symptomatic treatment of absence seizures...
  16. Evason K, Huang C, Yamben I, Covey D, Kornfeld K. Anticonvulsant medications extend worm life-span. Science. 2005;307:258-62 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that ethosuximide, trimethadione, and 3,3-diethyl-2-pyrrolidinone increase mean and maximum life-span of Caenorhabditis elegans ..
  17. Stringer J. Ethosuximide specifically antagonizes the effect of pentylenetetrazol in the rat entorhinal cortex. Epilepsy Res. 1996;25:69-77 pubmed
    ..The second is that ethosuximide acts by antagonizing the action of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in the entorhinal cortex...
  18. Matthews E, Dickenson A. Effects of ethosuximide, a T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, on dorsal horn neuronal responses in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;415:141-9 pubmed
    ..Spinal ethosuximide (5-1055 microg) exerted dose-related inhibitions of both the electrically and low- and high-intensity ..
  19. Glauser T, Cnaan A, Shinnar S, Hirtz D, Dlugos D, Masur D, et al. Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine in childhood absence epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:790-9 pubmed publisher
    Childhood absence epilepsy, the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is usually treated with ethosuximide, valproic acid, or lamotrigine. The most efficacious and tolerable initial empirical treatment has not been defined...
  20. Van Rijn C, Sun M, Deckers C, Edelbroek P, Keyser A, Renier W, et al. Effects of the combination of valproate and ethosuximide on spike wave discharges in WAG/Rij rats. Epilepsy Res. 2004;59:181-9 pubmed
    We studied the interaction between valproate (VPA) and ethosuximide (ESM) in diminishing the incidence of absence-like spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG of WAG/Rij rats...
  21. Vidal V, Garcia S, Martinez P, Corrales A, Florez J, Rueda N, et al. Lack of behavioral and cognitive effects of chronic ethosuximide and gabapentin treatment in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. Neuroscience. 2012;220:158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the antiepileptic drug (AED) ethosuximide (ETH), but not other AEDs such as gabapentin (GAB), is known to inhibit KCNJ6 channels in mice...
  22. Chen S, Yeh K, Huang Y, Shaw F. Effect of intracranial administration of ethosuximide in rats with spontaneous or pentylenetetrazol-induced spike-wave discharges. Epilepsia. 2011;52:1311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..p.), were administered intracortical or intrathalamic ethosuximide (ESM) or saline...
  23. Deshpande L, Nagarkatti N, Sombati S, Delorenzo R. The novel antiepileptic drug carisbamate (RWJ 333369) is effective in inhibiting spontaneous recurrent seizure discharges and blocking sustained repetitive firing in cultured hippocampal neurons. Epilepsy Res. 2008;79:158-65 pubmed publisher
  24. Hsu P, O Callaghan M, Al Salim N, Hurst M. Quantum dot nanoparticles affect the reproductive system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:2366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, egg-laying defects caused by QDs-MSA responded to the addition of the anticonvulsant ethosuximide and to a lesser extent to the neurotransmitter serotonin, suggesting that QDs-MSA might have disrupted motor ..
  25. Gilbert T, Teskey G. Conventional anticonvulsant drugs in the guinea-pig kindling model of partial seizures: effects of repeated administration. Exp Brain Res. 2007;178:115-25 pubmed
    ..anticonvulsant effects of repeated administration of phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, valproate, and ethosuximide in kindled guinea-pigs in order to further substantiate this novel model of partial seizures for the screening ..
  26. Hanaya R, Sasa M, Ujihara H, Fujita Y, Amano T, Matsubayashi H, et al. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on absence-like seizures in the tremor rat. Epilepsia. 1995;36:938-42 pubmed
    ..p.), ethosuximide (ESM 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.), valproate (VPA 100 mg/kg, i.p.), and phenobarbital (PB 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.)...
  27. Arya R, Gillespie C, Cnaan A, Devarajan M, Clark P, Shinnar S, et al. Obesity and overweight as CAE comorbidities and differential drug response modifiers. Neurology. 2016;86:1613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..With increasing baseline BMI z score, the efficacy and effectiveness of ethosuximide and valproic acid over lamotrigine became more pronounced, despite no significant differences in drug exposure ..
  28. Crettenand M, Rossetti A, Buclin T, Winterfeld U. [Use of antiepileptic drugs during breastfeeding : What do we tell the mother?]. Nervenarzt. 2018;89:913-921 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with phenytoin, ethosuximide, clonazepam, oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin, lamotrigine and zonisamide can be ..
  29. Mula M. New antiepileptic drugs: molecular targets. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2009;9:79-86 pubmed
    ..are regarded as second generation compared to older agents such as barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, ethosuximide and valproic acid...
  30. Sirakov V, Krastev A, Kostadinova I, Turiiski V. Neostigmine, but not metoclopramide, abolishes ethosuximide-induced functional gastrointestinal disturbances. Pharmacology. 2005;75:187-94 pubmed
    b>Ethosuximide is a drug used for the treatment of absence seizures. Its prolonged application leads to gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances...
  31. Matthes J, Huber I, Haaf O, Antepohl W, Striessnig J, Herzig S. Pharmacodynamic interaction between mibefradil and other calcium channel blockers. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000;361:578-83 pubmed
    ..Gallopamil and another T-type-channel blocker, ethosuximide, were included for comparison...
  32. Liukkonen E, Kantola Sorsa E, Paetau R, Gaily E, Peltola M, Granström M. Long-term outcome of 32 children with encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep, or ESES syndrome. Epilepsia. 2010;51:2023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..children were included in the prospective treatment study with valproate (VPA) and 17 with VPA combined with ethosuximide (ESM)...
  33. Cheng J, Lin C, Chen C, Yang J, Chiou L. Effects of intrathecal injection of T-type calcium channel blockers in the rat formalin test. Behav Pharmacol. 2007;18:1-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the effects of intrathecal T-type Ca2+ channel blockers, mibefradil, ethosuximide and NiCl2, in the rat formalin test, an inflammatory pain model...
  34. Blumenfeld H, Klein J, Schridde U, Vestal M, Rice T, Khera D, et al. Early treatment suppresses the development of spike-wave epilepsy in a rat model. Epilepsia. 2008;49:400-9 pubmed
    ..Oral ethosuximide was given from age p21 to 5 months, covering the usual period in which seizures develop in this model (age ..
  35. Strohl K, Gallaugher L, Lynn A, Friedman L, Hill A, Singer J, et al. Sleep-related epilepsy in the A/J mouse. Sleep. 2007;30:169-76 pubmed
    ..Events were rare in paradoxical sleep. Compared with vehicle, intraperitoneal administration of ethosuximide (150 mg/kg) or diazepam (5 mg/kg) inhibited or eliminated seizure activity, respectively...
  36. Russo E, Citraro R, Scicchitano F, De Fazio S, Perrotta I, Perrota I, et al. Effects of early long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs on development of seizures and depressive-like behavior in a rat genetic absence epilepsy model. Epilepsia. 2011;52:1341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the effects of long-term treatment with several AEDs on absence seizure development and onset of depressive-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats at different ages, using a forced swimming test (FST)...
  37. Abd Allah W, Aboutabl M, Aboul Enein M, El Azzouny A. Synthesis, molecular modeling studies and anticonvulsant activity of certain (1-(benzyl (aryl) amino) cyclohexyl) methyl esters. Bioorg Chem. 2017;71:135-145 pubmed publisher
    ..0056mmol/kg being about 10- and 164-fold more potent than phenobarbital (ED50=0.056mmol/kg) and ethosuximide (ED50=0.92mmol/kg) as reference drugs, respectively...
  38. Baulac S, Ishida S, Mashimo T, Boillot M, Fumoto N, Kuwamura M, et al. A rat model for LGI1-related epilepsies. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3546-57 pubmed publisher
    ..which are commonly used to treat partial seizures, but not by the prototypic absence seizure drug, ethosuximide. Our findings provide the first rat model with a missense mutation in Lgi1 gene, an original model ..
  39. Bonanni P, Gubernale M, Martinez F, Randazzo G, Milantoni L, Martinuzzi A, et al. Non-convulsive status epilepticus of frontal origin in mucopolysaccharidosis type II successfully treated with ethosuximide. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:961-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The female was diagnosed as having frontal non-convulsive status epilepticus. After 5 weeks of therapy with ethosuximide, the ictal electroencephalographic activity disappeared...
  40. Victoria M, David C. Thermal and rheological study of lipophilic ethosuximide suppositories. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2003;19:123-8 pubmed
    ..performed thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) and rheological studies in the preformulation phase of ethosuximide suppositories to determine the influence of the active ingredient and adjuvants on the melting characteristics ..
  41. Shaikh A, Zee D, Optican L, Miura K, Ramat S, Leigh R. The effects of ion channel blockers validate the conductance-based model of saccadic oscillations. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1233:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the effects of a selective blocker of I(T) (ethosuximide) in healthy subjects on the amplitude and frequency of saccadic oscillations evoked by eye closure and of a ..
  42. Luszczki J, Ratnaraj N, Patsalos P, Czuczwar S. Pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic characteristics of interactions between loreclezole and four conventional antiepileptic drugs in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: an isobolographic analysis. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;7:639-51 pubmed
    ..Isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the interactions between loreclezole (LCZ) and clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and in ..
  43. Marrosu F, Bortolato M, Frau R, Orru M, Puligheddu M, Fa M, et al. Levetiracetam attenuates spontaneous spike-and-wave discharges in DBA/2J mice. Epilepsy Res. 2007;75:224-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, we investigated the effects of this drug in DBA/2J mice, a murine model of AE. Similarly to ethosuximide (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) and sodium valproate (250 mg/kg, i.p...
  44. Ziobro J, Deshpande L, Delorenzo R. An organotypic hippocampal slice culture model of excitotoxic injury induced spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges. Brain Res. 2011;1371:110-20 pubmed publisher
  45. Rekling J. Neuroprotective effects of anticonvulsants in rat hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation. Neurosci Lett. 2003;335:167-70 pubmed
    ..The classical anticonvulsants phenobarbital, phenytoin, ethosuximide, chlordiazepoxide and midazolam all significantly and dose-dependently reduced cell death induced by OGD...
  46. Gilbert T, Corley S, Teskey G. Conventional anticonvulsant drugs in the guinea pig kindling model of partial seizures: effects of acute phenobarbital, valproate, and ethosuximide. Exp Brain Res. 2002;146:336-44 pubmed
    This study addressed the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, valproate, and ethosuximide in the amygdala of kindled guinea pigs to further validate this model for the screening of anticonvulsant drugs...
  47. Sasa M, Ohno Y, Ujihara H, Fujita Y, Yoshimura M, Takaori S, et al. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on absence-like and tonic seizures in the spontaneously epileptic rat, a double mutant rat. Epilepsia. 1988;29:505-13 pubmed
    ..the absence-like seizures were inhibited by trimethadione (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) and ethosuximide 100 mg/kg i.p.), whereas the tonic convulsion was not affected by these drugs...
  48. Maheshwari A, Marks R, Yu K, Noebels J. Shift in interictal relative gamma power as a novel biomarker for drug response in two mouse models of absence epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2016;57:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, ethosuximide (200 mg/kg) and 4-aminopyridine (2...
  49. Vidaurre J, Gedela S, Yarosz S. Antiepileptic Drugs and Liver Disease. Pediatr Neurol. 2017;77:23-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Other antiepileptic drugs, including phenobarbital, benzodiazepines, ethosuximide, and the newer generations of antiepileptic drugs, have only rarely been linked to hepatotoxicity...
  50. Shiraishi H, Haginoya K, Nakagawa E, Saitoh S, Kaneko Y, Nakasato N, et al. Magnetoencephalography localizing spike sources of atypical benign partial epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2014;36:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ENM and absences/atypical absences were controlled in 14 patients treated with adjunctive ethosuximide. MEG localized the source of centro-temporal spikes and CSWS in the Rolandic-sylvian regions...
  51. Cortez M, Shen L, Wu Y, Aleem I, Trepanier C, Sadeghnia H, et al. Infantile spasms and Down syndrome: a new animal model. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:499-503 pubmed publisher
    ..GABABR-agonist-induced AEES were significantly reduced with vigabatrin, rodent ACTH fragment, valproic acid, ethosuximide, and CGP 35348. Porcine ACTH had no effect...
  52. Czuczwar S, Tutka P, Klonowski P, Kleinrok Z. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine impairs the anticonvulsive action of ethosuximide against pentylenetetrazol. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;366:137-42 pubmed
    ..NNA; an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) in a dose of 40 mg/kg impaired the protective activity of ethosuximide against the clonic phase of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice...
  53. Casas M, Blanco C, Carretero A, Gutiérrez A. Simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of four antiepileptics in human serum. Biomed Chromatogr. 2004;18:608-12 pubmed
    ..A very rapid and simple MEKC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four antiepileptic drugs, ethosuximide (Etho), primidone (Pri), phenytoin (Pht) and carbamazepine (Cbz) in human serum...
  54. Ojinnaka N, Iloeje S. Ethosuximide induced lymphadenopathy--a case report. Cent Afr J Med. 2001;47:18-9 pubmed
    ..More commonly reported adverse effects for ethosuximide include gastric disturbances, psychiatric disorders and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)...
  55. Hwang H, Kim H, Kim S, Kim S, Lim B, Chae J, et al. Long-term effectiveness of ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine in childhood absence epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2012;34:344-8 pubmed publisher
    We performed this study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of ethosuximide (ESX), valproic acid (VPA), and lamotrigine (LTG) as initial monotherapies for patients with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy...
  56. Coulter D, Huguenard J, Prince D. Specific petit mal anticonvulsants reduce calcium currents in thalamic neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1989;98:74-8 pubmed
    ..b>Ethosuximide and dimethadione, anticonvulsants effective in petit mal, reduced the LTCC when applied to thalamic neurons at ..
  57. Imai T, Okada H, Nanba M, Kawada K, Kusaka T, Itoh S. Ethosuximide induced agranulocytosis. Brain Dev. 2003;25:522-4 pubmed
    Agranulocytosis caused by ethosuximide is extremely rare in children. Drug-induced agranulocytosis is an unexpected side effect of a drug, and delay in diagnosis of agranulocytosis can result in a fatal outcome...
  58. Ponnusamy R, Pradhan N. The effects of chronic administration of ethosuximide on learning and memory: a behavioral and biochemical study on nonepileptic rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2006;17:573-80 pubmed
    ..Hence, this study evaluates the effect of chronic administration of one antiepileptic drug, ethosuximide, on spatial and fear learning and memory in nonepileptic rats...
  59. Kaminski R, Tochman A, Dekundy A, Turski W, Czuczwar S. Ethosuximide and valproate display high efficacy against lindane-induced seizures in mice. Toxicol Lett. 2004;154:55-60 pubmed
    ..In the present study we established the protective effects of ethosuximide and valproate against seizures induced by lindane and compared them with the well-known protective effects of ..
  60. Crespel A, Velizarova R, Agullo M, Gelisse P. Ethosuximide-induced de novo systemic lupus erythematosus with anti-double-strand DNA antibodies: a case report with definite evidence. Epilepsia. 2009;50:2003 pubmed publisher
  61. Pedersen A, Rasmussen N. [Childhood and juvenile absence epilepsy. Treatment and prognosis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:4133-5 pubmed
  62. Ohno K, Higashima M. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on afterdischarge generation in rat hippocampal slices. Brain Res. 2002;924:39-45 pubmed
    ..6% and carbamazepine to 39.7% of the control values. On the other hand, ethosuximide had no effect on AD generation at a concentration of 1 mM, which is clinically effective against absence ..
  63. Haugvicova R, Bílková E, Kubova H, Mares P. Effects of classical antiepileptics on thresholds for phenomena induced by cortical stimulation in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2002;54:1011-5 pubmed
    Our aim was to study the effects of phenobarbital, phenytoin and ethosuximide on epileptic afterdischarges induced by cortical stimulation in rats...
  64. Penovich P, Willmore L. Use of a new antiepileptic drug or an old one as first drug for treatment of absence epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50 Suppl 8:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Observational studies of the efficacy of ethosuximide, a drug developed in the 1950s, reported complete seizure control in 40-60% of patients...
  65. Borowicz K, Luszczki J, Czuczwar S. Isobolographic and subthreshold analysis of interactions among felbamate and four conventional antiepileptic drugs in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Epilepsia. 2004;45:1176-83 pubmed
    ..the profile of interactions between FBM and four conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ESM), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA), in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice, a ..
  66. Eggers A. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a disease of faulty neuronal resonators rather than oscillators, and all seizures are provoked, usually by stress. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69:1284-9 pubmed
    ..New therapeutic ideas for decreasing seizure frequency in TLE include the use of anti-depressants, ethosuximide (which blocks firing in the dorsal raphe nucleus), and mood-stabilizers (which block firing in the entorhinal ..
  67. Vermeij T, Edelbroek P. Robust isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of seven antiepileptic drugs including lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine and zonisamide in serum after solid-phase extraction. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007;857:40-6 pubmed
    ..Intra-day precision (RSD<1.9%), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LOQ<0.065 mg/l) and robustness make the method suitable for daily therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. ..
  68. Smyth M, Barbaro N, Baraban S. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on induced epileptiform activity in a rat model of dysplasia. Epilepsy Res. 2002;50:251-64 pubmed
    ..19-4 mM; ethosuximide (ESM), 0.5-8 mM; and lamotrigine (LTG), 49-390 microM...
  69. Currie C, Heineman W, Halsall H, Seliskar C, Limbach P, Arias F, et al. Estimation of pK(a) values using microchip capillary electrophoresis and indirect fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005;824:201-5 pubmed
    ..However, increased throughput will be required using a multilane chip to enable the approach to be used practically. ..
  70. Luszczki J. Interactions of tiagabine with ethosuximide in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model: an isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;378:483-92 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction between tiagabine (TGB) and ethosuximide (ETS), two antiepileptic drugs, in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice using isobolographic analysis...
  71. Yamamoto T, Pipo J, Akaboshi S, Narai S. Forced normalization induced by ethosuximide therapy in a patient with intractable myoclonic epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2001;23:62-4 pubmed
    ..boy with intractable myoclonic epilepsy and severe psychomotor delay experienced FN during medication of ethosuximide. Although his myoclonic seizures were completely controlled, behavioral changes, more of the manic type, became ..
  72. Uhlrich D, Manning K, O Laughlin M, Lytton W. Photic-induced sensitization: acquisition of an augmenting spike-wave response in the adult rat through repeated strobe exposure. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:3925-37 pubmed
    ..characteristics of the visual stimulus, as well as an inherent 6- to 8-Hz pacing, and was suppressed with ethosuximide administration. Spike-wave episodes were self-limiting but could persist beyond the strobe period...
  73. Casteels K, Van Geet C, Wouters K. Ethosuximide-associated lupus with cerebral and renal manifestations. Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157:780 pubmed
  74. Lee S, Kang J, Lin T, Lee J, Jin D. Teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs in the zebrafish model. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:726478 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in ..
  75. Bertoglio L, Zangrossi H. Involvement of dorsolateral periaqueductal gray N-methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamate receptors in the regulation of risk assessment and inhibitory avoidance behaviors in the rat elevated T-maze. Behav Pharmacol. 2006;17:589-96 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray column is also involved in the regulation of defensive behaviors related to anxiety, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamate receptors are recruited for this action. ..
  76. Livingston S, Rodriguez H, Greene C, Pauli L. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Occurrence in association with ethosuximide therapy. JAMA. 1968;204:731-2 pubmed
  77. Siren A, Kylliäinen A, Tenhunen M, Hirvonen K, Riita T, Koivikko M. Beneficial effects of antiepileptic medication on absence seizures and cognitive functioning in children. Epilepsy Behav. 2007;11:85-91 pubmed
    ..Cessation of seizures induced by antiepileptic medication may support neurocognitive functioning in children. ..
  78. Palazzo E, Rimoli M, De Chiaro M, Guida F, Melisi D, Curcio A, et al. Intra-periaqueductal grey microinjections of an imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivative, DM2, affects rostral ventromedial medulla cell activity and shows antinociceptive effect. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:660-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Behavioural and electrophysiological effects were reproduced by intra-VLPAG microinjection of ethosuximide, a conventional T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker...
  79. Richards D, Manning J, Barnes D, Rombola L, Bowery N, Caccia S, et al. Targeting thalamic nuclei is not sufficient for the full anti-absence action of ethosuximide in a rat model of absence epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2003;54:97-107 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of action of ethosuximide (ETX), a drug specific for absence seizures, is believed to involve a reduction in the low threshold T-type Ca(..
  80. Bhatt M, Shah S, Shivprakash -. Development of a high-throughput method for the determination of ethosuximide in human plasma by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:1605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of ethosuximide in human plasma is described. Analyte was chromatographed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, i.d...