Summary: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.

Top Publications

  1. Battinelli L, Mengoni F, Lichtner M, Mazzanti G, Saija A, Mastroianni C, et al. Effect of limonin and nomilin on HIV-1 replication on infected human mononuclear cells. Planta Med. 2003;69:910-3 pubmed
    ..In general, the results obtained point out a similar anti-HIV activity of limonin and nomilin indicating that this activity is not drastically influenced by the structural difference between the two compounds. ..
  2. Vikram A, Jesudhasan P, Jayaprakasha G, Pillai S, Patil B. Citrus limonoids interfere with Vibrio harveyi cell-cell signalling and biofilm formation by modulating the response regulator LuxO. Microbiology. 2011;157:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that isolimonic acid and ichangin are potent modulators of bacterial cell-cell signalling. ..
  3. Hieronymus H, Lamb J, Ross K, Peng X, Clement C, Rodina A, et al. Gene expression signature-based chemical genomic prediction identifies a novel class of HSP90 pathway modulators. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:321-30 pubmed
    ..Validating this prediction, we demonstrate that celastrol and gedunin inhibit HSP90 activity and HSP90 clients, including AR. Broadly, this work identifies new modes of HSP90 modulation through a gene expression-based strategy. ..
  4. Lucantoni L, Giusti F, Cristofaro M, Pasqualini L, Esposito F, Lupetti P, et al. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Tissue Cell. 2006;38:361-71 pubmed
    ..In agreement with results obtained in other insects, this study indicates that Neem Azal) impairs hormone control of oogenesis and exerts a cytotoxic effect on both follicular cells and oocytes of the Asian malaria vector A. stephensi. ..
  5. Robertson S, Ni W, Dhadialla T, Nisbet A, McCusker C, Ley S, et al. Identification of a putative azadirachtin-binding complex from Drosophila Kc167 cells. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007;64:200-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of the members of this complex by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) and N-terminal sequencing identified heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) as one of its components. ..
  6. Raman G, Cho M, Brodbelt J, Patil B. Isolation and purification of closely related citrus limonoid glucosides by flash chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2005;16:155-60 pubmed
    ..The closely eluting glucosides were successfully separated to achieve a good yield and purity of 93%. ..
  7. Vikram A, Jayaprakasha G, Patil B. Simultaneous determination of citrus limonoid aglycones and glucosides by high performance liquid chromatography. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;590:180-6 pubmed
    ..Limonin and limonin glucoside were found to be the predominant limonoid aglycone and glucoside, respectively, in all tested samples. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.25-0.50 microg for tested limonoids. ..
  8. Anuradha A, Annadurai R, Shashidhara L. Actin cytoskeleton as a putative target of the neem limonoid Azadirachtin A. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:627-34 pubmed
    ..Cyclin E, which caused global rescue of Azadirachtin A-induced phenotypes, also effected rearrangement of the actin filaments. These results suggest that probably actin is a target of Azadirachtin A activity. ..
  9. Poulose S, Harris E, Patil B. Citrus limonoids induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells and have radical scavenging activity. J Nutr. 2005;135:870-7 pubmed
    ..Individual limonoid glucosides differ in efficacy as anticancer agents, and this difference may reside in structural variations in the A ring of the limonoid molecule. ..

More Information


  1. Pravin Kumar R, Manoj M, Kush A, Annadurai R. In silico approach of azadirachtin binding with actins. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:635-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a model to support the recently observed biological effects caused by Aza in Drosophila cytoskeletal elements and explain why Aza is highly specific to insects than mammals. ..
  2. Perez J, Jayaprakasha G, Valdivia V, Munoz D, Dandekar D, AHMAD H, et al. Limonin methoxylation influences the induction of glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that modification of limonin has differential induction of phase II enzymes. These findings are indicative of a possible mechanism for the prevention of cancer by aiding in the detoxification of xenobiotics. ..
  3. Priyadarsini R, Murugan R, Sripriya P, Karunagaran D, Nagini S. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide induce cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Free Radic Res. 2010;44:624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Antioxidants such as azadirachtin and nimbolide that can simultaneously arrest the cell cycle and target multiple molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis offer immense potential as anti-cancer therapeutic drugs. ..
  4. Lamb J, Crawford E, Peck D, Modell J, Blat I, Wrobel M, et al. The Connectivity Map: using gene-expression signatures to connect small molecules, genes, and disease. Science. 2006;313:1929-35 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the feasibility of the approach and suggest the value of a large-scale community Connectivity Map project. ..
  5. Cordeiro E, Corrêa A, Venzon M, Guedes R. Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana. Chemosphere. 2010;81:1352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment, and non-target sub-lethal effects should not be neglected when considering potential insecticide use in agriculture. ..
  6. Roy A, Saraf S. Limonoids: overview of significant bioactive triterpenes distributed in plants kingdom. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:191-201 pubmed
  7. Vanamala J, Leonardi T, Patil B, Taddeo S, Murphy M, Pike L, et al. Suppression of colon carcinogenesis by bioactive compounds in grapefruit. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1257-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that consumption of grapefruit or limonin may help to suppress colon cancer development...
  8. Vikram A, Jesudhasan P, Jayaprakasha G, Pillai B, Patil B. Grapefruit bioactive limonoids modulate E. coli O157:H7 TTSS and biofilm. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;140:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that certain grapefruit limonoids may possibly help in antagonizing the EHEC infection process, and may serve as lead compound in development of new antipathogenic molecules. ..
  9. Senthil Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Chung P, Murugan K. Effect of neem limonoids on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Chemosphere. 2006;62:1388-93 pubmed
    ..Azadirachtin was the most potent in of all the limonoids in all experiments indicating strong enzyme inhibition. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to LDH activity. ..
  10. Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Murugan K. Effects of neem limonoids on the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop. 2005;96:47-55 pubmed
    ..In general, first to third larval instars were more susceptible to the neem limonoids. Neem products may have benefits in mosquito control programs. ..
  11. Priyadarsini R, Manikandan P, Kumar G, Nagini S. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage, antioxidants, invasion and angiogenesis. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:492-504 pubmed publisher
    ..On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antioxidant and chemopreventive agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer...
  12. Uddin S, Nahar L, Shilpi J, Shoeb M, Borkowski T, Gibbons S, et al. Gedunin, a limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum, inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line in vitro. Phytother Res. 2007;21:757-61 pubmed
    ..83 microM). A summary of the biological activities of gedunin reported to date is also presented...
  13. Harish Kumar G, Vidya Priyadarsini R, Vinothini G, Vidjaya Letchoumy P, Nagini S. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in an animal model of oral oncogenesis. Invest New Drugs. 2010;28:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..On a comparative basis, nimbolide was found to be a more potent antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing agent and offers promise as a candidate agent in multitargeted prevention and treatment of cancer. ..
  14. Manners G. Citrus limonoids: analysis, bioactivity, and biomedical prospects. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8285-94 pubmed
    ..This review chronicles the evolution of citrus limonoid research from defining their participation in citrus bitterness to their potential utilization as important contributors to improving human health and well-being. ..
  15. Vikram A, Jayaprakasha G, Jesudhasan P, Pillai S, Patil B. Obacunone represses Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 in an envZ-dependent fashion. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:7012-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results of the study seems to suggest that obacunone exerts an antivirulence effect on S. Typhimurium and may serve as a lead compound for development of antivirulence strategies for S. Typhimurium. ..
  16. Bickii J, Njifutie N, Foyere J, Basco L, Ringwald P. In vitro antimalarial activity of limonoids from Khaya grandifoliola C.D.C. (Meliaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;69:27-33 pubmed
    ..Five limonoids (1, 3, 5, 6, 8) were active with IC50 values between 1.25 and 9.63 microg/ml. Catechin was practically devoid of activity. The most active limonoid, gedunin, exhibited an additive effect when combined with chloroquine. ..
  17. Miller E, Porter J, Binnie W, Guo I, Hasegawa S. Further studies on the anticancer activity of citrus limonoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:4908-12 pubmed
    ..05. Overall, the data indicated that changes in the A ring of the limonoid nucleus can lead to a loss of anticancer activity, whereas changes in the D ring can be tolerated without any apparent loss of biological activity. ..
  18. Billker O, Shaw M, Jones I, Ley S, Mordue A, Sinden R. Azadirachtin disrupts formation of organised microtubule arrays during microgametogenesis of Plasmodium berghei. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002;49:489-97 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that azadarachtin specifically disrupts the patterning of microtubules into more complex structures, such as mitotic spindles and axonemes. ..
  19. Miller E, Fanous R, Rivera Hidalgo F, Binnie W, Hasegawa S, Lam L. The effect of citrus limonoids on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1535-7 pubmed
    ..The results for group III showed that nomilin was considerably less effective as an inhibitor of DMBA-induced neoplasia. ..
  20. Manners G, Jacob R, Breksa A, Schoch T, Hasegawa S. Bioavailability of citrus limonoids in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4156-61 pubmed
    ..13 nmol/L and is hypothesized to be a limonin epimer. Poststudy health evaluation established no ill effects among study subjects consuming high doses of limonin glucoside. ..
  21. Lam L, Hasegawa S. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in mice by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer. 1989;12:43-7 pubmed
    ..Limonin, which is a weak enzyme inducer, was less potent as an inhibitor of BP-induced neoplasia. These findings suggest limonoids as a class of regularly consumed natural products may be effective chemopreventive agents. ..
  22. Mitchell M, Smith S, Johnson S, Morgan E. Effects of the neem tree compounds azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin, and 6-desacetylnimbin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1997;35:199-209 pubmed
    ..The concentration of these compounds required to elicit a 50% inhibition of this steroid hydroxylase activity in the three insect species examined ranged from approximately 2 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3). ..
  23. Mackinnon S, Durst T, Arnason J, Angerhofer C, Pezzuto J, Sanchez Vindas P, et al. Antimalarial activity of tropical Meliaceae extracts and gedunin derivatives. J Nat Prod. 1997;60:336-41 pubmed
    ..Only gedunin had better activity than chloroquine against the W2 clone. This active principle could be used to standardize a popular crude drug based on traditional use of A. indica in West Africa. ..
  24. Tian Q, Miller E, Ahmad H, Tang L, Patil B. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40:180-4 pubmed
    ..Further work is needed in this area to establish the mechanism of action of citrus limonoids on human breast cancer cells. ..
  25. Kaushik N. Determination of azadirachtin and fatty acid methyl esters of Azadirachta indica seeds by HPLC and GLC. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002;374:1199-204 pubmed
    ..The peaks are detected using an FID. Both the methods do not require any clean up or defatting of seeds. This results in faster, easier and more economical sample preparation. ..
  26. Koul O, Multani J, Singh G, Daniewski W, Berlozecki S. 6beta-hydroxygedunin from Azadirachta indica. Its potentiation effects with some non-azadirachtin limonoids in neem against lepidopteran larvae. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2937-42 pubmed
  27. Medina P, Budia F, del Estal P, Vinuela E. Influence of azadirachtin, a botanical insecticide, on Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) reproduction: toxicity and ultrastructural approach. J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:43-50 pubmed
    ..The role of azadirachtin as a compound that may influence several hormonal and protein titers involved in reproduction is also discussed. ..
  28. Barquero A, Alché L, Coto C. Block of vesicular stomatitis virus endocytic and exocytic pathways by 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin, a tetranortriterpenoid of natural origin. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:483-93 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that CDM exerts its antiviral action on the endocytic and exocytic pathways of VSV by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. ..
  29. Salehzadeh A, Akhkha A, Cushley W, Adams R, Kusel J, Strang R. The antimitotic effect of the neem terpenoid azadirachtin on cultured insect cells. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:681-9 pubmed
    ..Another similarity between azdirachtin and colchicine was that both phytochemicals prevented the polymerisatrion in vitro of mammalian tubulin, although the azadirachtin was much less effective. ..
  30. Tanaka T, Kohno H, Tsukio Y, Honjo S, Tanino M, Miyake M, et al. Citrus limonoids obacunone and limonin inhibit azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Biofactors. 2000;13:213-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, citrus bitter limonoids obacunone and limonin possess chemopreventive effects on chemically induced rat colon carcinogenesis. ..
  31. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W. [Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010;35:2061-4 pubmed
    ..94%, 101.17%, 96.22% and 98.90%, respectively. The method is simple, accurate and repeatable, and can be used in content determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex. ..
  32. Kamminga K, Herbert D, Kuhar T, Malone S, Doughty H. Toxicity, feeding preference, and repellency associated with selected organic insecticides against Acrosternum hilare and Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:1915-21 pubmed
    ..for up to 2 d after treatment; however, none of the insecticides reduced stink bug damage to fruit in tomatoes even after multiple applications. Implications for organic growers and integrated pest management programs are discussed. ..
  33. Ge Y, Liu K, Zhang J, Mu S, Hao X. The limonoids and their antitobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities from Munronia unifoliolata Oliv. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:4289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Six compounds (1-5 and 8) exhibited infection inhibition activities against TMV...
  34. Yi F, Zou C, Hu Q, Hu M. The joint action of destruxins and botanical insecticides (rotenone, azadirachtin and paeonolum) against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Molecules. 2012;17:7533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 ?g/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality. ..
  35. Breksa A, Manners G. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of limonin, nomilin, and limonin glucoside. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:3827-31 pubmed
    ..Limonin glucoside was deemed not to be an antioxidant on the basis of the three unequivocal assays. ..
  36. Tundis R, Loizzo M, Menichini F. An overview on chemical aspects and potential health benefits of limonoids and their derivatives. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54:225-50 pubmed publisher
  37. Han M, Shen Y, Wang G, Leng Y, Zhang H, Yue J. 11?-HSD1 inhibitors from Walsura cochinchinensis. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:1319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these compounds, cochinchinoid K (12) displayed inhibitory activity against mouse 11?-HSD1 with an IC50 value of 0.82 ?M. ..
  38. Ning J, Di Y, Wang Y, He H, Fang X, Li Y, et al. Cytotoxic activity of trijugin-type limonoids from Cipadessa baccifera. Planta Med. 2010;76:1907-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro cytotoxicity of compounds 1-4 was also tested. Compound 1 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, SW480, HL-60, and SMMC-7721 cells, with IC(50) values of 5.0, 6.6, 4.5, and 21.6?µM, respectively. ..
  39. Sarria A, Soares M, Matos A, Fernandes J, Vieira P, da Silva M. Effect of triterpenoids and limonoids isolated from Cabralea canjerana and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Z Naturforsch C. 2011;66:245-50 pubmed
    ..2 days at 50.0 mg kg(-1). The highest insecticidal activity was obtained for beta-photogedunin. ..
  40. Lu H, Liu F, Zhu S, Zhang Q. [Effects of azadirachtin on rice plant volatiles induced by Nilaparvata lugens]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2010;21:197-202 pubmed
    ..Azadirachtin concentration, rice variety, and N. lugens density had significant interactions on the relative concentrations of all test N. lugens-induced volatiles. ..
  41. Harish Kumar G, Chandra Mohan K, Jagannadha Rao A, Nagini S. Nimbolide a limonoid from Azadirachta indica inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Invest New Drugs. 2009;27:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that nimbolide has immense potential in cancer prevention and therapy based on its antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects...
  42. Terra W, Vieira I, Braz Filho R, Freitas W, Kanashiro M, Torres M. Lepidotrichilins A and B, new protolimonoids with cytotoxic activity from Trichilia lepidota (Meliaceae). Molecules. 2013;18:12180-91 pubmed publisher
    ..7 µg mL(-1)) and the protolimonoid deoxy-flindissone (6; IC?? 9.3 µgmL(-1)) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the MOLT-4 and U937 leukemic cell lines. ..
  43. Athanassiou C, Kontodimas D, Kavallieratos N, Veroniki M. Insecticidal effect of NeemAzal against three stored-product beetle species on rye and oats. J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:1733-8 pubmed
    ..For all species, significantly less progeny were recorded in the treated grains than in the untreated grains, with the exception of T. confusum on oats where offspring was significantly reduced only at the highest rate. ..
  44. Kiplimo J, Shahidul Islam M, Koorbanally N. Ring A-seco limonoids and flavonoids from the Kenyan Vepris uguenensis Engl. and their antioxidant activity. Phytochemistry. 2012;83:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..62 ?g mL?¹ when tested with the deoxyribose method. The two liminoids fit nicely into the biosynthetic pathway from niloticin to methyl uguenenoate. ..
  45. Luo J, Wang J, Wang L, Kong L. [Two new phragmalin-type limonoid orthesters from Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011;46:183-7 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D spectroscopic analyses which included HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments and HR-ESI-MS. ..
  46. Liu S, Zhou L, Zhang J, Yu B, Li C, Liu Z, et al. Determination of limonin in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013;27:515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4% for limonin. The inter- and intra-day precision of the method at three concentrations was less than 9.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of limonin in dogs. ..
  47. Srivastava M, Raizada R. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:465-71 pubmed
    ..Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide. ..
  48. Ruiu L, Satta A, Floris I. Comparative applications of azadirachtin- and Brevibacillus laterosporus-based formulations for house fly management experiments in dairy farms. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:345-50 pubmed
    ..laterosporus (46%), compared with the control. Formulations were applied at a dosage of 3 liters/m2, and concentrations of 2 x 10(8) B. laterosporus spores/ml and 25 microg azadirachtin/ml, respectively. ..
  49. Vanamala J, Cobb G, Turner N, Lupton J, Yoo K, Pike L, et al. Bioactive compounds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Cv. Rio Red) respond differently to postharvest irradiation, storage, and freeze drying. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:3980-5 pubmed
    ..These results warrant testing of the effect of postharvest treatments and processing on bioactive compounds in functional systems as they have varied effects on different bioactive compounds of grapefruit...
  50. Andrade Coelho C, de Souza N, Feder M, da Silva C, Garcia E, Azambuja P, et al. Effects of azadirachtin on the development and mortality of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). J Med Entomol. 2006;43:262-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent growth inhibitor of L. longipalpis. ..
  51. Saad A, Massoud M, Abdel Megeed A, Hamid N, Mourad A, Barakat A. Abamectin, pymetrozine and azadirachtin sequence as a unique solution to control the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) infesting garden beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72:583-93 pubmed Egypt. ..
  52. Patil J, Chidambara Murthy K, Jayaprakasha G, Chetti M, Patil B. Bioactive compounds from Mexican lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ) juice induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:10933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study clearly indicate that antioxidant activity is proportionate to the content of flavonoids and proliferation inhibition ability is proportionate to the content of both flavonoids and limonoids. ..
  53. Kumar J, Shakil N, Singh M, Singh M, Pandey A, Pandey R. Development of controlled release formulations of azadirachtin-A employing poly(ethylene glycol) based amphiphilic copolymers. J Environ Sci Health B. 2010;45:310-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05 to 42.80 days in water from different matrices. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of azadirachtin-A can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. ..
  54. Nsiama T, Okamura H, Hamada T, Morimoto Y, Doe M, Iwagawa T, et al. Rings D-seco and B,D-seco tetranortriterpenoids from root bark of Entandrophragma angolense. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:1854-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Their structures were established by extensive NMR experiments in conjunction with mass spectrometry. Entangosin is a rare example of a limonoid derivative having a fully O-substituted furan moiety. ..
  55. Nagoor N, Shah Jehan Muttiah N, Lim C, In L, Mohamad K, Mohammad K, et al. Regulation of apoptotic effects by erythrocarpine E, a cytotoxic limonoid from Chisocheton erythrocarpus in HSC-4 human oral cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23661 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and apoptotic ability of erythrocarpine E, and suggest its potential development as a cancer chemopreventive agent. ..
  56. Shukla V, Yadav R, Yadav P, Pandey A. Green synthesis of nanosilver as a sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in water. J Hazard Mater. 2012;213-214:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The produced nanosilver is stable and comparable in size. These silver nanoparticles show potential applications in the field of sensors, catalysis, fuel cells and nanodevices. ..
  57. Peng J, Wang J, Mei W, Kong F, Liu Z, Wang P, et al. Two new phragmalin-type limonoids from Chukrasia tabularis and their ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2016;18:629-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.15 and 0.03 mM, respectively (acarbose as positive control, IC50 0.95 mM). ..
  58. Zhang J, Ahn K, Kim C, Shanmugam M, Siveen K, Arfuso F, et al. Nimbolide-Induced Oxidative Stress Abrogates STAT3 Signaling Cascade and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016;24:575-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings indicate that NL exhibits significant anticancer effects in PCa that may be primarily mediated through the ROS-regulated inhibition of STAT3 signaling cascade. ..
  59. Nicolaou K, Sasmal P, Roecker A, Sun X, Mandal S, Converso A. Studies toward the synthesis of azadirachtin, part 1: total synthesis of a fully functionalized ABC ring framework and coupling with a norbornene domain. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2005;44:3443-7 pubmed
  60. Deota P, Upadhyay P. Biological studies of azadirachtin and its derivatives against polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura. Nat Prod Res. 2005;19:529-39 pubmed
    ..The present study indicates that the combination of insect toxicity and antifeedancy of azadirachtin provides good crop protection. ..
  61. Poulose S, Harris E, Patil B. Antiproliferative effects of citrus limonoids against human neuroblastoma and colonic adenocarcinoma cells. Nutr Cancer. 2006;56:103-12 pubmed
    ..Of the two, metabolites derived from glucosides are the more likely progenitors of an apoptosis response in situ. ..
  62. Hay A, Ioset J, Ahua K, Diallo D, Brun R, Hostettmann K. Limonoid orthoacetates and antiprotozoal compounds from the roots of Pseudocedrela kotschyi. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:9-13 pubmed
    ..The crude extract and the two gedunin derivatives exhibited good in vitro activity against all of these parasites. ..
  63. Teng J, Yang X. A new limonoid from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. Pharmazie. 2006;61:1038-40 pubmed
    ..Shihulimonin A of known structure was also isolated from the unripe fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa for the first time. ..
  64. Tappin M, Nakamura M, Siani A, Lucchetti L. Development of an HPLC method for the determination of tetranortriterpenoids in Carapa guianensis seed oil by experimental design. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;48:1090-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work is to develop a HPLC method for the determination of tetranortriterpenoids in "andiroba" oil, by means of central composite experimental design, as well as to prevalidate this method. ..
  65. Severino V, Cazal C, Forim M, da Silva M, Rodrigues Filho E, Fernandes J, et al. Isolation of secondary metabolites from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) leaves through high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:4275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..2%, 93.1%, 102.5%, 101.2%, 99.0% and 84.9%, respectively. Compound 3 showed IC(50) of 23.6microM against Plasmodium falciparum and 15.6microM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesienses and was not toxic to KB cells (IC(50)>100microM). ..
  66. Malik M, Ganguli A, Ghosh M. Modeling of permeabilization process in Pseudomonas putida G7 for enhanced limonin bioconversion. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are promising for refining permeabilization technique for whole cell biocatalysts thereby improving the debittering of citrus juices significantly. ..
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    ..These data suggest that phytochemicals such as nimbolide that can target multiple steps along the NF-?B signaling circuit are promising candidates for future phytochemical-based mechanistic pathway targeted anticancer regimens. ..
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    ..This method enables to deacetylate without affecting other functional groups such as ?,?-unsaturated ketone, ester, ether, etc. in certain tetranortriterpenoids and other acetate-containing natural compounds. ..