Summary: Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.

Top Publications

  1. Wang W, Rayburn E, Zhao Y, Wang H, Zhang R. Novel ginsenosides 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD as experimental therapy for pancreatic cancer: anticancer activity and mechanisms of action. Cancer Lett. 2009;278:241-248 pubmed publisher
    We recently isolated and characterized two novel ginsenosides, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH(3)-PPD. We investigated whether these ginsenosides could represent safe and effective therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer...
  2. Yoon M, Huang L, Choi J, Lee H, Kim W, Kim C. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal ginsenosides through alpha-2 adrenoceptors in the formalin test of rats. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:371-9 pubmed publisher
    We defined the nature of the pharmacological interaction after intrathecal co-administration of ginsenosides with clonidine, and clarified the contribution of the ?-2 adrenoceptors on the effect of ginsenosides...
  3. Li C, Zhu Y, Guo X, Sun C, Luo H, Song J, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals ginsenosides biosynthetic genes, microRNAs and simple sequence repeats in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:245 pubmed publisher
    ..ginseng. Finally, the analysis of simple sequence repeats will provide genetic makers for molecular breeding and genetic applications in this species. ..
  4. Jin X, Yu H, Wang D, Liu T, Liu C, An D, et al. Kinetics of a cloned special ginsenosidase hydrolyzing 3-O-glucoside of multi-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides, named ginsenosidase type III. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:343-51 pubmed
    ..special glucosidase, named ginsenosidase type III hydrolyzing 3-O-glucoside of multi-protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, were investigated...
  5. Park H, Kim S, Kim J, Kang H. Reactive oxygen species mediated ginsenoside Rg3- and Rh2-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells through mitochondrial signaling pathways. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:2736-41 pubmed publisher
    Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) has anti-cancer effects in several cancer models. Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in P. ginseng...
  6. Park H, Kim S, Mun A, Go H, Kim G, Kim S, et al. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:1071-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenosides (Rg3 and Rh2) on EtOH-induced injury to mouse hepatocytes (TIB-73)...
  7. Hu Z, Yang J, Cheng C, Huang Y, Du F, Wang F, et al. Combinatorial metabolism notably affects human systemic exposure to ginsenosides from orally administered extract of Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi). Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:1457-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides are medicinal ingredients of the cardiovascular herb Panax notoginseng roots (Sanqi). Here, we implemented a human study (ChiCTR-ONC-09000603; www.chictr...
  8. Kawase A, Yamada A, Gamou Y, Tahara C, Takeshita F, Murata K, et al. Effects of ginsenosides on the expression of cytochrome P450s and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. J Nat Med. 2014;68:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We further examined which ginsenosides contributed to the upregulation of CYP8B1 and MRP2 mRNA levels...
  9. Im D, Nah S. Yin and Yang of ginseng pharmacology: ginsenosides vs gintonin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:1367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacologic studies in the last decades have shown that ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are primarily responsible for the actions of ginseng...

More Information


  1. Choi J, Chun K, Kundu J, Kundu J. Biochemical basis of cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy with ginsenosides (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2013;32:1227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), which contains a wide variety of saponins, known as ginsenosides, is an age-old remedy for human ailments, including cancer...
  2. Bae S, Zheng Y, Yoo Y, Kim J, Kim S, Jang M, et al. Stereoselective determination of ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 epimers in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study. J Sep Sci. 2013;36:1904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report on the separation and simultaneous quantification of R-Rg3, S-Rg3, R-Rh2, and S-Rh2 in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. The method should be useful in the clinical use of ginseng or its derivatives. ..
  3. Liu C, Zhang M, Hu M, Guo H, Li J, Yu Y, et al. Increased glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion may be involved in antidiabetic effects of ginsenosides. J Endocrinol. 2013;217:185-96 pubmed publisher
    Panax ginseng is one of the most popular herbal remedies. Ginsenosides, major bioactive constituents in P. ginseng, have shown good antidiabetic action, but the precise mechanism was not fully understood...
  4. Kim E, Jung I, Van Le T, Jeong J, Kim N, Kim D. Ginsenosides Rg5 and Rh3 protect scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore whether ginsenosides Rg5 and Rh3, the main constituents of heat-processed ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng), could protect memory ..
  5. Yang N, Chen P, Tao Z, Zhou N, Gong X, Xu Z, et al. Beneficial effects of ginsenoside-Rg1 on ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:999-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Rg1 may be used as a novel and useful adjunctive drug for the therapy of peripheral arterial disease in DM. ..
  6. Wu W, Qin Q, Guo Y, Sun J, Liu S. Studies on the chemical transformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides R(e), R(g2), and R(f) using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS). J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..method was developed for analysis of chemical transformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides Re, Rg2, and Rf in acidic conditions...
  7. Su F, Yuan L, Zhang L, Hu S. Ginsenosides Rg1 and Re act as adjuvant via TLR4 signaling pathway. Vaccine. 2012;30:4106-12 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenosides Rg1 and Re extracted from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer have adjuvant properties. However, the molecular mechanisms behind their adjuvant activities remain unclear...
  8. Saw C, Yang A, Cheng D, Boyanapalli S, Su Z, Khor T, et al. Pharmacodynamics of ginsenosides: antioxidant activities, activation of Nrf2, and potential synergistic effects of combinations. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the potential activation and synergism of Nrf2-ARE-mediated transcriptional activity between three common ginsenosides present in ginseng, ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), and ginsenoside 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (20S)...
  9. Zhao J, Su C, Yang C, Liu M, Tang L, Su W, et al. Determination of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rb3 in rat plasma by a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method: Application in a pharmacokinetic study. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;64-65:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both intra-day and inter-day variances were less than 15% and the accuracy was within 86-114% for the three ginsenosides. All three ginsenosides had poor oral bioavailability (0.78%, 0.08%, and 0...
  10. Wang X, Zeng C, Lin J, Chen T, Zhao T, Jia Z, et al. Metabonomics approach to assessing the modulatory effects of St John's wort, ginsenosides, and clomipramine in experimental depression. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:6223-30 pubmed publisher
    The protective effects of St John's Wort extract (SJ), ginsenosides (GS), and clomipramine (CPM) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in rats were investigated by using a combination of behavioral assessments and ..
  11. Endale M, Lee W, Kamruzzaman S, Kim S, Park J, Park M, et al. Ginsenoside-Rp1 inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation via impaired glycoprotein VI signalling pathway, tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPK activation. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:109-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides are the main constituents for the pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng. Such effects of ginsenosides including cardioprotective and anti-platelet activities have shown stability and bioavailability limitations...
  12. Lee B, Shim I, Lee H, Hahm D. Effect of ginsenoside Re on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognition memory deficit induced by repeated immobilization in rats. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:708-20 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that GRe may be a useful agent for treating complex symptoms of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. ..
  13. Zhang X, Xing Y, Gong L, Li H, Wu Z, Li Y, et al. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 or 17?-estradiol on a cognitively impaired, ovariectomized rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience. 2012;220:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and E2 on AD rats and support the potential application of ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of learning and memory impairments in postmenopausal women. ..
  14. Cui C, Kim S, Im W. Characterization of the ginsenoside-transforming recombinant ?-glucosidase from Actinosynnema mirum and bioconversion of major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant ?-glucosidase from Actinosynnema mirum KACC 20028(T) in order to biotransform ginsenosides efficiently...
  15. Liu Z, Li W, Li X, Zhang M, Chen L, Zheng Y, et al. Antidiabetic effects of malonyl ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on type 2 diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Xiao-ke' symptom, in general, indicates diabetes mellitus. Malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) are natural ginsenosides which exist in both fresh and air-dried ginseng...
  16. Park E, Lee K, Jung S, Lee D, Won K, Yun Y, et al. Compound K, an intestinal metabolite of ginsenosides, inhibits PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through G1 arrest and attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury. Atherosclerosis. 2013;228:53-60 pubmed publisher
    Compound K (CK), an intestinal metabolite of ginsenosides, has pharmacological properties such as anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet and anti-cancer activities...
  17. Cui C, Liu Q, Kim J, Sung B, Kim S, Kim S, et al. Identification and characterization of a Mucilaginibacter sp. strain QM49 ?-glucosidase and its use in the production of the pharmaceutically active minor ginsenosides (S)-Rh1 and (S)-Rg2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:5788-98 pubmed publisher
    ..strain QM49 that shows biotransformation activity for various major ginsenosides. The gene responsible for this activity, bglQM, consists of 2,346 bp and is predicted to encode 781 amino acid ..
  18. Dai Z, Liu Y, Zhang X, Shi M, Wang B, Wang D, et al. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ginsenosides. Metab Eng. 2013;20:146-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal herb and exhibits diverse pharmacological activities...
  19. Kim J, Cui C, Yoon M, Kim S, Im W. Bioconversion of major ginsenosides Rg1 to minor ginsenoside F1 using novel recombinant ginsenoside hydrolyzing glycosidase cloned from Sanguibacter keddieii and enzyme characterization. J Biotechnol. 2012;161:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..of recombinant ginsenoside hydrolyzing glycosidase from Sanguibacter keddieii in order to biotransform ginsenosides efficiently...
  20. Wang Y, Ye X, Ma Z, Liang Q, Lu B, Tan H, et al. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 expression by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 in HepG2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;601:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties might be of help for future studies in P. ginseng and chemoprevention in chemical-induced cancer. ..
  21. He B, Gao J, Luo X, Luo J, Shen J, Wang L, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits colorectal tumor growth through the down-regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This line of investigation may lead to the development of novel therapies in which Rg3 can be used as an effective adjuvant agent for the clinical management of colorectal cancers. ..
  22. Lu M, Lai T, Hwang J, Chen H, Chang S, Tsai F, et al. Proliferation- and migration-enhancing effects of ginseng and ginsenoside Rg1 through IGF-I- and FGF-2-signaling pathways on RSC96 Schwann cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the results, applying appropriate doses of ginseng and Rg1 with biomedical materials would be a potential approach for enhancing neuron regeneration. ..
  23. Gu Y, Wang G, Sun J, Jia Y, Wang W, Xu M, et al. Pharmacokinetic characterization of ginsenoside Rh2, an anticancer nutrient from ginseng, in rats and dogs. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary metabolite profiling confirmed the presence of the deglycosidating product protopanaxadiol in rat feces. A possible metabolite in rat bile and a potential sulfate-conjugate in rat urine were also detected. ..
  24. Christensen L, Jensen M. Biomass and content of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in American ginseng roots can be increased without affecting the profile of bioactive compounds. J Nat Med. 2009;63:159-68 pubmed publisher Denmark, with root weights varying from 191 to 490 g fresh weight (FW), were investigated for bioactive ginsenosides and polyacetylenes (PAs) in order to determine the correlation between the content of ginsenosides and PAs and ..
  25. Noh K, Oh D. Production of the rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:1830-5 pubmed
    The rare ginsenosides compound K, compound Y, and compound Mc were produced from the major ginsenosides Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, and Rd by a thermostable beta-glycosidase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius via three pathways: Rb(1)-->Rd-->..
  26. Gong L, Li S, Li H, Zhang L. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons from cell apoptosis induced by ?-amyloid protein. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this neuroprotective effect is probably mediated by up-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax that activates caspase 3. ..
  27. Wang W, Liao Q, Quan L, Liu C, Chang Q, Liu X, et al. The effect of Acorus gramineus on the bioavailabilities and brain concentrations of ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1 after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San preparations in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;131:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..medicine principles governing multi-herb formula preparation and formulation, on facilitating the uptake of ginsenosides Rg1, Re and Rb1 to the brain after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) preparations...
  28. Lee H, Lee O, Kim K, Lee B. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes glucose uptake through activated AMPK pathway in insulin-resistant muscle cells. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 improved the insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells, which might be useful for prevention of T2DM and metabolic syndromes...
  29. Wang J, Leung C, Ho H, Chai S, Yau L, Zhao Z, et al. Quantitative comparison of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in wild and cultivated American ginseng. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:975-83 pubmed publisher
    Quantitative comparison of seven ginsenosides in wild and cultivated American ginseng revealed that the Rg(1)/Rd ratio presented a significantly large difference between cultivated and type-I (one of the defined chemotypes) wild American ..
  30. Samukawa K, Suzuki Y, Ohkubo N, Aoto M, Sakanaka M, Mitsuda N. Protective effect of ginsenosides Rg(2) and Rh(1) on oxidation-induced impairment of erythrocyte membrane properties. Biorheology. 2008;45:689-700 pubmed
    ..These two ginsenosides prevented the oxidative stress-induced elevation of erythrocyte suspension viscosity and the impairment of ..
  31. Leung K, Ng H, Tang M, Wong C, Wong R, Wong A. Ginsenoside-Rg1 mediates a hypoxia-independent upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? to promote angiogenesis. Angiogenesis. 2011;14:515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define a hypoxia-independent activation of HIF-1?, uncovering a novel mechanism for Rg1 that could play a major role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. ..
  32. Zhang C, Dong L, Wang J, Chen S. Simultaneous determination of ten ginsenosides in panacis quinquefolii radix by ultra performance liquid chromatography and quality evaluation based on chemometric methods. Pharmazie. 2011;66:553-9 pubmed
    ..with a photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) was developed for both the quantitative analysis of ten bioactive ginsenosides and a chemical-fingerprint analysis...
  33. Xie X, Liu H, Wang F, Zhang C, Zuo C, Deng Y, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 modulation on thrombospondin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in early renal fibrogenesis in unilateral obstruction. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1581-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism might be related to suppression of the expression of TSP-1 and to repair of the peritubular capillary. ..
  34. Shi C, Zheng D, Fang L, Wu F, Kwong W, Xu J. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes nonamyloidgenic cleavage of APP via estrogen receptor signaling to MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Rg1 might be used to slow or prevent AD, in particular in postmenopausal females. ..
  35. Wang H, Qi L, Wang C, Li P. Bioactivity enhancement of herbal supplements by intestinal microbiota focusing on ginsenosides. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39:1103-15 pubmed
    ..the interactions of herbal products and gut microbiota, we discuss the microbiota-mediated metabolism of ginsenosides in ginseng and red ginseng...
  36. Wang X, Zheng Y, Li K, Lin N, Fan Q. [The effects of ginsenosides Rg3 on the expressions of VEGF and KDR in human lung squamous cancer cells]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:1708-10 pubmed
    To investigate the inhibitive effects of Ginsenosides Rg3 (GS-Rg3) in the process of tumor angiogenesis and the effects on the expressions of VEGF and its receptor KDR in human lung squamous cancer SK-MES-1 cell line...
  37. Quan L, Min J, Sathiyamoorthy S, Yang D, Kim Y, Yang D. Biotransformation of ginsenosides Re and Rg1 into ginsenosides Rg2 and Rh1 by recombinant ?-glucosidase. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:913-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides Re and Rg1 were transformed by recombinant ?-glucosidase (Bgp1) to ginsenosides Rg2 and Rh1, respectively...
  38. Gu Y, Wang G, Wu X, Zheng Y, Zhang J, Ai H, et al. Intestinal absorption mechanisms of ginsenoside Rh2: stereoselectivity and involvement of ABC transporters. Xenobiotica. 2010;40:602-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The stereoselective absorption was significant. R isomer exhibited lower absorption profiles in all the experiments, possibly due to more potent efflux. ..
  39. Liu Y, Zhu X, Li W, Lu Q, Wang J, Wei Y, et al. Ginsenoside Re attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive deficits in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;101:93-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Qi L, Wang C, Yuan C. Ginsenosides from American ginseng: chemical and pharmacological diversity. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, there is no systematic review of American ginseng. In this review, the different structures of the ginsenosides in American ginseng are described, including naturally occurring compounds and those resulting from steaming or ..
  41. Han J, Kim H, Kwon Y, Choi Y. The Cyt P450 enzyme CYP716A47 catalyzes the formation of protopanaxadiol from dammarenediol-II during ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:2062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs and contains pharmacologically active components, ginsenosides, in its roots...
  42. Lee J, Baek S, Lee Y, Park S, Park J. Anti-complementary ginsenosides isolated from processed ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:898-900 pubmed
    As part of an ongoing search for immunomodulatory components aimed at the anti-complementary effect, ginsenosides isolated from processed ginseng were found to have inhibitory activity on complement activation through classical pathways...
  43. Kim T, Lee S. The effects of ginseng total saponin, panaxadiol and panaxatriol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that pretreatment with ginseng total saponin, especially panaxatriol, ameliorates I/R-induced myocardial damage and this protection is caused by reducing oxidative stress. ..
  44. Kong H, Wang J, Li Z, Zhao S, Dong J, Zhang W. Anti-hypoxic effect of ginsenoside Rbl on neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is mediated through the specific activation of glucose transporter-4 ex vivo. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-apoptotic effect of Gs-Rb1 may occur by improving glucose uptake, in which GLUT-4 translocation and expression played a key role. Both the AMPK and the PI3K/Akt pathways may take part in the anti-hypoxic efficacy of Gs-Rb1. ..
  45. Pongkitwitoon B, Sakamoto S, Morinaga O, Juengwatanatrakul T, Shoyama Y, Tanaka H, et al. Single-chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenoside Re as an effective tool for the determination of ginsenosides in various ginsengs. J Nat Med. 2011;65:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..and applied to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determining the total concentration of ginsenosides in various ginsengs...
  46. Gao Q, Chen W, Xie J, Wong M. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells via IGF-I receptor and estrogen receptor pathways. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1338-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 may attenuate 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and its action might involve the activation of IGF-IR signaling pathway and ER signaling pathway. ..
  47. Kwok H, Ng W, Yang M, Mak N, Wong R, Yue P. The ginsenoside protopanaxatriol protects endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and cell death by modulating intracellular redox status. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:437-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides, the active components of the famous Chinese herb ginseng, have been suggested to possess cardiovascular-protective effects...
  48. Wang W, Rayburn E, Hang J, Zhao Y, Wang H, Zhang R. Anti-lung cancer effects of novel ginsenoside 25-OCH(3)-PPD. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our preclinical data indicate that 25-OCH(3)-PPD is a potential therapeutic agent in vitro and in vivo, and further preclinical and clinical development of this agent for lung cancer is warranted. ..
  49. Li S, Wang X, Ma M, Liu Y, Du Y, Lv X, et al. Ginsenoside-Rd potentiates apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide in basilar artery smooth muscle cells through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis. 2012;17:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly suggest that ginsenoside-Rd potentiated H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis of BASMCs through the mitochondria-dependent pathway...
  50. Yoo J, Kwon H, Kim Y, Park J, Yang H. KG-135, enriched with selected ginsenosides, inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells in culture and inhibits xenograft growth in athymic mice. Cancer Lett. 2010;289:99-110 pubmed publisher
    Sun ginseng (SG) was recently developed as a heat-processed form of ginseng. The Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 ginsenosides are its main ginsenoside components...
  51. Sun B, Gu L, Fang Z, Wang C, Wang Z, Lee M, et al. Simultaneous quantification of 19 ginsenosides in black ginseng developed from Panax ginseng by HPLC-ELSD. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed to identify and quantify 19 ginsenosides (Rg(1), Re, Rf, Rb(1), Rc, Rb(2), Rd, F(4), Rg(6), Rk(3), Rh(4), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rg(3), 20(S)-, 20(R)-Rs(3), Rk(1)..
  52. Shi Y, Huang T, Chen L, Pan X, Zhang J, Zhu Y, et al. Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates amyloid-beta content, regulates PKA/CREB activity, and improves cognitive performance in SAMP8 mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:977-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide further support for the therapeutic or intervention potency of ginsenoside Rg1 in the early stage of AD. ..
  53. Zhao W, Zhang X, Wang W, Zhang L. [Experimental study for the anti-fatigue effect of ginseng general ginsenosides P.E. in vivo]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2009;38:184-7 pubmed
    To investigate the effective dose and the possible mechanism of the anti-fatigue effect of ginsenosides and then deduce to the recommended intake of human body...
  54. Jia L, Wang W, Zhou L, Mo F, Li M. [Antimotion sickness effects of ginsenosides combined with dexamethasone in rats]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010;8:358-62 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the antimotion sickness effects of ginsenosides combined with dexamethasone in rats...
  55. Chen Z, Lu T, Yue X, Wei N, Jiang Y, Chen M, et al. Neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: with emphasis on autophagy. Neurosci Lett. 2010;482:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that inhibition of autophagy could be responsible for neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 in glutamate-induced injury. Down-regulation of Beclin-1 may play an important role in this process. ..
  56. Zhao H, Li Q, Pei X, Zhang Z, Yang R, Wang J, et al. Long-term ginsenoside administration prevents memory impairment in aged C57BL/6J mice by up-regulating the synaptic plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus. Behav Brain Res. 2009;201:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ginsenoside is effective on the prevention of age-related memory impairment, and the up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins in hippocampus may be one of the mechanisms. ..
  57. Binbin C, Yinglu F, Juan D, Changquan L. Upregulation effect of ginsenosides on glucocorticoid receptor in rat liver. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:531-6 pubmed publisher
    We have demonstrated earlier that ginsenosides (GSS) could partially reverse the dexamethasone (Dex)-induced downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and enhance Dex-induced transcription of GR reporter gene in HL 7 702 cells, but ..
  58. Liang W, Ge S, Yang L, Yang M, Ye Z, Yan M, et al. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 promote proliferation and expression of neurotrophic factors in primary Schwann cell cultures. Brain Res. 2010;1357:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the beneficial effects of GRb1 and GRg1 on proliferation and expression of NGF and BDNF occurs mainly through the PKA pathway in cultured Schwann cells. ..
  59. Peng L, Sun S, Xie L, Wicks S, Xie J. Ginsenoside Re: pharmacological effects on cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;30:e183-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides are the bioactive constituents of ginseng, a key herb in traditional Chinese medicine. As a single component of ginseng, ginsenoside Re (G-Re) belongs to the panaxatriol group...
  60. Park J, Park E, Kim D, Jung K, Jung J, Lee E, et al. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;209:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the individual ginsenosides tested, Rh2, Rh3 and compound K significantly inhibited LPS-induced iNOS and cytokine expressions...
  61. Qi L, Wang C, Yuan C. American ginseng: potential structure-function relationship in cancer chemoprevention. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:947-54 pubmed publisher
    ..on the list of best-selling herbal products in the world, and its main active constituents are thought to be ginsenosides. Compared with the long history of use and widespread research on Asian ginseng, studies of American ginseng ..
  62. Hao M, Ba Q, Yin J, Li J, Zhao Y, Wang H. Deglycosylated ginsenosides are more potent inducers of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 expression in HepG2 cells than glycosylated ginsenosides. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26:201-5 pubmed
    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines worldwide. Ginsenosides are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic activities of ginseng; however, co-administration of prescription drugs with ginseng products may give ..
  63. Huang Y, Lin C, Huang S, Lin H, Chang W, Chang T. Effect and mechanism of ginsenosides CK and Rg1 on stimulation of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6039-47 pubmed publisher
    The glucoregulatory activities of ginsenosides compound K (CK) and Rg1 were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  64. Chan L, Kwok H, Chan R, Peiris M, Mak N, Wong R, et al. Dual functions of ginsenosides in protecting human endothelial cells against influenza H9N2-induced inflammation and apoptosis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1542-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The active component, ginsenosides have been shown to possess various pharmacological functions including immunomodulation and cardiovascular ..
  65. Lee K, Jung T, Lee H, Kim S, Shin Y, Whang W. The antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside Rb2 via activation of AMPK. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1201-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides, which are active compounds found in ginseng (Panax ginseng), are used as antidiabetic treatments...
  66. Lee J, Ha Y, Choi T, Kim H, Kim S, Jang H, et al. Cellular uptake of ginsenosides in Korean white ginseng and red ginseng and their apoptotic activities in human breast cancer cells. Planta Med. 2011;77:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and red ginseng (RG) in their apoptotic effects and the identification of the selective cellular uptake of the ginsenosides in human breast cancer cells have not yet been fully understood...
  67. Park E, Lee E, Lee S, Koo K, Sung J, Hwang E, et al. Induction of apoptosis by the ginsenoside Rh2 by internalization of lipid rafts and caveolae and inactivation of Akt. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1212-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Because elevated levels of membrane rafts and caveolae, and Akt activation have been correlated with cancer development, internalization of these microdomains by Rh2 could potentially be used as an anti-cancer therapy. ..
  68. Sakamoto S, Pongkitwitoon B, Nakamura S, Maenaka K, Tanaka H, Morimoto S. Efficient silkworm expression of single-chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenoside Re using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid DNA system and its application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quality control of total ginsenoside. J Biochem. 2010;148:335-40 pubmed publisher develop indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for quality control of total ginsenosides in various ginsengs. The detectable range for calibration of G-Re by developed icELISA shows 0.05-10 microg/ml...
  69. Chen R, Chung T, Li F, Lin N, Tzen J. Effect of sugar positions in ginsenosides and their inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:61-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether ginsenosides with various sugar attachments may act as active components responsible for the cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi (the roots of Panax ginseng and Panax notoginseng) via the same molecular ..
  70. Hu J, Song X, Chu S, Chen J, Ji H, Chen X, et al. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation in mice. Brain Res. 2011;1374:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Concluding, Rg1 inhibited the inflammation mediated by LPS by suppressing NF?B and MAPK pathway, which provided the explanation for its therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  71. Park S, Ahn I, Kwon D, Ko B, Jun W. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 suppress triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhance beta-cell insulin secretion and viability in Min6 cells via PKA-dependent pathways. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2815-23 pubmed
    ..We investigated which major ginsenosides in ginseng enhanced glucose homeostasis by in vitro studies...
  72. Wu L, Jin Y, Yin C, Bai L. Co-transformation of Panax major ginsenosides Rb? and Rg? to minor ginsenosides C-K and F? by Cladosporium cladosporioides. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:521-7 pubmed publisher
    Rb? and Rg? are the major ginsenosides in protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol. Their content in ginsenosides was 23.8 and 17.6%, respectively...
  73. Chae S, Kang K, Chang W, Kim M, Lee S, Lee Y, et al. Effect of compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, combined with gamma-ray radiation in human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that compound K has possible application for cancer therapy when used in combination with gamma-ray radiation. ..
  74. Lee O, Lee H, Kim J, Lee B. Effect of ginsenosides Rg3 and Re on glucose transport in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res. 2011;25:768-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides, the active component of Panax ginseng, have been shown to evidence a variety of biological activities associated with hyperglycemia, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  75. Chen S, Luo H, Li Y, Sun Y, Wu Q, Niu Y, et al. 454 EST analysis detects genes putatively involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:1593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..These 454 ESTs will provide the foundation for further functional genomic research into the traditional herb P. ginseng or its closely related species. ..
  76. Choi S, Shin T, Lee B, Hwang S, Lee S, Lee B, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel currents: a role of Tyr360 residue. Mol Cells. 2011;31:133-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides, active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are known to exhibit neuroprotective effects...
  77. Radad K, Moldzio R, Rausch W. Ginsenosides and their CNS targets. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011;17:761-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ginsenosides are a special group of triterpenoid saponins attributed to medical effects of ginseng...
  78. Liu Q, Kou J, Yu B. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting NF-?B activation. Neurochem Int. 2011;58:119-25 pubmed publisher
  79. Lee J, Lee Y, Kim S, Pyo J, Yun Choi H, Park J. Platelet antiaggregating activity of ginsenosides isolated from processed ginseng. Pharmazie. 2009;64:602-4 pubmed
    Four dammarane glycosides, namely ginsenosides Rk1 (1), Rg5 (2), 20(S)-Rg3 (3), and 20(R)-Rg3 (4), isolated from a new processed ginseng, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against platelet aggregation induced by adenosine ..
  80. Zhu G, Li Y, Tse A, Hau D, Leung C, Yu Z, et al. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginsenosides, induced cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;668:88-98 pubmed publisher
    20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a metabolite of ginsenosides, has been demonstrated to possess cytotoxic effects on several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood...
  81. Liu Z, Wang L, Li X, Hu J, Chen Y, Ruan C, et al. Hypoglycemic effects of malonyl-ginsenosides extracted from roots of Panax ginseng on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1426-30 pubmed publisher
    Hypoglycemic effects of malonyl-ginsenosides (MGR), extracted from roots of Panax ginseng, were examined in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. Animals received daily intravenous injections of MGR in doses of 30, 60, 120 mg/kg...
  82. Sakamoto S, Tanizaki Y, Pongkitwitoon B, Tanaka H, Morimoto S. A chimera of green fluorescent protein with single chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenosides for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;77:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Since some steps required in ELISA can be avoided in this present FLISA, speedy and sensitive immunoassay also could be performed using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody and scFv. ..