Genomes and Genes
Summary: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
- Chia Y, Liong S, Ton S, Kadir K. Amelioration of glucose homeostasis by glycyrrhizic acid through gluconeogenesis rate-limiting enzymes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;677:197-202 pubmed publisher..Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and probably by reduction of H6PDH, 11?-HSD1 and a selective decrease in PEPCK activities. ..
- Rino Y, Tarao K, Morinaga S, Ohkawa S, Miyakawa K, Hirokawa S, et al. Reduction therapy of alanine aminotransferase levels prevent HCC development in patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2221-6 pubmed..Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the mode of reduction therapy and ALT levels were the significant factors affecting HCC development. The chances of surviving for more than ten years without developing HCC for HCV-LC patients ..
- Pompei R, Laconi S, Ingianni A. Antiviral properties of glycyrrhizic acid and its semisynthetic derivatives. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009;9:996-1001 pubmed..New synthetic derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) are even more active than the parental molecule...
- Thirugnanam S, Xu L, Ramaswamy K, Gnanasekar M. Glycyrrhizin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and LNCaP. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:1387-92 pubmed..Collectively, these studies suggest that glycyrrhizin has therapeutic potential against prostate cancer. ..
- Paolino D, Lucania G, Mardente D, Alhaique F, Fresta M. Ethosomes for skin delivery of ammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro percutaneous permeation through human skin and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on human volunteers. J Control Release. 2005;106:99-110 pubmed..Some in vivo experiments also showed the ability of ethosome to ensure a skin accumulation and a sustained release of the ammonium glycyrrhizinate. ..
- Chueh F, Hsiao Y, Chang S, Wu P, Yang J, Lin J, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid induces apoptosis in WEHI-3 mouse leukemia cells through the caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:2069-76 pubmed publisher..The aim of this study was to determine the anti-leukemia effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on a mouse leukemia cell line, WEHI-3...
- Ashfaq U, Masoud M, Nawaz Z, Riazuddin S. Glycyrrhizin as antiviral agent against Hepatitis C Virus. J Transl Med. 2011;9:112 pubmed publisher..In future, GL along with interferon will be better option to treat HCV infection. ..
- Eisenbrand G. Glycyrrhizin. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50:1087-8 pubmed
- Ikeda K, Arase Y, Kobayashi M, Saitoh S, Someya T, Hosaka T, et al. A long-term glycyrrhizin injection therapy reduces hepatocellular carcinogenesis rate in patients with interferon-resistant active chronic hepatitis C: a cohort study of 1249 patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2006;51:603-9 pubmed
- Feng C, Wang H, Yao C, Zhang J, Tian Z. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate, a component of traditional Chinese medicine Gan-Cao, prevents murine T-cell-mediated fulminant hepatitis in IL-10- and IL-6-dependent manners. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:1292-8 pubmed
- Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, et al. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Phytother Res. 2008;22:141-8 pubmed..Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs. ..
- Sui X, Yin J, Ren X. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate and lithium chloride on cell infection by pseudorabies herpesvirus. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:346-53 pubmed publisher..Virus plaque-reduction assays, PCR and RT-PCR analysis indicated that both drugs inhibited cell infection by PrV. Moreover, addition of the drugs resulted in fewer apoptotic cells during PrV infection...
- Wang J, Chen X, Wang W, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Jin Y, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid as the antiviral component of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. against coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 of hand foot and mouth disease. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:114-21 pubmed publisher..b>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is considered the principal component in Glycyrrhiza spp. with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity.
- Ram A, Mabalirajan U, Das M, Bhattacharya I, Dinda A, Gangal S, et al. Glycyrrhizin alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1468-77 pubmed..We have also showed that it has no effect on serum cortisol levels. Our results demonstrate that GRZ alleviates asthmatic features in mice and it could be useful towards developing a better therapeutic molecule in the future. ..
- Koga K, Nishimon Y, Ueta H, Matsuno K, Takada K. Utility of nano-sized, water-in-oil emulsion as a sustained release formulation of glycyrrhizin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:300-5 pubmed..These results suggest that a nano-sized w/o emulsion is useful as a sustained release formulation for long-term therapy of chronic hepatitis. ..
- Lee C, Kim Y, Han E. Glycyrrhizin protection against 3-morpholinosydnonime-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in lung epithelial cells. Life Sci. 2007;80:1759-67 pubmed..The findings suggest that licorice compounds seem to prevent the nitrogen species-mediated lung cell damage. ..
- Michaelis M, Geiler J, Naczk P, Sithisarn P, Ogbomo H, Altenbrandt B, et al. Glycyrrhizin inhibits highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in human macrophages. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2010;199:291-7 pubmed publisher..Since H5N1-induced hypercytokinaemia is considered to play an important role within H5N1 pathogenesis, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease. ..
- Lim W, Chia Y, Liong S, Ton S, Kadir K, Husain S. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:31 pubmed publisher..b>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra) inhibits 11beta-hydroxysteroid ..
- Zhang L, Sun Y, Chen T, Xu Q. Selective depletion of glycyrrhizin from Si-Ni-San, a traditional Chinese prescription, blocks its effect on contact sensitivity in mice and recovers adhesion and metalloproteinases production of T lymphocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:1193-204 pubmed..The present study also provides a new approach to recognize and validate an active constituent in traditional prescription through a selective depletion. ..
- Takei H, Baba Y, Hisatsune A, Katsuki H, Miyata T, Yokomizo K, et al. Glycyrrhizin inhibits interleukin-8 production and nuclear factor-kappaB activity in lung epithelial cells, but not through glucocorticoid receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;106:460-8 pubmed..Furthermore, only GL inhibited DNA binding of p65 to the IL-8 promoter region. These findings indicated that GL had a glucocorticoid-like inhibitory effect on IL-8 production via a mechanism that differs from that of glucocorticoids. ..
- Hennell J, Lee S, Khoo C, Gray M, Bensoussan A. The determination of glycyrrhizic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. (Zhi Gan Cao) root and the dried aqueous extract by LC-DAD. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;47:494-500 pubmed publisher..LC) method with photodiode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the determination of glycyrrhizic acid in both the raw herb and a commercially prepared dried aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC...
- Kang H, Lieberman P. Mechanism of glycyrrhizic acid inhibition of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: disruption of CTCF-cohesin-mediated RNA polymerase II pausing and sister chromatid cohesion. J Virol. 2011;85:11159-69 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a derivative of licorice, selectively inhibits the growth of lymphocytes latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus...
- Lin J, Cherng J, Hung M, Baltina L, Baltina L, Kondratenko R. Inhibitory effects of some derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid against Epstein-Barr virus infection: structure-activity relationships. Antiviral Res. 2008;79:6-11 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (18beta-GL or GL) is a herbal drug with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities and pharmacological effects and multiple sites of action...
- Koga K, Tomoyama M, Ohyanagi K, Takada K. Pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin in normal and albumin-deficient rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2008;29:373-81 pubmed publisher..It is concluded that a typical dose of GZ in chronic hepatitis patients whose serum albumin level is low will not cause a decrease of therapeutic effect compared with patients with a normal serum albumin level. ..
- Ma C, Ma Z, Liao X, Liu J, Fu Q, Ma S. Immunoregulatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid exerts anti-asthmatic effects via modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines and enhancement of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:755-62 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and has been found to be associated with multiple therapeutic properties...
- Arjumand W, Sultana S. Glycyrrhizic acid: a phytochemical with a protective role against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Life Sci. 2011;89:422-9 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a main sweetening component of licorice roots and has been found to be associated with multiple therapeutic properties...
- Hibasami H, Iwase H, Yoshioka K, Takahashi H. Glycyrrhizin induces apoptosis in human stomach cancer KATO III and human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:233-6 pubmed..The data of the present study show that the suppression of KATO III and HL-60 cell-growth by GL results from the induction of apoptosis by GL, and that caspase is involved in the induction of apoptosis by GL in these cells. ..
- Wu Y, Yang W, Wang C, Hu J, Fu S. Chitosan nanoparticles as a novel delivery system for ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Int J Pharm. 2005;295:235-45 pubmed..The introduction of PEG can decrease significantly the positive charge of particle surface. These studies showed that chitosan can complex TPP to form stable cationic nanoparticles for subsequent ammonium glycyrrhizinate loading. ..
- Qamar W, Khan R, Khan A, Rehman M, Lateef A, Tahir M, et al. Alleviation of lung injury by glycyrrhizic acid in benzo(a)pyrene exposed rats: Probable role of soluble epoxide hydrolase and thioredoxin reductase. Toxicology. 2012;291:25-31 pubmed publisher..b>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active principle of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice), is known to modulate various molecular processes...
- Kimura M, Moro T, Motegi H, Maruyama H, Sekine M, Okamoto H, et al. In vivo glycyrrhizin accelerates liver regeneration and rapidly lowers serum transaminase activities in 70% partially hepatectomized rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;579:357-64 pubmed..These results demonstrate that injection of glycyrrhizin or EGF significantly enhances regeneration of liver mass and function, as well as recovery from the liver damage induced by surgical resection. ..
- Koga K, Kawashima S, Shibata N, Takada K. [Novel formulations of a liver protection drug glycyrrhizin]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127:1103-14 pubmed..In the near future, convenient pharmaceutical preparations of glycyrrhizin will be developed for chronic hepatitis patients who require glycyrrhizin therapy. ..
- Paolino D, Muzzalupo R, Ricciardi A, Celia C, Picci N, Fresta M. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Bola-surfactant containing niosomes for transdermal delivery. Biomed Microdevices. 2007;9:421-33 pubmed..An effective example of conjugating innovative colloidal carriers, coming from pharmaceutical nanotechnology, and therapeutically effective natural compounds, coming from traditional medicine, was reported. ..
- Orlent H, Hansen B, Willems M, Brouwer J, Huber R, Kullak Ublick G, et al. Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized phase II trial. J Hepatol. 2006;45:539-46 pubmed..The observed ALT response did not translate in a significant histological improvement after 6 months treatment. ..
- Ming L, Yin A. Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizic acid. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:415-8 pubmedb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), belonging to a class of triterpenes, is a conjugate of two molecules, namely glucuronic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. It is naturally extracted from the roots of licorice plants...
- Hibasami H, Iwase H, Yoshioka K, Takahashi H. Glycyrrhetic acid (a metabolic substance and aglycon of glycyrrhizin) induces apoptosis in human hepatoma, promyelotic leukemia and stomach cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:215-9 pubmed..N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant drug, weakly inhibited the DNA fragmentation caused by GR suggesting that active oxidants work partly as an apoptosis-inducing transfer substance. ..
- Wang C, Kao T, Lo W, Yen G. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-?B through PI3K p110? and p110? inhibitions. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7726-33 pubmed publisher..The aim of this work was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?GA) from licorice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage ..
- Sun Q, Wang F, Li W, Li W, Hu Y, Li S, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid confers neuroprotection after subarachnoid hemorrhage via inhibition of high mobility group box-1 protein: a hypothesis for novel therapy of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Med Hypotheses. 2013;81:681-5 pubmed publisher..b>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) which was extracted from liquorice and confirmed as a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 with little side-..
- Messier C, Grenier D. Effect of licorice compounds licochalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth and virulence properties of Candida albicans. Mycoses. 2011;54:e801-6 pubmed publisher..In this study, we investigated the effect of major licorice compounds licochalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth, biofilm formation and yeast-hyphal transition of C. albicans...
- Kao T, Shyu M, Yen G. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit inflammation via PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta signaling and glucocorticoid receptor activation. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8623-9 pubmed publisher..obstructive pulmonary disease, are initiated by airway inflammation, and several studies indicate that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) alleviates inflammatory lung disease...
- Eu C, Lim W, Ton S, bin Abdul Kadir K. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:81 pubmed publisher..b>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza ..
- Michaelis M, Geiler J, Naczk P, Sithisarn P, Leutz A, Doerr H, et al. Glycyrrhizin exerts antioxidative effects in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells and inhibits virus replication and pro-inflammatory gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19705 pubmed publisher..Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease. ..
- Lin A, Chen J, Liu Y, Deng S, Wu Z, Huang Y, et al. Preparation and evaluation of N-caproyl chitosan nanoparticles surface modified with glycyrrhizin for hepatocyte targeting. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2009;35:1348-55 pubmed publisher..This article indicated that CCS-NPs-GL was a stable and effective drug delivery vehicle for hepatocyte targeting. ..
- Isbrucker R, Burdock G. Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza sp.), its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;46:167-92 pubmed..Based on the in vivo and clinical evidence, we propose an acceptable daily intake of 0.015-0.229 mg glycyrrhizin/kg body weight/day. ..
- Veldt B, Hansen B, Ikeda K, Verhey E, Suzuki H, Schalm S. Long-term clinical outcome and effect of glycyrrhizin in 1093 chronic hepatitis C patients with non-response or relapse to interferon. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:1087-94 pubmed..This study provides some evidence to show that interferon non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C and fibrosis stage 3 or 4 may have a reduced incidence of HCC if glycyrrhizin therapy leads to normalization of ALAT levels. ..
- Cherng J, Lin H, Hung M, Lin Y, Chan M, Lin J. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB is associated with neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;547:10-21 pubmedb>Glycyrrhizic acid is an herbal drug with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities and pharmacological effects and multiple sites of action...
- Kao T, Shyu M, Yen G. Neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in PC12 cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:754-61 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA) are the bioactive compounds of licorice...
- Zenone T, Blanc Q. [Rhabdomyolysis with major hypokalemia secondary to chronic glycyrrhizic acid ingestion]. Rev Med Interne. 2009;30:78-80 pubmed publisherIntoxication by glycyrrhizic acid is a well-known cause of the apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. It causes hypokalemia by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase...
- Harada S. The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. Biochem J. 2005;392:191-9 pubmed
- Mollica L, De Marchis F, Spitaleri A, Dallacosta C, Pennacchini D, Zamai M, et al. Glycyrrhizin binds to high-mobility group box 1 protein and inhibits its cytokine activities. Chem Biol. 2007;14:431-41 pubmed..Our results explain in part the anti-inflammatory properties of glycyrrhizin, and might direct the design of new derivatives with improved HMGB1-binding properties. ..
- Mohammad G, Siddiquei M, Othman A, Al Shabrawey M, Abu El Asrar A. High-mobility group box-1 protein activates inflammatory signaling pathway components and disrupts retinal vascular-barrier in the diabetic retina. Exp Eye Res. 2013;107:101-9 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide evidence that in the diabetic retina, HMGB-1 possibly interacts with RAGE and activates ERK(1/2) and NF-?B to generate an inflammatory response and disrupt retinal vascular barrier...
- Marianecci C, Rinaldi F, Mastriota M, Pieretti S, Trapasso E, Paolino D, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of novel ammonium glycyrrhizinate/niosomes delivery system: human and murine models. J Control Release. 2012;164:17-25 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, an improvement of the anti-inflammatory activity of the niosome delivered drug was observed on chemically induced skin erythema in humans...
- Genovese T, Menegazzi M, Mazzon E, Crisafulli C, Di Paola R, Dal Bosco M, et al. Glycyrrhizin reduces secondary inflammatory process after spinal cord compression injury in mice. Shock. 2009;31:367-75 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with glycyrrhizin extract reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. ..
- Gwak G, Moon T, Lee D, Yoo B. Glycyrrhizin attenuates HMGB1-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the p38-dependent mitochondrial pathway. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:679-84 pubmed publisher..The present study demonstrated that HMGB1 promoted hepatocyte apoptosis through a p38-dependent mitochondrial pathway. In addition, GL had an anti-apoptotic effect on HMGB1-treated hepatocytes. ..
- Tripathi M, Singh B, Kakkar P. Glycyrrhizic acid modulates t-BHP induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:339-47 pubmed publisherb>Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)...
- Sui X, Wei W, Yang L, Zu Y, Zhao C, Zhang L, et al. Preparation, characterization and in vivo assessment of the bioavailability of glycyrrhizic acid microparticles by supercritical anti-solvent process. Int J Pharm. 2012;423:471-9 pubmed publisherIn this study, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) microparticles were successfully prepared using a supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process. Carbon dioxide and ethanol were used as the anti-solvent and solvent, respectively...
- Gong G, Yuan L, Hu L, Wu W, Yin L, Hou J, et al. Glycyrrhizin attenuates rat ischemic spinal cord injury by suppressing inflammatory cytokines and HMGB1. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:11-8 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that Gly can attenuate the transient spinal cord ischemic injury in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the release of HMGB1. ..
- Wolkerstorfer A, Kurz H, Bachhofner N, Szolar O. Glycyrrhizin inhibits influenza A virus uptake into the cell. Antiviral Res. 2009;83:171-8 pubmed publisher..These insights might help in the design of structurally related compounds leading to potent anti-influenza therapeutics. ..
- Cirillo G, Parisi O, Curcio M, Puoci F, Iemma F, Spizzirri U, et al. Molecularly imprinted polymers as drug delivery systems for the sustained release of glycyrrhizic acid. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:577-82 pubmed publisherThe aim was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high recognition properties towards glycyrrhizic acid and to evaluate the performance of these materials to act as base excipients in glycyrrhizic acid sustained ..