Summary: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.

Top Publications

  1. Andrews R, Rooyackers O, Walker B. Effects of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor carbenoxolone on insulin sensitivity in men with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:285-91 pubmed
    ..We evaluated this approach using the nonselective 11 beta-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone, in healthy men and lean male patients with type 2 diabetes...
  2. Thompson R, Zhou N, MacVicar B. Ischemia opens neuronal gap junction hemichannels. Science. 2006;312:924-7 pubmed
    ..Both the current and dye flux were blocked by inhibitors of hemichannels. Therefore, hemichannel opening contributes to the profound ionic dysregulation during stroke and may be a ubiquitous component of ischemic neuronal death. ..
  3. Kang J, Kang N, Lovatt D, Torres A, Zhao Z, Lin J, et al. Connexin 43 hemichannels are permeable to ATP. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4702-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a putative Cx43 hemichannel with characteristics identical to the Cx43 hemichannel in C6 cells was identified in the membrane of hippocampal astrocytes in acutely prepared slices. ..
  4. Szente M, Gajda Z, Said Ali K, Hermesz E. Involvement of electrical coupling in the in vivo ictal epileptiform activity induced by 4-aminopyridine in the neocortex. Neuroscience. 2002;115:1067-78 pubmed
    ..of the already active epileptic foci was detected when electrical synaptic transmission was blocked by carbenoxolone either at the primary focus or at the mirror focus...
  5. Konopacki J, Kowalczyk T, Gołebiewski H. Electrical coupling underlies theta oscillations recorded in hippocampal formation slices. Brain Res. 2004;1019:270-4 pubmed
    ..Two gap junction (GJ) blockers, carbenoxolone (100 microM) and quinine (100 microM), were tested...
  6. Kohling R, Gladwell S, Bracci E, Vreugdenhil M, Jefferys J. Prolonged epileptiform bursting induced by 0-Mg(2+) in rat hippocampal slices depends on gap junctional coupling. Neuroscience. 2001;105:579-87 pubmed
    ..Three drugs that block gap junctions, halothane (5-10 mM), carbenoxolone (100 microM) and octanol (0.2-1.0 mM), abolished the secondary discharges, but left the primary bursts intact...
  7. Rodman J, Harris M, Rudkin A, ST JOHN W, Leiter J. Gap junction blockade does not alter eupnea or gasping in the juvenile rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006;152:51-60 pubmed
    ..Blockade of gap junctions with 100 microM carbenoxolone or 300 microM octanol did not produce any consistent changes in the timing or amplitude of integrated phrenic ..
  8. Gladwell S, Jefferys J. Second messenger modulation of electrotonic coupling between region CA3 pyramidal cell axons in the rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2001;300:1-4 pubmed
    ..Our studies support the existence of gap junction coupling between CA3 pyramidal cell axons in the fimbria that can be acutely modulated by 2nd messengers. ..
  9. Sandeep T, Andrew R, Homer N, Andrews R, Smith K, Walker B. Increased in vivo regeneration of cortisol in adipose tissue in human obesity and effects of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone. Diabetes. 2005;54:872-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the regeneration of cortisol in vivo in obesity, and the effects of the 11HSD1 inhibitor carbenoxolone. We compared six lean and six obese men and performed a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of ..

More Information


  1. Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri Asl M, Parvardeh S. The effects of carbenoxolone, a semisynthetic derivative of glycyrrhizinic acid, on peripheral and central ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the skeletal muscle and hippocampus of rats. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:632-7 pubmed
    As carbenoxolone, a semisynthetic derivative of glycyrrhizinic acid, has a free radical scavenging property, thus the effects of carbenoxolone during ischemia-reperfusion was evaluated on an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in ..
  2. Pivato L, Constantin R, Ishii Iwamoto E, Kelmer Bracht A, Yamamoto N, Constantin J, et al. Metabolic effects of carbenoxolone in rat liver. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2006;20:230-40 pubmed
    The action of carbenoxolone on hepatic energy metabolism was investigated in the perfused rat liver and isolated mitochondria...
  3. Zündorf G, Kahlert S, Reiser G. Gap-junction blocker carbenoxolone differentially enhances NMDA-induced cell death in hippocampal neurons and astrocytes in co-culture. J Neurochem. 2007;102:508-21 pubmed
    ..coupling by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, which was decreased by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX)...
  4. Chepkova A, Sergeeva O, Haas H. Carbenoxolone impairs LTP and blocks NMDA receptors in murine hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:139-47 pubmed publisher
    Effects of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) on tetanus- and taurine-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) were studied on Schaffer collateral-CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in mouse hippocampal slices...
  5. Shijie J, Takeuchi H, Yawata I, Harada Y, Sonobe Y, Doi Y, et al. Blockade of glutamate release from microglia attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009;217:87-92 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) and the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) decreased glutamate release from ..
  6. Lee H, Lee S, Bae H, Kim J, Chang G, Seok J, et al. Inhibition of airway MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression induced by epidermal growth factor or phorbol ester by glycyrrhizin and carbenoxolone. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:743-7 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated whether glycyrrhizin and carbenoxolone affect MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or phorbol ester (PMA) from human airway epithelial cells...
  7. Palani D, Ghildyal P, Manchanda R. Effects of carbenoxolone on syncytial electrical properties and junction potentials of guinea-pig vas deferens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2006;374:207-14 pubmed
    The effects of the putative gap junction blocker carbenoxolone on smooth muscle syncytial properties and junction potentials were studied in guinea pig vas deferens (GPVD)...
  8. Vakili A, Hosseinzadeh S, Khorasani M. Peripheral administration of carbenoxolone reduces ischemic reperfusion injury in transient model of cerebral ischemia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;18:81-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX) has a neuroprotective effect in experimental models of brain ischemia and trauma...
  9. Tovar K, Maher B, Westbrook G. Direct actions of carbenoxolone on synaptic transmission and neuronal membrane properties. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:974-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the gap junctional blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) is effective in reducing electrical coupling, it may have other actions as well...
  10. Tamura K, Alessandri B, Heimann A, Kempski O. The effect of a gap-junction blocker, carbenoxolone, on ischemic brain injury and cortical spreading depression. Neuroscience. 2011;194:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) or saline intra-ventricularly...
  11. Salvi M, Fiore C, Battaglia V, Palermo M, Armanini D, Toninello A. Carbenoxolone induces oxidative stress in liver mitochondria, which is responsible for transition pore opening. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2306-12 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone (Cbx), a derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid, which has been found to affect mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, induces swelling and membrane potential collapse when added to Ca(2+)-loaded liver mitochondria at ..
  12. Diao H, Xiao S, Howerth E, Zhao F, Li R, Ard M, et al. Broad gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disrupts uterine preparation for embryo implantation in mice. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:31 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the potential function of uterine gap junctions in embryo implantation, carbenoxolone (CBX), a broad gap junction blocker, was injected i.p...
  13. Gajda Z, Gyengesi E, Hermesz E, Ali K, Szente M. Involvement of gap junctions in the manifestation and control of the duration of seizures in rats in vivo. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1596-600 pubmed
    ..experiments, the functional states of the gap junctions were manipulated with a specific blocker (carbenoxolone) or opener (trimethylamine) at the already active focus of adult, anesthetized rats, 60 min after the ..
  14. De Groot J, Veenstra T, Verkerk A, Wilders R, Smits J, Wilms Schopman F, et al. Conduction slowing by the gap junctional uncoupler carbenoxolone. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;60:288-97 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effect of carbenoxolone on cellular electrical coupling, membrane ionic currents, and atrial and ventricular conduction...
  15. Nuotio Antar A, Hachey D, Hasty A. Carbenoxolone treatment attenuates symptoms of metabolic syndrome and atherogenesis in obese, hyperlipidemic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1517-28 pubmed
    ..and homozygous LDLR(-/-) breeding pairs (A(y)/a;LDLR(-/-) mice)] with the nonselective 11beta-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone for 4 wk...
  16. Takeuchi H, Jin S, Suzuki H, Doi Y, Liang J, Kawanokuchi J, et al. Blockade of microglial glutamate release protects against ischemic brain injury. Exp Neurol. 2008;214:144-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) or the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) decreased glutamate release from activated ..
  17. Bocian R, Posłuszny A, Kowalczyk T, Gołebiewski H, Konopacki J. The effect of carbenoxolone on hippocampal formation theta rhythm in rats: in vitro and in vivo approaches. Brain Res Bull. 2009;78:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Carbenoxolone, the succinyl ester of glycyrrhetinic acid, and GJ blocker reversibly abolished hippocampal formation theta ..
  18. Ye Z, Wyeth M, Baltan Tekkök S, Ransom B. Functional hemichannels in astrocytes: a novel mechanism of glutamate release. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3588-96 pubmed
    ..was blocked by multivalent cations (Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+, and La3+) and by gap junction blocking agents (carbenoxolone, octanol, heptanol, flufenamic acid, and 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid) with affinities close to those reported ..
  19. Bruzzone R, Barbe M, Jakob N, Monyer H. Pharmacological properties of homomeric and heteromeric pannexin hemichannels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Neurochem. 2005;92:1033-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, they exhibited a remarkable sensitivity to blockade by carbenoxolone (with an IC50 of approximately 5 microm), whereas flufenamic acid exerted only a modest inhibitory effect...
  20. Rouach N, Segal M, Koulakoff A, Giaume C, Avignone E. Carbenoxolone blockade of neuronal network activity in culture is not mediated by an action on gap junctions. J Physiol. 2003;553:729-45 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated the effects and site of action of the GJ blocker, carbenoxolone (CBX), on neuronal network activity...
  21. Tsutsumi M, Inoue K, Denda S, Ikeyama K, Goto M, Denda M. Mechanical-stimulation-evoked calcium waves in proliferating and differentiated human keratinocytes. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, signaling via gap junctions might be involved in the induction of calcium waves in response to mechanical stress at the upper layer of the epidermis. ..
  22. Stewart P, Wallace A, Atherden S, Shearing C, Edwards C. Mineralocorticoid activity of carbenoxolone: contrasting effects of carbenoxolone and liquorice on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in man. Clin Sci (Lond). 1990;78:49-54 pubmed
    ..We have evaluated the effect of the synthetic liquorice derivative, carbenoxolone, on this enzyme complex. 2...
  23. Winmill R, Hedrick M. Gap junction blockade with carbenoxolone differentially affects fictive breathing in larval and adult bullfrogs. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;138:239-51 pubmed
    ..Superfusion of the isolated brainstem for at least 1 h with the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX; 100 microM and 1 mM) dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) elicited significant changes in ..
  24. Gigout S, Louvel J, Kawasaki H, D Antuono M, Armand V, Kurcewicz I, et al. Effects of gap junction blockers on human neocortical synchronization. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;22:496-508 pubmed
    ..First, we examined the effects of GJ blockers (i.e., carbenoxolone, octanol, quinine, and quinidine) on the spontaneous synchronous events (duration = 0.2-1...
  25. Jahromi S, Wentlandt K, Piran S, Carlen P. Anticonvulsant actions of gap junctional blockers in an in vitro seizure model. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:1893-902 pubmed determined by input/output relations recorded before and during perfusion of the gj blockers blockers carbenoxolone and sodium propionate...
  26. Elsen F, Shields E, Roe M, Vandam R, Kelty J. Carbenoxolone induced depression of rhythmogenesis in the pre-Bötzinger Complex. BMC Neurosci. 2008;9:46 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX), a gap junction uncoupler, alters the functioning of the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC), a central pattern generating neuronal network important for the production of respiratory rhythm in mammals...
  27. Frantseva M, Kokarovtseva L, Naus C, Carlen P, MacFabe D, Perez Velazquez J. Specific gap junctions enhance the neuronal vulnerability to brain traumatic injury. J Neurosci. 2002;22:644-53 pubmed
    ..The gap junctional blockers carbenoxolone and octanol decreased significantly post-traumatic cell death, measured by propidium iodide staining over a 72 ..
  28. Roh D, Yoon S, Seo H, Kang S, Han H, Beitz A, et al. Intrathecal injection of carbenoxolone, a gap junction decoupler, attenuates the induction of below-level neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in rats. Exp Neurol. 2010;224:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of intrathecal treatment with carbenoxolone (CARB), a gap junction decoupler, on SCI-induced bilateral thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia ..
  29. Ye Z, Oberheim N, Kettenmann H, Ransom B. Pharmacological "cross-inhibition" of connexin hemichannels and swelling activated anion channels. Glia. 2009;57:258-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, carbenoxolone (CBX), the most widely used gap junction/hemichannel blocker, was an effective blocker of VRAC-mediated ..
  30. Frantseva M, Kokarovtseva L, Perez Velazquez J. Ischemia-induced brain damage depends on specific gap-junctional coupling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:453-62 pubmed
    ..The gap-junctional blocker carbenoxolone significantly decreased the spread of cell death, as measured by propidium iodide staining, over a 48-hour ..
  31. Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri Asl M. Anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxant effects of carbenoxolone in mice. BMC Pharmacol. 2003;3:3 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone, as an antiulcer medicine, has some pharmacological properties such as: the inhibition of gap junctional (GJ) intercellular communication...
  32. Gareri P, Condorelli D, Belluardo N, Citraro R, Barresi V, Trovato Salinaro A, et al. Antiabsence effects of carbenoxolone in two genetic animal models of absence epilepsy (WAG/Rij rats and lh/lh mice). Neuropharmacology. 2005;49:551-63 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX), the succinyl ester of glycyrrhetinic acid, is an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication...
  33. Benfenati V, Caprini M, Nicchia G, Rossi A, Dovizio M, Cervetto C, et al. Carbenoxolone inhibits volume-regulated anion conductance in cultured rat cortical astroglia. Channels (Austin). 2009;3:323-36 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence indicate that the gap-junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) regulates neuronal synchronization, depresses epileptiform activity and has a neuroprotective action...
  34. Naus C, Ozog M, Bechberger J, Nakase T. A neuroprotective role for gap junctions. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:325-8 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that gap junctions play a neuroprotective role against glutamate cytotoxicity. ..
  35. Yawata I, Takeuchi H, Doi Y, Liang J, Mizuno T, Suzumura A. Macrophage-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate and attenuated by glutaminase inhibitors and gap junction inhibitors. Life Sci. 2008;82:1111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the glutaminase inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), and the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX), effectively suppressed glutamate production and subsequent neurotoxicity by activated macrophages...
  36. Taylor A, Irwin N, McKillop A, Flatt P, Gault V. Sub-chronic administration of the 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor, carbenoxolone, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice with diet-induced obesity. Biol Chem. 2008;389:441-5 pubmed publisher
    We have examined the metabolic effects of daily administration of carbenoxolone (CBX), a naturally occurring 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD1) inhibitor, in mice with high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity...
  37. Medina Ceja L, Cordero Romero A, Morales Villagran A. Antiepileptic effect of carbenoxolone on seizures induced by 4-aminopyridine: a study in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Brain Res. 2008;1187:74-81 pubmed
    We have examined the effects of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) on the generation and propagation of epileptiform activity induced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the rat entorhinal cortex and hippocampus...
  38. Xia Y, Nawy S. The gap junction blockers carbenoxolone and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid antagonize cone-driven light responses in the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci. 2003;20:429-35 pubmed
    ..light responses in mouse ganglion cells under photopic conditions and applied two gap junction antagonists, carbenoxolone and the structurally related 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)...
  39. Bostanci M, Bagirici F. Anticonvulsive effects of carbenoxolone on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an in vivo study. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:362-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of gap junction blocker carbenoxolone on penicillin-induced experimental epilepsy...
  40. Solomon I, Chon K, Rodriguez M. Blockade of brain stem gap junctions increases phrenic burst frequency and reduces phrenic burst synchronization in adult rat. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:135-49 pubmed
    ..e., uncoupling) of brain stem gap junctions using carbenoxolone (100 microM), 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (25-100 microM), 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (25-100 microM), octanol ..
  41. Martin F, Handforth A. Carbenoxolone and mefloquine suppress tremor in the harmaline mouse model of essential tremor. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1641-9 pubmed
    ..some networks is mediated by gap junctions, we examined whether the gap junction blockers heptanol, octanol, carbenoxolone, and mefloquine suppress tremor in the mouse harmaline model, and performed an open-treatment clinical study ..
  42. Livingstone D, Walker B. Is 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 a therapeutic target? Effects of carbenoxolone in lean and obese Zucker rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:167-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the effects of inhibition of 11beta-HSDs with carbenoxolone in obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats, a strain in which tissue-specific dysregulation of 11beta-HSD1 (..
  43. Ballantyne D, Andrzejewski M, Muckenhoff K, Scheid P. Rhythms, synchrony and electrical coupling in the Locus coeruleus. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2004;143:199-214 pubmed
    ..The gap junction uncoupler carbenoxolone suppressed non-synaptic rhythmic activity in LC neurones, but did not suppress either respiratory-phased ..
  44. Heo H, Kim C, Lee H, Kim Y, Kang S, Seo U, et al. Carbenoxolone and triterpenoids inhibited mucin secretion from airway epithelial cells. Phytother Res. 2007;21:462-5 pubmed
    This study investigated whether carbenoxolone, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid affect ATP-induced mucin secretion from cultured airway epithelial cells...
  45. Endong L, Shijie J, Sonobe Y, Di M, Hua L, Kawanokuchi J, et al. The gap-junction inhibitor carbenoxolone suppresses the differentiation of Th17 cells through inhibition of IL-23 expression in antigen presenting cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;240-241:58-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a widely used gap-junction inhibitor. We have previously shown that treatment with CBX significantly delayed the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
  46. Margineanu D, Klitgaard H. Can gap-junction blockade preferentially inhibit neuronal hypersynchrony vs. excitability?. Neuropharmacology. 2001;41:377-83 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effects of the gap-junction blockers (GJBs) 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and carbenoxolone vs...
  47. Schmitz D, Schuchmann S, Fisahn A, Draguhn A, Buhl E, Petrasch Parwez E, et al. Axo-axonal coupling. a novel mechanism for ultrafast neuronal communication. Neuron. 2001;31:831-40 pubmed
    ..Our data thus suggest that hippocampal neurons are coupled by axo-axonal junctions, providing a novel mechanism for very fast electrical communication. ..
  48. Vessey J, Lalonde M, Mizan H, Welch N, Kelly M, Barnes S. Carbenoxolone inhibition of voltage-gated Ca channels and synaptic transmission in the retina. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:1252-6 pubmed
    We show that carbenoxolone, a drug used to block hemichannels in the retina to test the ephaptic model of horizontal cell inhibitory feedback, has strong inhibitory effects on voltage-gated Ca channels...
  49. Nagayama S, Jono H, Suzaki H, Sakai K, Tsuruya E, Yamatsu I, et al. Carbenoxolone, a new inducer of heat shock protein 70. Life Sci. 2001;69:2867-73 pubmed
    ..b>Carbenoxolone, an antiulcer drug, protects gastric mucosal cells against irritants in vivo and in vitro...
  50. Gareri P, Condorelli D, Belluardo N, Russo E, Loiacono A, Barresi V, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of carbenoxolone in genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPRs). Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:1205-16 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX), the succinyl ester of glycyrrhetinic acid, is an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication...
  51. de Pina Benabou M, Szostak V, Kyrozis A, Rempe D, Uziel D, Urban Maldonado M, et al. Blockade of gap junctions in vivo provides neuroprotection after perinatal global ischemia. Stroke. 2005;36:2232-7 pubmed
    ..The gap junction blocker carbenoxolone applied to hippocampal slice cultures before, during, or 60 minutes after OGD markedly reduced delayed ..
  52. McMullen S, Langley Evans S. Sex-specific effects of prenatal low-protein and carbenoxolone exposure on renal angiotensin receptor expression in rats. Hypertension. 2005;46:1374-80 pubmed
    ..Despite being targeted to the postnephrogenic period, inhibition of type 1 angiotensin receptor had an inhibitory effect on renal and somatic growth, additionally indicating its unsuitability during early life. ..
  53. Li Y, Duffin J. Developmental changes in transmission of respiratory rhythm in the rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2004;142:153-63 pubmed
    ..While the latter mechanism may be gap junction connections, these experiments cannot unequivocally demonstrate it. ..
  54. Liu X, Hashimoto Torii K, Torii M, Ding C, Rakic P. Gap junctions/hemichannels modulate interkinetic nuclear migration in the forebrain precursors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that functional interference with gap junctions/hemichannels during embryonic development may lead to abnormal corticogenesis and dysfunction of the cerebral cortex in adult organisms. ..
  55. Leshchenko Y, Likhodii S, Yue W, Burnham W, Perez Velazquez J. Carbenoxolone does not cross the blood brain barrier: an HPLC study. BMC Neurosci. 2006;7:3 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a widely used gap junctional blocker...
  56. Moore H, Grace A. A role for electrotonic coupling in the striatum in the expression of dopamine receptor-mediated stereotypies. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:980-92 pubmed
    ..of DA receptor-mediated motor behaviors, we tested the effects of two inhibitors of gap junction conductance, carbenoxolone (CARB) and anandamide (AEA), on apomorphine (APO)-induced motor responses...
  57. Li W, Li J, Sama A, Wang H. Carbenoxolone blocks endotoxin-induced protein kinase R (PKR) activation and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release. Mol Med. 2013;19:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrated that a major gancao (licorice) component (glycyrrhizin, or glycyrrhizic acid) derivative, carbenoxolone (CBX), dose dependently abrogated LPS-induced HMGB1 release in macrophage cultures with an estimated IC50 ? 5 ?..
  58. Gareri P, Condorelli D, Belluardo N, Gratteri S, Ferreri G, Donato Di Paola E, et al. Influence of carbenoxolone on the anticonvulsant efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;484:49-56 pubmed
    b>Carbenoxolone, the succinyl ester of glycyrrhetinic acid, is an inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and gap junctional intercellular communication. It is currently used in clinical treatment of ulcer diseases...