glycyrrhetinic acid

Summary

Summary: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Top Publications

  1. Hibasami H, Iwase H, Yoshioka K, Takahashi H. Glycyrrhetic acid (a metabolic substance and aglycon of glycyrrhizin) induces apoptosis in human hepatoma, promyelotic leukemia and stomach cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:215-9 pubmed
    ..N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant drug, weakly inhibited the DNA fragmentation caused by GR suggesting that active oxidants work partly as an apoptosis-inducing transfer substance. ..
  2. Farese S, Kruse A, Pasch A, Dick B, Frey B, Uehlinger D, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid food supplementation lowers serum potassium concentration in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2009;76:877-84 pubmed publisher
    Hyperkalemia is a common life-threatening problem in hemodialysis patients. Because glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) inhibits the enzyme 11beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase II and thereby increases cortisol availability to the colonic ..
  3. Hardy M, Hendricks J, Paulson J, Faunce N. 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits rotavirus replication in culture. Virol J. 2012;9:96 pubmed publisher
    Glycyrrhizin (GA) and primary metabolite 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) are pharmacologically active components of the medicinal licorice root, and both have been shown to have antiviral and immunomodulatory properties...
  4. Gao Z, Kang X, Xu C. [Research progress of anticancer mechanism of glycyrrhetinic acid]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:3213-6 pubmed
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid is a major active ingredient in licorice, a famous traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies on its anti-tumor activities and low toxicity to normal cells have attracted a great deal of attention...
  5. Armanini D, Bonanni G, Mattarello M, Fiore C, Sartorato P, Palermo M. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003;111:341-3 pubmed
    ..Licorice treatment, in addition, did not affect the response of testosterone and 17-OHP to stimulation with beta-HCG. ..
  6. Tian Q, Zhang C, Wang X, Wang W, Huang W, Cha R, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles for liver-targeted delivery. Biomaterials. 2010;31:4748-56 pubmed publisher
    A liver-targeted drug delivery carrier, composed of chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol)-glycyrrhetinic acid (CTS/PEG-GA) nanoparticles, was prepared by an ionic gelation process, in which glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) acted as the targeting ligand...
  7. Kang O, Kim J, Choi Y, Park H, Kim D, An Y, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-8 production in the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 by 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:981-5 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a saponin isolated from licorice roots, on TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production in human colonic ..
  8. Liang J, Wang S, Chung T, Yang S, Wu J. Effects of 18-glycyrrhetinic acid on serine 368 phosphorylation of connexin43 in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:1371-9 pubmed publisher
    18Beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) regulates serine/threonine dephosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43)...
  9. Lee C, Yang J, Kim Y, Jang E, Kim W, Myung S. 18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid potentiates apoptotic effect of trichostatin A on human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;649:354-61 pubmed publisher
    The licorice-derived compounds glycyrrhizin and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid have been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Liu D, Song D, Guo G, Wang R, Lv J, Jing Y, et al. The synthesis of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives which have increased antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in leukemia cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:5432-9 pubmed
    18beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), 3beta-hydroxyl-11-oxo-olean-12-ene-29-oic acid, has been found to inhibit growth and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...
  2. Wang J, Sun Q, Gao P, Wang J, Xu C, Sun Q. Bioconversion of glycyrrhizinic acid in liquorice into 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid by Aspergillus parasiticus speare BGB. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2010;46:462-6 pubmed
    ..producing beta-glucuronidase was screened to transform glycyrrhizinic acid (GL) in liquorice into 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)...
  3. Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, et al. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Phytother Res. 2008;22:141-8 pubmed
    ..Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs. ..
  4. Takahashi H, Onishi H, Machida Y. Glycyrrhetic acid-loaded microparticles: liver-specific delivery and therapeutic potential against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatitis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004;56:437-44 pubmed
    ..MPs are suggested as a possible useful system to prolong the therapeutic effect of GLA. ..
  5. Sun H, Li Q, Chen W, Geng L, Li X, Chen X, et al. Pharmacokinetic analysis of alpha and beta epimers of glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma: differences in singly and combined administrations. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2012;47:94-100 pubmed
    An HPLC method for the determination of 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma was established, which was used subsequently to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of both epimers of glycyrrhetinic ..
  6. Hawthorne S, Gallagher S. Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and liquorice extract on cell proliferation and prostate-specific antigen secretion in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60:661-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the active metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid, one of the components of liquorice extract. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity and to inhibit hepatic tumour growth...
  7. Pellati D, Fiore C, Armanini D, Rassu M, Bertoloni G. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Phytother Res. 2009;23:572-4 pubmed publisher
    ..present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans strains of the compound 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid (18-beta GA), derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza species...
  8. Cheng M, Gao X, Wang Y, Chen H, He B, Xu H, et al. Synthesis of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan 5-fluorouracil nanoparticles and its inhibition of liver cancer characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:3517-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used the chitosan and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS)...
  9. Du Y, Xia C, Zhao N, Dong Q, Lei M, Xia J. 18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid preferentially blocks late Na current generated by ?KPQ Nav1.5 channels. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:752-60 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of two stereoisomeric forms of glycyrrhetinic acid on different components of Na(+) current, HERG and Kv1.5 channel currents. Wild-type (WT) and long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT-3) mutant ?KPQ Nav1...
  10. Battaglia V, Brunati A, Fiore C, Rossi C, Salvi M, Tibaldi E, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid as inhibitor or amplifier of permeability transition in rat heart mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:313-23 pubmed
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid (GE), a hydrolysis product of glycyrrhizic acid, one of the main constituents of licorice root, is able, depending on its concentration, to prevent or to induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) (a ..
  11. Zhang C, Wang W, Liu T, Wu Y, Guo H, Wang P, et al. Doxorubicin-loaded glycyrrhetinic acid-modified alginate nanoparticles for liver tumor chemotherapy. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2187-96 pubmed publisher
    Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-modified alginate (ALG) nanoparticles (DOX/GA-ALG NPs) were prepared for targeting therapy of liver cancer...
  12. Luk J, Zhang Q, Lee N, Wo J, Leung P, Liu L, et al. Hepatic stellate cell-targeted delivery of M6P-HSA-glycyrrhetinic acid attenuates hepatic fibrogenesis in a bile duct ligation rat model. Liver Int. 2007;27:548-57 pubmed
    ..human serum albumin (M6P(26)-HSA) as a selective carrier to deliver antifibrotic drug 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) in experimental fibrosis animals, and tested its effect in injured liver tissues...
  13. Gumpricht E, Dahl R, Devereaux M, Sokol R. Licorice compounds glycyrrhizin and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid are potent modulators of bile acid-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10556-63 pubmed
    ..potential modulation by a primary component of licorice root, glycyrrhizin (GL), and its metabolite, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), in a hepatocyte model of cholestatic liver injury...
  14. Agarwal M, Iqbal M, Athar M. Inhibitory effect of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion in mice. Redox Rep. 2005;10:151-7 pubmed
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid is an aglycone of glycyrrhizic acid, another major active component of licorice roots. Licorice root extract has been used for a long time as a medicine and a natural sweetening additive...
  15. Ukil A, Biswas A, Das T, Das P. 18 Beta-glycyrrhetinic acid triggers curative Th1 response and nitric oxide up-regulation in experimental visceral leishmaniasis associated with the activation of NF-kappa B. J Immunol. 2005;175:1161-9 pubmed
    The efficacy of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a pentacyclic triterpene belonging to the beta-amyrin series of plant origin, was evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis...
  16. Um S, Park M, Park S, Han H, Kwon Y, Sin H. Synthesis of new glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives and their effects on tyrosinase activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003;11:5345-52 pubmed
    To synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives (3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, 15, and 16), we first removed the ketonic group in the C-11 position, and the carboxylic function at the C-30 position was kept intact, reduced to an alcohol, or ..
  17. Matchkov V, Rahman A, Peng H, Nilsson H, Aalkjaer C. Junctional and nonjunctional effects of heptanol and glycyrrhetinic acid derivates in rat mesenteric small arteries. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:961-72 pubmed
    1 Heptanol, 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18alphaGA) and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA) are known blockers of gap junctions, and are often used in vascular studies...
  18. Lallemand B, Ouédraogo M, Wauthoz N, Lamkami T, Mathieu V, Jabin I, et al. Synthesis and plasma pharmacokinetics in CD-1 mice of a 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid derivative displaying anti-cancer activity. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:402-10 pubmed publisher
    The plasma pharmacokinetic profile in CD-1 mice of a novel 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivative, which displays in?vitro anti-cancer activity, was assessed...
  19. Asl M, Hosseinzadeh H. Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res. 2008;22:709-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the phytochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetics data, together with the clinical and adverse effects of licorice and its bioactive components...
  20. Lee C, Kim Y, Lee M, Han E, Lee S. 18beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid induces apoptotic cell death in SiHa cells and exhibits a synergistic effect against antibiotic anti-cancer drug toxicity. Life Sci. 2008;83:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to assess the toxic effect of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid against human cervix and uterus tumor cell line SiHa cells in relation to the mitochondria-mediated cell-..
  21. Shaneyfelt M, Burke A, Graff J, Jutila M, Hardy M. Natural products that reduce rotavirus infectivity identified by a cell-based moderate-throughput screening assay. Virol J. 2006;3:68 pubmed
    ..Two of these four compounds, alpha-mangostin and 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, activated NFkappaB and induced IL-8 secretion...
  22. Yamaguchi H, Kidachi Y, Kamiie K, Noshita T, Umetsu H, Ryoyama K. Glycyrrhetinic acid induces anoikis-like death and cytoskeletal disruption in the central nervous system tumorigenic cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:321-4 pubmed
    We analyzed the effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a licorice compound, on the induction of anoikis-like death and cytoskeletal disruption in the central nervous system (CNS) tumorigenic cells...
  23. Kawakami F, Shimoyama Y, Ohtsuki K. Characterization of complement C3 as a glycyrrhizin (GL)-binding protein and the phosphorylation of C3alpha by CK-2, which is potently inhibited by GL and glycyrrhetinic acid in vitro. J Biochem. 2003;133:231-7 pubmed
    ..interaction between glycyrrhizin (GL) and serum complement C3, and the inhibitory effects of GL, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), and a GA derivative (oGA) on the phosphorylation of C3 by casein kinase 2 (CK-2), were investigated ..
  24. Xiao Y, Xu J, Mao C, Jin M, Wu Q, Zou J, et al. 18Beta-glycyrrhetinic acid ameliorates acute Propionibacterium acnes-induced liver injury through inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1128-37 pubmed publisher
    18Beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the major bioactive component of licorice root extract, has a protective effect on hepatic injury and exhibits antiinflammatory activity...
  25. Kawakami Z, Ikarashi Y, Kase Y. Glycyrrhizin and its metabolite 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in glycyrrhiza, a constituent herb of yokukansan, ameliorate thiamine deficiency-induced dysfunction of glutamate transport in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;626:154-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, glycyrrhizin and its metabolite 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (10(-7)-10(-4)M), among the eight components of glycyrrhiza, ameliorated the TD-induced decrease of ..
  26. Huang W, Wang W, Wang P, Tian Q, Zhang C, Wang C, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate) micelles for liver targeting therapy. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:3927-35 pubmed publisher
    Liver targeted micelles were successfully constructed via self-assembly of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate) (GA-PEG-PBLG) block co-polymers, which were fabricated via ring opening ..
  27. Huang W, Wang W, Wang P, Zhang C, Tian Q, Zhang Y, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid-functionalized degradable micelles as liver-targeted drug carrier. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, a liver targeting ligand) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate) micelles were ..
  28. Veratti E, Rossi T, Giudice S, Benassi L, Bertazzoni G, Morini D, et al. 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid and glabridin prevent oxidative DNA fragmentation in UVB-irradiated human keratinocyte cultures. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:2209-15 pubmed
    ..study aimed to investigate a possible protective activity of liquorice root extracts glycyrrhizin (GL), 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA) and glabridin (GLB) against UVB radiation damage in human keratinocyte cultures...
  29. Song D, Gao Y, Wang R, Liu D, Zhao L, Jing Y. Downregulation of c-FLIP, XIAP and Mcl-1 protein as well as depletion of reduced glutathione contribute to the apoptosis induction of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives in leukemia cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:96-108 pubmed
    The antiproliferative effects and apoptosis inducing abilities of four 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivatives, methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxooleana-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODO-Me-11), methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODO-..
  30. Kalani K, Agarwal J, Alam S, Khan F, Pal A, SRIVASTAVA S. In silico and in vivo anti-malarial studies of 18? glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74761 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycyrrhizaglabra were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a major constituent. The in vitro studies against P. falciparum showed significant (IC50 1...
  31. Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Safe S. Structure-dependent activity of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonists in colon cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1588-98 pubmed
    ..This compound and its hydrolysis product glycyrrhetinic acid have been associated with the multiple therapeutic properties of licorice extracts...
  32. Lallemand B, Gelbcke M, Dubois J, Prevost M, Jabin I, Kiss R. Structure-activity relationship analyses of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11:881-7 pubmed
    ..b>Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and some of its derivatives may offer hope in combating cancer types associated with poor prognoses...
  33. Tatsuzaki J, Taniguchi M, Bastow K, Nakagawa Goto K, Morris Natschke S, Itokawa H, et al. Anti-tumor agents 255: novel glycyrrhetinic acid-dehydrozingerone conjugates as cytotoxic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:6193-9 pubmed
    Esterification of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) with dehydrozingerone (DZ) resulted in a novel cytotoxic GA-DZ conjugate...
  34. Ukil A, Kar S, Srivastav S, Ghosh K, Das P. Curative effect of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis depends on phosphatase-dependent modulation of cellular MAP kinases. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29062 pubmed publisher
    We earlier showed that 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from licorice root, could completely cure visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mouse model...
  35. Logashenko E, Salomatina O, Markov A, Korchagina D, Salakhutdinov N, Tolstikov G, et al. Synthesis and pro-apoptotic activity of novel glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives. Chembiochem. 2011;12:784-94 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining modifications to both the A and C rings of 18?H-glycyrrhetinic acid, the novel synthetic derivative methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18?H-olean-9(11),1(2)-dien-30-oate was obtained...
  36. Chang Y, Chen C, Kuo C, Chen B, You J. Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits ICAM-1 expression via blocking JNK and NF-kappaB pathways in TNF-alpha-activated endothelial cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:546-53 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), an active component extracted from the root of Glycyrrhizae glabra, on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-..
  37. Chen S, Zou L, Li L, Wu T. The protective effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver fibrosis in mice via upregulation of Nrf2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53662 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and the role of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2(NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the regulation of Carbon ..
  38. Zhao X, Liu J, Hu Y, Fan Y, Wang D, Yuan J, et al. Optimization on condition of glycyrrhetinic acid liposome by RSM and the research of its immunological activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:299-304 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to prepare glycyrrhetinic acid liposome (GAL) and optimize the preparation condition and to investigate further whether liposome could promote the immunological activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)...
  39. Sasaki H, Suzuki N, Alshwaimi E, Xu Y, Battaglino R, Morse L, et al. 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits periodontitis via glucocorticoid-independent nuclear factor-?B inactivation in interleukin-10-deficient mice. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:757-63 pubmed publisher
    18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a natural anti-inflammatory compound derived from licorice root extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra). The effect of GA on experimental periodontitis and its mechanism of action were determined in the present study...
  40. Zhao X, Fan Y, Wang D, Hu Y, Guo L, Ruan S, et al. Immunological adjuvant efficacy of glycyrrhetinic acid liposome against Newcastle disease vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:9611-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the activity of inducing immune response of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) could be enhanced after GA was encapsulated with liposome...
  41. Behringer E, Socha M, Polo Parada L, Segal S. Electrical conduction along endothelial cell tubes from mouse feed arteries: confounding actions of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:774-87 pubmed publisher
  42. Mao S, Bi Y, Jin H, Wei D, He R, Hou S. Preparation, characterization and uptake by primary cultured rat hepatocytes of liposomes surface-modified with glycyrrhetinic acid. Pharmazie. 2007;62:614-9 pubmed
    3-succinyl-30-stearyl glycyrrhetinic acid (Suc-GLAOSt) was synthesized as a targeting molecule, and incorporated in ordinary to liposomes (LP) to prepare a liposome surface-modified with glycyrrhetinic acid (LP-GLA), which could bind to ..
  43. Kao T, Shyu M, Yen G. Neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in PC12 cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:754-61 pubmed publisher
    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA) are the bioactive compounds of licorice...
  44. Rossi T, Castelli M, Zandomeneghi G, Ruberto A, Benassi L, Magnoni C, et al. Selectivity of action of glycyrrhizin derivatives on the growth of MCF-7 and HEP-2 cells. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:3813-8 pubmed
    Since 1986, there have been reports in the literature that glycyrrhizin (GL), 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18 alpha-GA) and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18 beta-GA) can inhibit the growth of some murine tumours...
  45. Classen Houben D, Schuster D, Da Cunha T, Odermatt A, Wolber G, Jordis U, et al. Selective inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 by 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid but not 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;113:248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, natural compound-derived drug design has gained considerable interest. 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a metabolite of the natural product glycyrrhizin, is not selective and inhibits both 11beta-HSD1 and ..
  46. Kuang P, Zhao W, Su W, Zhang Z, Zhang L, Liu J, et al. 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma development by reversing hepatic stellate cell-mediated immunosuppression in mice. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1831-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study used mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) in vitro to demonstrate that 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) could reverse HSC-mediated immunosuppression by reducing T-cell apoptosis and regulatory T (Treg) ..
  47. Calo L, Zaghetto F, Pagnin E, Davis P, De Mozzi P, Sartorato P, et al. Effect of aldosterone and glycyrrhetinic acid on the protein expression of PAI-1 and p22(phox) in human mononuclear leukocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1973-6 pubmed
    ..38 +/- 0.05 and PAI-1/beta-actin = 1.80 +/- 0.05). The same effect was also found with 3 x 10(-5) M glycyrrhetinic acid, the principal constituent of licorice root (p22(phox)/beta-actin = 1.37 +/- 0.97 and PAI-1/beta-actin = 1...
  48. Kao T, Shyu M, Yen G. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit inflammation via PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta signaling and glucocorticoid receptor activation. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that GA and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18betaGA), found in licorice, can act as neuroprotective agents by promoting downstream PI3K/Akt signaling...
  49. Kalani K, Kushwaha V, Verma R, Murthy P, Srivastava S. Glycyrrhetinic acid and its analogs: a new class of antifilarial agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:2566-70 pubmed publisher
    ..chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an antifilarial agent, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, 1a) effective against microfilariae (mf) in vitro (LC100: 12.5 ?M; IC50: 1...
  50. Wang C, Kao T, Lo W, Yen G. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-?B through PI3K p110? and p110? inhibitions. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this work was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?GA) from licorice in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model...
  51. Yu T, Yamaguchi H, Noshita T, Kidachi Y, Umetsu H, Ryoyama K. Selective cytotoxicity of glycyrrhetinic acid against tumorigenic r/m HM-SFME-1 cells: potential involvement of H-Ras downregulation. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192:425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..r/m HM-SFME-1) cells were treated with various concentrations of clinically available antitumor agents or glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), and the antiproliferative effects of these compounds were determined by the MTT assay...
  52. Du Y, Zhang S, Wu H, Zou A, Lei M, Cheng L, et al. Glycyrretinic acid blocks cardiac sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:318-23 pubmed publisher
  53. Maatooq G, Marzouk A, Gray A, Rosazza J. Bioactive microbial metabolites from glycyrrhetinic acid. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:262-70 pubmed publisher
    Biotransformation of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, using Absidia pseudocylinderospora ATCC 24169, Gliocladium viride ATCC 10097 and Cunninghamella echinulata ATCC 8688a afforded seven metabolites, which were identified by different ..
  54. Huang S, Wu J, Hwang R, Yeo H, Wang S. Effects of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid on the junctional complex and steroidogenesis in rat adrenocortical cells. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:33-41 pubmed
    ..Treatment with 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, a gap junction inhibitor, reduced the immunoreactivity of these proteins in a time- and dose-dependent ..
  55. Hendricks J, Hoffman C, Pascual D, Hardy M. 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid delivered orally induces isolated lymphoid follicle maturation at the intestinal mucosa and attenuates rotavirus shedding. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49491 pubmed publisher
    ..component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA)...
  56. Park H, Park S, Yoon H, Han M, Kim D. Anti-allergic activity of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Arch Pharm Res. 2004;27:57-60 pubmed
    Glycyrrhizin (18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucuronide, GL) was transformed to 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (GAMG) by Streptococcus LJ-22...
  57. Sharma G, Kar S, Palit S, Das P. 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid induces apoptosis through modulation of Akt/FOXO3a/Bim pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigates the effect of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) a pentacyclic triterpenoid of the ?-amyrin type, isolated from the root of Licorice (Glycyrrhizza ..
  58. Hu G, Lin H, Sottas C, Morris D, Hardy M, Ge R. Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymatic activities by glycyrrhetinic acid in vivo supports direct glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. J Androl. 2008;29:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study tested whether inhibition of 11betaHSD1 in vivo, by the administration of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), increases intracellular active GC concentration and thereby affects serum T concentration and Leydig ..
  59. Lu Y, Li J, Wang G. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of mPEG-PLA modified liposomes loaded glycyrrhetinic acid. Int J Pharm. 2008;356:274-81 pubmed publisher
    In order to prolong the in vivo residence of glycyrrhetinic acid, a liposomes with surface modified by methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) (mPEG)-PLA was prepared for the first time...
  60. Wu X, Zhang L, Gurley E, Studer E, Shang J, Wang T, et al. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid through lysosomal and mitochondrial pathways. Hepatology. 2008;47:1905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we provide evidence that 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the biologically active metabolite of GL, prevented FFA-induced lipid accumulation and cell apoptosis ..
  61. Li H, Qiu J, Yang Z, Dong J, Wang J, Luo M, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:241-8 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) against Staphylococcus aureus, and its influence on the production of S...
  62. Lin K, Huang A, Hour T, Yang S, Pu Y, Lin C. 18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated p53 activation in NTUB1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:4274-85 pubmed publisher
    Twenty six 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) (1) derivatives 2-27 including twelve new GA derivatives 10, 11, 13-17, 21-25 were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicities against NTUB1 cells (human bladder cancer cell lines)...
  63. Parisella M, Angelone T, Gattuso A, Cerra M, Pellegrino D. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid directly modulate rat cardiac performance. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, glycyrrhizin and its aglycone, glycyrrhetinic acid, exhibit well-known cardiovascular properties...
  64. Puglia C, Ostacolo C, Sacchi A, Laneri S, Bonina F. In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of oligoethylene esters as dermal prodrugs of 18beta-glycyrrhetic acid. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:311-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we observed an appreciable and sustained in-vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity of esters 1b and 1c compared with the parent drug. ..
  65. Tabuchi M, Imamura S, Kawakami Z, Ikarashi Y, Kase Y. The blood-brain barrier permeability of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid, a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhiza root, a constituent of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:1139-46 pubmed
    18?-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin (GL), which is one of the components of glycyrrhiza root, a constituent herb of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan...
  66. Lallemand B, Chaix F, Bury M, Bruyère C, Ghostin J, Becker J, et al. N-(2-{3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}ethyl)-glycyrrhetinamide (6b): a novel anticancer glycyrrhetinic acid derivative that targets the proteasome and displays anti-kinase activity. J Med Chem. 2011;54:6501-13 pubmed publisher
    18-?-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; 1) and many of its derivatives are cytotoxic in cancer cells. The current study aims to characterize the anticancer effects of 17 novel 1 derivatives...
  67. Jutooru I, Chadalapaka G, Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Safe S. Induction of apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 in pancreatic cancer cells by a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48:692-702 pubmed publisher
    Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18beta-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me) is a synthetic triterpenoid derived from glycyrrhetinic acid, a bioactive phytochemical in licorice, CDODA-Me inhibits growth of Panc1 and Panc28 pancreatic cancer cell ..
  68. Lu Y, Zhu J, Chen X, Li N, Fu F, He J, et al. Identification of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms responsible for the glucuronidation of glycyrrhetinic acid. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2009;24:523-8 pubmed
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active metabolite of glycyrrhizin, is primarily eliminated by glucuronidation reaction in vivo...
  69. He Z, Zheng X, Wu X, Song X, He G, Wu W, et al. Development of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified stealth cationic liposomes for gene delivery. Int J Pharm. 2010;397:147-54 pubmed publisher
    The glycyrrhetinic acid-modified stealth cationic liposomes (GA-PEG-CLs) loaded with pDNA (GA-PEG-CLPs) were developed and found to transfect human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 with high efficiency...
  70. Kalaiarasi P, Pugalendi K. Antihyperglycemic effect of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, aglycone of glycyrrhizin, on streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;606:269-73 pubmed publisher
    The study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, aglycone of glycyrrhizin, on streptozotocin-diabetic rats...
  71. Chadalapaka G, Jutooru I, McAlees A, Stefanac T, Safe S. Structure-dependent inhibition of bladder and pancreatic cancer cell growth by 2-substituted glycyrrhetinic and ursolic acid derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:2633-9 pubmed publisher
    Derivatives of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid substituted with electron-withdrawing groups at the 2-position in the A-ring which also contains a 1-en-3-one structure are potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth...
  72. Zhang L, Yao J, Zhou J, Wang T, Zhang Q. Glycyrrhetinic acid-graft-hyaluronic acid conjugate as a carrier for synergistic targeted delivery of antitumor drugs. Int J Pharm. 2013;441:654-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycyrrhetinic acid-graft-hyaluronic acid (HGA) conjugate was synthesized as a carrier for intravenous administration of paclitaxel (PTX), which combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as the active targeting ligands ..
  73. Tian Q, Wang X, Wang W, Zhang C, Liu Y, Yuan Z. Insight into glycyrrhetinic acid: the role of the hydroxyl group on liver targeting. Int J Pharm. 2010;400:153-7 pubmed publisher
    Two kinds of glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles (CTS/PEG-GA NPs) were prepared by an ionic gelation process in which the liver targeting ligand glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) was introduced into the ..
  74. Matsui S, Matsumoto H, Sonoda Y, Ando K, Aizu Yokota E, Sato T, et al. Glycyrrhizin and related compounds down-regulate production of inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and eotaxin 1 in a human lung fibroblast cell line. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1633-44 pubmed
  75. Csuk R, Schwarz S, Kluge R, Ströhl D. Synthesis and biological activity of some antitumor active derivatives from glycyrrhetinic acid. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:5718-23 pubmed publisher
    Aminoalkyl substituted derivatives were synthesized starting from glycyrrhetinic acid methyl ester and screened for antitumor activity in a panel of 15 human cancer cell lines by an SRB assay...