oleanolic acid


Summary: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.

Top Publications

  1. Reisman S, Aleksunes L, Klaassen C. Oleanolic acid activates Nrf2 and protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity via Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent processes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1273-82 pubmed
    b>Oleanolic acid is a plant-derived triterpenoid, which protects against various hepatotoxicants in rodents...
  2. Li N, Liu C, Mi S, Wang N, Zheng X, Li Y, et al. Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaemperol and quercetin in rat plasma by LC-MS-MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study of Oldenlandia diffusa extract in rats. J Chromatogr Sci. 2012;50:885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is presented for the simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaemperol and quercetin in rat plasma...
  3. Liu Q, Liu H, Zhang L, Guo T, Wang P, Geng M, et al. Synthesis and antitumor activities of naturally occurring oleanolic acid triterpenoid saponins and their derivatives. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;64:1-15 pubmed publisher
    Twenty-six naturally occurring oleanolic acid saponins and their derivatives, 16 of which were synthesized in this study, were preliminarily evaluated against human cancer cells...
  4. Lúcio K, Rocha G, Monção Ribeiro L, Fernandes J, Takiya C, Gattass C. Oleanolic acid initiates apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and reduces metastasis of a B16F10 melanoma model in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28596 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to determine if oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants, is able to circumvent the mechanisms of drug ..
  5. Pollier J, Goossens A. Oleanolic acid. Phytochemistry. 2012;77:10-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (3?-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound with a widespread occurrence throughout the plant kingdom...
  6. Yang E, Lee W, Ku S, Song K, Bae J. Anti-inflammatory activities of oleanolic acid on HMGB1 activated HUVECs. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:1288-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, is commonly present in ..
  7. Lu C, Yuan Z, Zhang X, Yan R, Zhao Y, Liao M, et al. Saikosaponin a and its epimer saikosaponin d exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing activation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;14:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SSa and SSd showed potent anti-inflammatory activity through inhibitory effects on NF-?B activation and thereby on iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. ..
  8. Gao D, Tang S, Tong Q. Oleanolic acid liposomes with polyethylene glycol modification: promising antitumor drug delivery. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3517-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene present in many fruits and vegetables, and has received much attention on account of its biological properties. However, its poor solubility and low bioavailability limit its use...
  9. Liby K, Sporn M. Synthetic oleanane triterpenoids: multifunctional drugs with a broad range of applications for prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64:972-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent progress in the earliest clinical trials with 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) methyl ester (bardoxolone methyl) is also summarized. ..

More Information


  1. Lee W, Yang E, Ku S, Song K, Bae J. Anti-inflammatory effects of oleanolic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation. 2013;36:94-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties; however, the anti-inflammatory effects of OA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated pro-inflammatory responses have not been studied...
  2. Chakravarti B, Maurya R, Siddiqui J, Bid H, Rajendran S, Yadav P, et al. In vitro anti-breast cancer activity of ethanolic extract of Wrightia tomentosa: role of pro-apoptotic effects of oleanolic acid and urosolic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:72-9 pubmed
    ..The active molecule isolated from fraction F-4, oleanolic acid and urosolic acid inhibited cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at IC?? value of 7.5 ?M and 7...
  3. Liu J, Lu Y, Zhang Y, Wu K, Fan F, Klaassen C. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;272:816-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury...
  4. Liu L, Fu J, Li T, Cui R, Ling J, Yu X, et al. NG, a novel PABA/NO-based oleanolic acid derivative, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis via a ROS/MAPK-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;691:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..diolate (NG), a novel PABA/NO-based derivative of oleanolic acid (OA), has been found to show potent antitumor activity both in vivo and in vitro...
  5. Choi J, Oh H, Lee S, Park J, Khang D, Lee S, et al. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;269:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure ..
  6. Wei J, Liu M, Liu H, Wang H, Wang F, Zhang Y, et al. Oleanolic acid arrests cell cycle and induces apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in human pancreatic cancer cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:756-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, exhibits potential anti-tumor activity against many tumor cell lines...
  7. Deeb D, Gao X, Liu Y, Kim S, Pindolia K, Arbab A, et al. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase ..
  8. Xia E, Yu Y, Xu X, Deng G, Guo Y, Li H. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Ultrason Sonochem. 2012;19:772-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main bioactive compounds in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antimutagenic and anticancer properties...
  9. Wang X, Bai H, Zhang X, Liu J, Cao P, Liao N, et al. Inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid on hepatocellular carcinoma via ERK-p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims at investigating the antitumor effect of oleanolic acid (OA) and the molecular mechanisms...
  10. Madlala H, Masola B, Singh M, Musabayane C. The effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived oleanolic acid on kidney function of male Sprague-Dawley rats and on kidney and liver cell lines. Ren Fail. 2012;34:767-76 pubmed publisher
    Studies indicate that Syzygium spp-derived oleanolic acid (OA) enhances renal function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as evidenced by its reversal of the previously reported inability of the kidney to excrete Na(+) in these ..
  11. Wang J, Yu M, Xiao L, Xu S, Yi Q, Jin W. Radiosensitizing effect of oleanolic acid on tumor cells through the inhibition of GSH synthesis in vitro. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:917-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid that has been used in traditional medicine as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent...
  12. Castellano J, Guinda A, Delgado T, Rada M, Cayuela J. Biochemical basis of the antidiabetic activity of oleanolic acid and related pentacyclic triterpenes. Diabetes. 2013;62:1791-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA), a natural component of many plant food and medicinal herbs, is endowed with a wide range of pharmacological properties whose therapeutic potential has only partly been exploited until now...
  13. Liu Y, Gao X, Deeb D, Gautam S. Oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-Me inhibits Akt activity without affecting PDK1 kinase or PP2A phosphatase activity in cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that Akt is a direct target of CDDO-Me in the Akt/NF-?B/mTOR prosurvival signaling axis. ..
  14. Gao X, Liu Y, Deeb D, Liu P, Liu A, Arbab A, et al. ROS mediate proapoptotic and antisurvival activity of oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-Me in ovarian cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:215-21 pubmed
  15. Guo G, Yao W, Zhang Q, Bo Y. Oleanolic acid suppresses migration and invasion of malignant glioma cells by inactivating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72079 pubmed publisher
    ..It is efficient to inhibit migration and invasion of glioma cells by targeting this pathway. Oleanolic acid (OA) has been well demonstrated to suppress survival, growth and angiogenesis of glioma cells...
  16. Chen Y, Guo Q, Zhu Z, Zhang L. Changes in bioactive components related to the harvest time from the spicas of Prunella vulgaris. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..is a perennial plant common in China and Europe and is rich in rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA), and oleanolic acid (OA). The dried spica of P. vulgaris has been used as traditional medicine in China for over a hundred years...
  17. Mapanga R, Rajamani U, Dlamini N, Zungu Edmondson M, Kelly Laubscher R, Shafiullah M, et al. Oleanolic acid: a novel cardioprotective agent that blunts hyperglycemia-induced contractile dysfunction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47322 pubmed publisher
    ..Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract) possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic ..
  18. Lee W, Yang E, Ku S, Song K, Bae J. Anticoagulant activities of oleanolic acid via inhibition of tissue factor expressions. BMB Rep. 2012;45:390-5 pubmed
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, is commonly present in several medicinal plants but its anticoagulant activities have not been studied...
  19. Khathi A, Masola B, Musabayane C. Effects of Syzygium aromaticum-derived oleanolic acid on glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in the rat small intestine. J Diabetes. 2013;5:80-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we investigated the effects of oleanolic acid (OA), which has hypoglycemic properties, on glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in the small intestine, an organ that secretes enzymes involved in carbohydrate ..
  20. Zeng X, Wang Y, Cantley J, Iseli T, Molero J, Hegarty B, et al. Oleanolic acid reduces hyperglycemia beyond treatment period with Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42115 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the chronic efficacy of oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid selected from our recent screening, on hyperglycemia in type-2 diabetic mice...
  21. Wójciak Kosior M, Paduch R, Matysik Woźniak A, Niedziela P, Donica H. The effect of ursolic and oleanolic acids on human skin fibroblast cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2011;49:664-9 pubmed
    ..Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are pentacyclic triterpenes and they are constituents of many medicinal herbs...
  22. Gong T, Zheng L, Zhen X, He H, Zhu H, Zhu P. Microbial transformation of oleanolic acid by Trichothecium roseum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2014;16:383-6 pubmed publisher
    Microbial transformation of the oleanolic acid (1) using Trichothecium roseum (pers.) Link (M 95...
  23. Buus N, Hansson N, Rodriguez Rodriguez R, Stankevicius E, Andersen M, Simonsen U. Antiatherogenic effects of oleanolic acid in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:519-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA) is a plant triterpenoid steroid with potentially antiatherogenic properties. We investigated whether OA affected atherosclerosis development and vascular function in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
  24. Wang X, Liu R, Zhang W, Zhang X, Liao N, Wang Z, et al. Oleanolic acid improves hepatic insulin resistance via antioxidant, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;376:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on hepatic insulin resistance and underlying mechanisms in Lep(db)(/)(db) obese diabetic mice...
  25. Ji H, Shin B, Jeong D, Park E, Park E, Yoo S, et al. Interspecies scaling of oleanolic acid in mice, rats, rabbits and dogs and prediction of human pharmacokinetics. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:251-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to predict the pharmacokinetics of oleanolic acid in humans based on animal data by allometry and several species-invariant time methods...
  26. Auletta J, Alabran J, Kim B, Meyer C, Letterio J. The synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO-Me, modulates the proinflammatory response to in vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010;30:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CDDO-Me potentially represents a novel oral agent for use in LPS-mediated inflammatory diseases. ..
  27. Liu L, Wang X. Improved dissolution of oleanolic acid with ternary solid dispersions. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8:E113 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution of oleanolic acid by solid dispersions consisting of the drug, a polymeric carrier, and a surfactant...
  28. Yates M, Tran Q, Dolan P, Osburn W, Shin S, McCulloch C, et al. Genetic versus chemoprotective activation of Nrf2 signaling: overlapping yet distinct gene expression profiles between Keap1 knockout and triterpenoid-treated mice. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1024-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, analysis of pharmacologic activation suggests that Nrf2 is the primary mediator of CDDO-Im activity, though other cell-signaling targets are also modulated following an oral dose of 30 micromol/kg. ..
  29. Liby K, Voong N, Williams C, Risingsong R, Royce D, Honda T, et al. The synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-Imidazolide suppresses STAT phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in myeloma and lung cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:4288-93 pubmed
    ..Our new data thus show that CDDO-Imidazolide is a potent suppressor of STAT signaling and provide a further mechanistic basis for future clinical use of this agent to control inflammation or cell proliferation. ..
  30. Chu R, Zhao X, Griffin C, Staub R, Shoemaker M, Climent J, et al. Selective concomitant inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells by BN107 and oleanolic acid. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular mechanisms mediating the selective pro-apoptotic effect induced by BN107 and its principle terpene, oleanolic acid (OA), on ER- breast cancer cells...
  31. de Melo C, Queiroz M, Fonseca S, Bizerra A, Lemos T, Melo T, et al. Oleanolic acid, a natural triterpenoid improves blood glucose tolerance in normal mice and ameliorates visceral obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;185:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In the search for potential antiobese compounds from natural sources, this study evaluated the effects of oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene commonly present in fruits and vegetables, in glucose tolerance test and on ..
  32. Du Y, Ko K. Oleanolic acid protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant mechanism mediated by glutathione and alpha-tocopherol in rats. Planta Med. 2006;72:222-7 pubmed
    The effect of oleanolic acid (OA) pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury was investigated using an ex vivo rat heart model. Pretreatment with OA at daily doses (0.6 and 1...
  33. Fujiwara Y, Komohara Y, Kudo R, Tsurushima K, Ohnishi K, Ikeda T, et al. Oleanolic acid inhibits macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype and glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing the activation of STAT3. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined whether oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid compound whose structure is similar to corosolic acid, also shows inhibitory ..
  34. Takemura M, Endo S, Matsunaga T, Soda M, Zhao H, El Kabbani O, et al. Selective inhibition of the tumor marker aldo-keto reductase family member 1B10 by oleanolic acid. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, oleanolic acid (1) was found to be the most potent competitive inhibitor (inhibition constant, 72 nM) with the highest ..
  35. Ferguson H, Kulkarni A, Lehmann G, Garcia Bates T, Thatcher T, Huxlin K, et al. Electrophilic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands have potent antifibrotic effects in human lung fibroblasts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;41:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..As the inhibitory concentration causing a 50% decrease in aSMA for CDDO is 400-fold lower than that in rosiglitazone, the translational potential of CDDO for treatment of fibrotic diseases is high. ..
  36. Guo N, Zhao Y, Fang W. Biotransformation of 3-oxo-oleanolic acid by Absidia glauca. Planta Med. 2010;76:1904-7 pubmed publisher
    3-Oxo-oleanolic acid (1) was biotransformed in growing cultures of the fungus Absidia glauca, resulting in three novel hydroxylated metabolites, identified as 1?-hydroxy-3-oxo-olean-11-en-28,13-lactone (2), 1?,11?-dihydroxy-3-oxo-olean-12-..
  37. Liby K, Black C, Royce D, Williams C, Risingsong R, Yore M, et al. The rexinoid LG100268 and the synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-methyl amide are more potent than erlotinib for prevention of mouse lung carcinogenesis. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:1251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because rexinoids and triterpenoids signal through different biological pathways, they should be tested in combination for the prevention of lung cancer. ..
  38. Neymotin A, Calingasan N, Wille E, Naseri N, Petri S, Damiano M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of Nrf2/ARE activators, CDDO ethylamide and CDDO trifluoroethylamide, in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide further evidence that compounds that activate the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway may be useful in the treatment of ALS. ..
  39. Nataraju A, Saini D, Ramachandran S, Benshoff N, Liu W, Chapman W, et al. Oleanolic Acid, a plant triterpenoid, significantly improves survival and function of islet allograft. Transplantation. 2009;88:987-94 pubmed publisher
    BACKGROUND.: Oleanolic acid (OA) is a ubiquitous triterpenoid, with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
  40. Gao D, Li Q, Li Y, Liu Z, Liu Z, Fan Y, et al. Antidiabetic potential of oleanolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85:1076-83 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether oleanolic acid (OA) is the principal active compound of L...
  41. Wang Q, Zheng X, Yang L, Shi F, Gao L, Zhong Y, et al. Reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis contributes to chemosensitization effect of saikosaponins on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:159 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that saikosaponins sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin through ROS-mediated apoptosis, and the combination of saikosaponins with cisplatin could be an effective therapeutic strategy. ..
  42. Dharmappa K, Kumar R, Nataraju A, Mohamed R, Shivaprasad H, Vishwanath B. Anti-inflammatory activity of oleanolic acid by inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2. Planta Med. 2009;75:211-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid known for its anti-inflammatory properties, is commonly present in several medicinal plants. The present study evaluated the effect of oleanolic acid on sPLA (2), a key enzyme in inflammatory reactions...
  43. Szakiel A, Ruszkowski D, Grudniak A, Kurek A, Wolska K, Doligalska M, et al. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis). Planta Med. 2008;74:1709-15 pubmed publisher
    The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated...
  44. Sogno I, Vannini N, Lorusso G, Cammarota R, Noonan D, Generoso L, et al. Anti-angiogenic activity of a novel class of chemopreventive compounds: oleanic acid terpenoids. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2009;181:209-12 pubmed
    ..We have recently assessed the activity of novel compounds derived from the oleanolic acid triterpenoid, called CDDO-Me and CDDO-Imm...
  45. Bai X, Qiu A, Guan J, Shi Z. Antioxidant and protective effect of an oleanolic acid-enriched extract of A. deliciosa root on carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:169-73 pubmed
    ..Among the four extracts, it was found that EEAD-Bu was enriched with oleanolic acid (OLA)...
  46. Ravanan P, Sano R, Talwar P, Ogasawara S, Matsuzawa S, Cuddy M, et al. Synthetic triterpenoid cyano enone of methyl boswellate activates intrinsic, extrinsic, and endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathways in tumor cell lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:1635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results suggest that CEMB stimulates several apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, suggesting that this compound should be evaluated further as a potential agent for cancer therapy. ..
  47. Hsu J, Wu Y, Liu I, Cheng J. Release of acetylcholine to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats by oleanolic acid, one of the active principles contained in Cornus officinalis. Neurosci Lett. 2006;404:112-6 pubmed
    ..The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oleanolic acid, one of the active principles of cornus fruit, on the release of insulin in rats...
  48. Deeb D, Gao X, Jiang H, Dulchavsky S, Gautam S. Oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-Me inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by independently targeting pro-survival Akt and mTOR. Prostate. 2009;69:851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated potent antitumor activity of CDDO-Me against prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Data also identified Akt and mTOR as molecular targets of CDDO-Me in prostate cancer cells. ..
  49. Laszczyk M. Pentacyclic triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane and ursane group as tools in cancer therapy. Planta Med. 2009;75:1549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions. ..
  50. Nagaraj S, Youn J, Weber H, Iclozan C, Lu L, Cotter M, et al. Anti-inflammatory triterpenoid blocks immune suppressive function of MDSCs and improves immune response in cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1812-23 pubmed publisher
    ..CDDO-Me abrogated the immune suppressive effect of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients. It may represent an attractive therapeutic option by enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. ..
  51. Ichikawa T, Li J, Meyer C, Janicki J, Hannink M, Cui T. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404), a novel Nrf2 activator, suppresses oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8391 pubmed publisher
    ..Dh404 activated Nrf2 signaling in the heart. Taken together, dh404 appears to be a novel Nrf2 activator with a therapeutic potential for cardiac diseases via suppressing oxidative stress. ..
  52. Wei Y, Yan X, Ma L, Wu J, Zhang H, Qin L. Oleanolic acid inhibits hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:528-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of oleanolic acid (OA), a naturally occurring triterpenoid, on hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model...
  53. Kim E, Deng C, Sporn M, Liby K. CDDO-imidazolide induces DNA damage, G2/M arrest and apoptosis in BRCA1-mutated breast cancer cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The particular relevance of these findings to the chemoprevention of cancer is discussed. Cancer Prev Res; 4(3); 425-34. ©2011 AACR. ..
  54. Xie W, Lin J, Zhang Z, Zhou Y, Bao Y. [Inhibitory effects of saikosaponin a on rat hippocampal astrocyte activation in vitro]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008;28:1798-801 pubmed
    ..05). Glu-induced activation of rat hippocampal astrocytes can be inhibited by SSa, whose antiepileptic effects is probably mediated by inhibition of hippocampal astrocyte activation. ..
  55. Thimmulappa R, Fuchs R, Malhotra D, Scollick C, Traore K, Bream J, et al. Preclinical evaluation of targeting the Nrf2 pathway by triterpenoids (CDDO-Im and CDDO-Me) for protection from LPS-induced inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9:1963-70 pubmed
  56. Shyu M, Kao T, Yen G. Hsian-tsao (Mesona procumbens Heml.) prevents against rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4) via inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), which are the active compounds in EHT, on the activation of hepatic stellate cells ..
  57. Juan M, Wenzel U, Ruiz Gutierrez V, Daniel H, Planas J. Olive fruit extracts inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. J Nutr. 2006;136:2553-7 pubmed
    ..25%) and oleanolic acid (25.75%). Studies of the dose-dependent effects showed antiproliferative activity at an EC50 value of 73...
  58. Zou W, Yue P, Khuri F, Sun S. Coupling of endoplasmic reticulum stress to CDDO-Me-induced up-regulation of death receptor 5 via a CHOP-dependent mechanism involving JNK activation. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we conclude that CDDO-Me triggers ER stress, leading to JNK-dependent, CHOP-mediated DR5 up-regulation and apoptosis. ..
  59. Fan J, Li X, Li P, Li N, Wang T, Shen H, et al. Saikosaponin-d attenuates the development of liver fibrosis by preventing hepatocyte injury. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;85:189-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SSd was able to alleviate hepatocyte injury from oxidative stress. In conclusion, SSd could postpone the development of liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatocyte injury. ..
  60. Horiuchi K, Shiota S, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Kuroda T, Tsuchiya T. Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1147-9 pubmed
    ..We isolated the effective compound and identified it as oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid...
  61. Fang X, Wang J, Yu X, Zhang G, Zhao J. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction followed by RP-HPLC for the simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:1147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..and an efficient HPLC analysis method were developed for fast extraction and simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis...
  62. Shyu M, Kao T, Yen G. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid induce apoptosis in HuH7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway and downregulation of XIAP. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6110-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are commonly found in plants and herbs and have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities...
  63. Sussan T, Rangasamy T, Blake D, Malhotra D, El Haddad H, Bedja D, et al. Targeting Nrf2 with the triterpenoid CDDO-imidazolide attenuates cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that targeting the Nrf2 pathway during the etiopathogenesis of emphysema may represent an important approach for prophylaxis against COPD. ..
  64. Cheng K, Liu J, Liu X, Li H, Sun H, Xie J. Synthesis of glucoconjugates of oleanolic acid as inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:841-50 pubmed publisher
    Synthesis and biological evaluation of glucoconjugates of oleanolic acid, linked by either a triazole moiety or an ester function, as novel inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase have been described...
  65. Maia J, Lima Júnior R, Melo C, David J, David J, Campos A, et al. Oleanolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene attenuates capsaicin-induced nociception in mice: possible mechanisms. Pharmacol Res. 2006;54:282-6 pubmed
    The anti-inflammatory pentacyclic triterpene, oleanolic acid (OA) was examined on acute nociception induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin in mice...
  66. Hyer M, Shi R, Krajewska M, Meyer C, Lebedeva I, Fisher P, et al. Apoptotic activity and mechanism of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic-acid and related synthetic triterpenoids in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2927-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings suggest CDDO and related synthetic triterpenoids should be further evaluated as potential novel therapeutics for hormone refractory prostate cancers. ..
  67. Zhao Y, Hua H, Liu L. Development and validation of an HPLC method for determination of oleanolic acid content and partition of oleanolic acid in submicron emulsions. Pharmazie. 2009;64:491-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple HPLC method for the quantitative determination of the oleanolic acid (OA) content and partition coefficient of OA in a submicron emulsion-based formulation (SE-OA)...
  68. Kang W, Zhang L, Song Y. [Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Luculia pinciana]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:406-9 pubmed
    ..1), 5-methoxy-8-hydroxycoumarin (2), lalpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyursolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5). The IC50 values of all compounds were lower than that of acarbose...
  69. Shibuya M, Xiang T, Katsube Y, Otsuka M, Zhang H, Ebizuka Y. Origin of structural diversity in natural triterpenes: direct synthesis of seco-triterpene skeletons by oxidosqualene cyclase. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:1450-5 pubmed
    ..Based on this information, direct production of other natural seco-triterpenes by OSCs is proposed. ..
  70. Kawahara K, Hashiguchi T, Masuda K, Saniabadi A, Kikuchi K, Tancharoen S, et al. Mechanism of HMGB1 release inhibition from RAW264.7 cells by oleanolic acid in Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:615-20 pubmed
    ..7 cells. The inhibitory effect on HMGB1 release was enhanced by authentic oleanolic acid (OA), a naturally occurring triterpenoid...
  71. Osburn W, Yates M, Dolan P, Chen S, Liby K, Sporn M, et al. Genetic or pharmacologic amplification of nrf2 signaling inhibits acute inflammatory liver injury in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2008;104:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results clearly illustrate that targeted cytoprotection of hepatocytes through Nrf2 signaling during inflammation prevents the amplification of inflammatory responses in the liver. ..
  72. Sung H, Kang S, Kim J, Li J, Lee E, Gong J, et al. Oleanolic acid reduces markers of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nutr Res. 2010;30:831-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Oleanolic acid is a triterpenoid compound that is widely present in vegetables, medicinal herbs, and other plants and has potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties...
  73. Xi S, Zhou G, Zhang X, Zhang W, Cai L, Zhao C. Protective effect of total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) against diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats during the early stage, and possible mechanisms. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:538-47 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results suggest that TASAES prevents diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological damage through up-regulating I(Ca(2+)-L) in cardiac cells and decreasing CTGF expression. ..
  74. To C, Shilton B, Di Guglielmo G. Synthetic triterpenoids target the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit branched actin polymerization. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27944-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that synthetic triterpenoids target Arp3 and branched actin polymerization to inhibit cell migration. ..
  75. Yore M, Kettenbach A, Sporn M, Gerber S, Liby K. Proteomic analysis shows synthetic oleanane triterpenoid binds to mTOR. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22862 pubmed publisher
    ..Our basic studies confirm that the SO, CDDO-Im, acts on a protein network to elicit its pharmacological activity. ..
  76. Das N, Chandran P, Chakraborty S. Potent spermicidal effect of oleanolic acid 3-beta-D-glucuronide, an active principle isolated from the plant Sesbania sesban Merrill. Contraception. 2011;83:167-75 pubmed publisher
    The spermicidal activity of oleanolic acid 3-?-D-glucuronide (OAG), an active principle isolated from root extracts of Sesbania sesban, was evaluated...
  77. Takada K, Nakane T, Masuda K, Ishii H. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, members of pentacyclic triterpenoid acids, suppress TNF-?-induced E-selectin expression by cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:1114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of two pentacyclic triterpenoid acids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), on the expression of E-selectin by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
  78. Reisman S, Buckley D, Tanaka Y, Klaassen C. CDDO-Im protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;236:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present study shows that CDDO-Im pretreatment induces Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes and protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. ..
  79. Jäger S, Winkler K, Pfüller U, Scheffler A. Solubility studies of oleanolic acid and betulinic acid in aqueous solutions and plant extracts of Viscum album L. Planta Med. 2007;73:157-62 pubmed
    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) contains the triterpene acids oleanolic acid (OA) and betulinic acid (BA), which were found to have anti-tumour properties. In this study, the solubilities of OA and BA were studied in water (up to 0...
  80. Yue P, Zhou Z, Khuri F, Sun S. Depletion of intracellular glutathione contributes to JNK-mediated death receptor 5 upregulation and apoptosis induction by the novel synthetic triterpenoid methyl-2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me). Cancer Biol Ther. 2006;5:492-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, we conclude that CDDO-Me activates the JNK pathway via depletion of intracellular GSH, leading to DR5 upregulation and induction of apoptosis. ..