Summary: A class of terpenes (the general formula C30H48) formed by the condensation of six isoprene units, equivalent to three terpene units.

Top Publications

  1. Simelane M, Shonhai A, Shode F, Smith P, Singh M, Opoku A. Anti-plasmodial activity of some Zulu medicinal plants and of some triterpenes isolated from them. Molecules. 2013;18:12313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-plasmodial investigation of the crude extracts and some triterpenes isolated from the plants showed activity against a chloroquine sensitive (CQS) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (..
  2. Pareek T, Belkadi A, Kesavapany S, Zaremba A, Loh S, Bai L, et al. Triterpenoid modulation of IL-17 and Nrf-2 expression ameliorates neuroinflammation and promotes remyelination in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Sci Rep. 2011;1:201 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the unique potential of triterpenoid derivatives for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders such as MS. ..
  3. Zhou L, Lin Z, Fung K, Cheng C, Che C, Zhao M, et al. Celastrol-induced apoptosis in human HaCaT keratinocytes involves the inhibition of NF-?B activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:399-408 pubmed publisher
  4. Shi L, Qin L, Xu Y, Ren A, Fang X, Mu D, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization, and function analysis of a mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene from Ganoderma lucidum. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..lucidum. Additionally, this study provides an approach for improving triterpene content through the overexpression of a key gene...
  5. Liu W, Tan X, Shu L, Sun H, Song J, Jin P, et al. Ursolic acid inhibits cigarette smoke extract-induced human bronchial epithelial cell injury and prevents development of lung cancer. Molecules. 2012;17:9104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, UA inhibited lung cancer development in the model established by A549 cells in nude mice in vivo. For the first time, our results indicate that UA could be developed as a potential lung cancer chemopreventive agent. ..
  6. Cheng S, Eliaz I, Lin J, Thyagarajan Sahu A, Sliva D. Triterpenes from Poria cocos suppress growth and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through the downregulation of MMP-7. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:1869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that a characterized mixture of triterpenes extracted from P...
  7. Zhang T, Li Y, Park K, Byun H, Won M, Jeon J, et al. Cucurbitacin induces autophagy through mitochondrial ROS production which counteracts to limit caspase-dependent apoptosis. Autophagy. 2012;8:559-76 pubmed publisher
  8. Huang L, Yao Y, Li J, Zhang S, Li W, Dong N, et al. The effect of Astragaloside IV on immune function of regulatory T cell mediated by high mobility group box 1 protein in vitro. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, AST IV can rival the suppressing effect of HMGB1 on immune function of Tregs with a dose-dependent in vitro. These results indicate that AST IV has the potential therapeutic action on inflammation augmented by HMGB1. ..
  9. Duangmano S, Sae Lim P, Suksamrarn A, Domann F, Patmasiriwat P. Cucurbitacin B inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation through disruption of microtubule polymerization and nucleophosmin/B23 translocation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:185 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Leng S, Hao Y, Du D, Xie S, Hong L, Gu H, et al. Ursolic acid promotes cancer cell death by inducing Atg5-dependent autophagy. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:2781-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of autophagy by UA may become a potential cancer therapeutic strategy complementing the apoptosis-based therapies. Furthermore, regulation of Atg5 may improve the efficacy of UA in cancer treatment. ..
  2. Bi L, Tian X, Dou F, Hong L, Tang H, Wang S. New antioxidant and antiglycation active triterpenoid saponins from the root bark of Aralia taibaiensis. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1-5 exhibited moderate effects on antioxidant and antiglycation activities, which correlated with treatment of diabetes mellitus. ..
  3. Puttarak P, Panichayupakaranant P. Factors affecting the content of pentacyclic triterpenes in Centella asiatica raw materials. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1508-12 pubmed publisher
    Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside are the active constituents of Centella asitica (L.) Urban. (Apiaceae)...
  4. Parra A, Rivas F, Martin Fonseca S, Garcia Granados A, Martinez A. Maslinic acid derivatives induce significant apoptosis in b16f10 murine melanoma cells. Eur J Med Chem. 2011;46:5991-6001 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the induction cell death through necrosis was very slightly significant with these compounds. These results indicate that maslinic acid derivatives are promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. ..
  5. Nguyen A, Feasley C, Jackson K, Nitz T, Salzwedel K, Air G, et al. The prototype HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, binds to the CA-SP1 cleavage site in immature Gag particles. Retrovirology. 2011;8:101 pubmed publisher
    ..Information gained from this study sheds light on the mechanisms by which the virus develops resistance to this class of drug and may aid in the design of next-generation maturation inhibitors. ..
  6. Li N, Wu C, Xu X, Liu Z, Li X, Zhao Y. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;50:173-8 pubmed publisher
    Five novel triterpenes were isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and identified as gypensapogenin A (1), gypensapogenin B (2), gypensapogenin C (3), 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-gypensapogenin D (4) and ..
  7. Zhang Z, Wu L, Wang J, Yang J, Zhang J, Zhang J, et al. Astragaloside IV prevents MPP?-induced SH-SY5Y cell death via the inhibition of Bax-mediated pathways and ROS production. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;364:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study supports the notion that AS-IV may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. ..
  8. Xu Y, Zhong J. Impacts of calcium signal transduction on the fermentation production of antitumor ganoderic acids by medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results obtained, a possible model on the effect of external calcium ion on the GAs biosynthesis via calcineurin signal transduction pathway was proposed. ..
  9. Quang T, Ngan N, Minh C, Kiem P, Thao N, Tai B, et al. Effect of triterpenes and triterpene saponins from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus on the transactivational activities of three PPAR subtypes. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:2567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..7, 15.5, 14.8, 10.9, 17.1, and 16.3 ?M, whereas compounds 8 and 10 significantly upregulated PPAR?(?) transcriptional activity, with EC(50) values of 15.7 and 17.7 ?M, respectively. ..
  10. Rodrigo C, Cencic R, Roche S, Pelletier J, Porco J. Synthesis of rocaglamide hydroxamates and related compounds as eukaryotic translation inhibitors: synthetic and biological studies. J Med Chem. 2012;55:558-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that (-)-9 synergizes with doxorubicin in vivo to reduce E?-Myc driven lymphomas. ..
  11. You B, Lee H, Chung K, Lee M, Huang M, Tien N, et al. Enhanced production of ganoderic acids and cytotoxicity of Ganoderma lucidum using solid-medium culture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:1529-34 pubmed
    ..This indicates that it may be possible to enhance the production of GAs by implementing mycelium culture on solid medium. ..
  12. Shanmugam M, Ong T, Kumar A, Lun C, Ho P, Wong P, et al. Ursolic acid inhibits the initiation, progression of prostate cancer and prolongs the survival of TRAMP mice by modulating pro-inflammatory pathways. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32476 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings provide strong evidence that UA can be an excellent agent for both the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  13. Yu G, Wang M, Huang J, Yin Y, Chen Y, Jiang S, et al. Deep insight into the Ganoderma lucidum by comprehensive analysis of its transcriptome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44031 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to gain a molecular understanding of this fungus, we utilized Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence and analyze the transcriptome of Ganoderma lucidum...
  14. Grover A, Singh R, Shandilya A, Priyandoko D, Agrawal V, Bisaria V, et al. Ashwagandha derived withanone targets TPX2-Aurora A complex: computational and experimental evidence to its anticancer activity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30890 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrated that TPX2-Aurora A complex is a target of withanone, a potential natural anticancer drug. ..
  15. Chow A, Tang D, Hanif A, Brown I. Induction of heat shock proteins in cerebral cortical cultures by celastrol. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013;18:155-60 pubmed publisher
  16. Li Z, Yao L, Li J, Zhang W, Wu X, Liu Y, et al. Celastrol nanoparticles inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by suturing in rats. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CNPs significantly inhibited suture-induced CNV by suppressing macrophage infiltration and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in the rat cornea. ..
  17. Wang J, Liu L, Qiu H, Zhang X, Guo W, Chen W, et al. Ursolic acid simultaneously targets multiple signaling pathways to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63872 pubmed publisher
  18. Cascão R, Vidal B, Raquel H, Neves Costa A, Figueiredo N, Gupta V, et al. Effective treatment of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by celastrol. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:856-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we find that early inhibition of Th17 cells polarization ameliorates arthritis but it is not as effective as celastrol. ..
  19. Di Pierro F, Spinelli G, Monsù G, Alvisi G, Bacci G, Baiocchi C, et al. Clinical effectiveness of a highly standardized and bioavailable mixture of flavonoids and triterpenes in the management of acute hemorroidal crisis. Acta Biomed. 2011;82:35-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the treatment with Emospid shows to be more effective, if compared with MMDH, in counteracting acute haemorrhoidal crisis. ( ..
  20. Yang F, Xu B, Zhao S, Li J, Yang Y, Tang X, et al. De novo sequencing and analysis of the termite mushroom (Termitomyces albuminosus) transcriptome to discover putative genes involved in bioactive component biosynthesis. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012;114:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the bioinformatic analysis, we found many the known enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponin in Termitomyces albuminosus, including 6 cytochrome P450 and 22 glycosyltransferase unique genes. ..
  21. Dos Santos V, Leite K, da Costa Siqueira M, Regasini L, Martinez I, Nogueira C, et al. Antiprotozoal activity of quinonemethide triterpenes from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). Molecules. 2013;18:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    The present study describes the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of two quinonemethide triterpenes, maytenin (1) and pristimerin (2), isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia root barks (Celastraceae)...
  22. Zheng Q, Jin F, Yao C, Zhang T, Zhang G, Ai X. Ursolic acid-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:741-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that activation of AMPK by UA contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. ..
  23. Andre C, Greenwood J, Walker E, Rassam M, Sullivan M, Evers D, et al. Anti-inflammatory procyanidins and triterpenes in 109 apple varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10546-54 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the potential of apple to reduce inflammation. Phenolic compounds and triterpenes were analyzed in 109 apple cultivars...
  24. Chen Y, Yuan L, Zhou L, Zhang Z, Cao W, Wu Q. Effect of cell-penetrating peptide-coated nanostructured lipid carriers on the oral absorption of tripterine. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:4581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..75% and 149.91% respectively. The oral bioavailability of tripterine is dramatically increased by CT-NLCs. Therefore, CT-NLCs seem to be a promising carrier for oral delivery of tripterine. ..
  25. Jin Y, Jin J, Li C, Piao X, Jin N. Ursolic acid enhances mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results suggest that ursolic acid stimulates liver proliferation after partial hepatectomy, and this effect may be associated with the stimulation of C/EBP? expression. ..
  26. Leal A, Wang R, Salvador J, Jing Y. Synthesis of novel ursolic acid heterocyclic derivatives with improved abilities of antiproliferation and induction of p53, p21waf1 and NOXA in pancreatic cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:5774-86 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ?M which is sevenfold more active than ursolic acid 1. Compound 32 arrests cell cycle in G1 phase and induces apoptosis in AsPC-1 cells with upregulation of p53, p21(waf1) and NOXA protein levels. ..
  27. Shin S, Kim S, Park J. Autophagy inhibition enhances ursolic acid-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in PC3 cells against UA-induced apoptosis and a rational for the use of autophagy inhibitors in combination with UA as a novel modality of cancer therapy. ..
  28. Wu B, Wang X, Chi Z, Hu R, Zhang R, Yang W, et al. Ursolic acid-induced apoptosis in K562 cells involving upregulation of PTEN gene expression and inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that UA may elicit its strong antitumor effects via upregulation of the PTEN gene and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway...
  29. Nian Y, Zhu H, Tang W, Luo Y, Du J, Qiu M. Triterpenes from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga yunnanensis and their antiproliferative effects on p53(N236S) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..8, 8.6, and 6.0 ?M, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited greater selectivity against the p53(-/-)+p53(N236S)+H-RasV12 cells (IC50 5.5 ?M) than against the WT MEFs cells (IC50 14.3 ?M)...
  30. Rajendran P, Li F, Shanmugam M, Kannaiyan R, Goh J, Wong K, et al. Celastrol suppresses growth and induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma through the modulation of STAT3/JAK2 signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:631-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results suggest for the first time that celastrol exerts its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects through suppression of STAT3 signaling in HCC both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  31. Choudhary A, Mittal A, Radhika M, Tripathy D, Chatterjee A, Banerjee U, et al. Two new stereoisomeric antioxidant triterpenes from Potentilla fulgens. Fitoterapia. 2013;91:290-297 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially ESIHRMS and 2D NMR techniques. The new compounds showed good antioxidant activity and therefore this plant can be a source of natural antioxidants. ..
  32. Geisler K, Hughes R, Sainsbury F, Lomonossoff G, Rejzek M, Fairhurst S, et al. Biochemical analysis of a multifunctional cytochrome P450 (CYP51) enzyme required for synthesis of antimicrobial triterpenes in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E3360-7 pubmed publisher
  33. Ayyad S, Abdel Lateff A, Alarif W, Patacchioli F, Badria F, Ezmirly S. In vitro and in vivo study of cucurbitacins-type triterpene glucoside from Citrullus colocynthis growing in Saudi Arabia against hepatocellular carcinoma. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to these activities, the in vivo study employing EAC, showed the capability of both compounds to prolong the survival time, life span and normalize the biochemical parameters of the infected mice with EAC...
  34. Shanmugam M, Dai X, Kumar A, Tan B, Sethi G, Bishayee A. Ursolic acid in cancer prevention and treatment: molecular targets, pharmacokinetics and clinical studies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:1579-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This review not only summarizes the diverse molecular targets of ursolic acid, but also provides an insight into the various preclinical and clinical studies that have been performed in the last decade with this promising triterpenoid. ..
  35. Zhang Y, Ahn Y, Benjamin I, Honda T, Hicks R, Calabrese V, et al. HSF1-dependent upregulation of Hsp70 by sulfhydryl-reactive inducers of the KEAP1/NRF2/ARE pathway. Chem Biol. 2011;18:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This uncovered duality undoubtedly contributes to the cytoprotective effects of such molecules in models of carcinogenesis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. ..
  36. Hong R, Shen M, Xie X, Ruan S. Inhibition of breast cancer metastasis via PITPNM3 by pachymic acid. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1877-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, evidence was obtained that PA could suppress the phosphorylation of PITPNM3 and the combination of CCL18 and PITPNM3. Therefore, we speculate that PA could inhibit breast cancer metastasis via PITPNM3. ..
  37. Chen H, Yang J, Zhang Q, Chen L, Wang Q. Corosolic acid ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by regulating the nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway and inhibiting monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. Circ J. 2012;76:995-1003 pubmed
    ..CRA is capable of ameliorating atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by, partly at least, inhibition of NF-?B activity along with decreased MCP-1 expression. ..
  38. Zhao C, Yin S, Dong Y, Guo X, Fan L, Ye M, et al. Autophagy-dependent EIF2AK3 activation compromises ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through upregulation of MCL1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Autophagy. 2013;9:196-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncovered a novel cellular mechanism involved in the anticancer activity of UA, and also provided a useful model to study biological significance and mechanisms of autophagy-mediated ER stress. ..
  39. Colorado J, Munoz D, Marquez D, Marquez M, Lopez J, Thomas O, et al. Ulososides and urabosides--triterpenoid saponins from the Caribbean marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox. Molecules. 2013;18:2598-610 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against Jurkat and CHO cell lines by a MTT in vitro assay as well as a hemolysis assay. Unexpectedly, all these saponin derivatives showed very low activity in our bioassays...
  40. Yu H, Venkatesha S, Moudgil K. Microarray-based gene expression profiling reveals the mediators and pathways involved in the anti-arthritic activity of Celastrus-derived Celastrol. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;13:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed 10 differentially expressed genes and 14 pathways that constituted the "Celastrol Signature". Our results would help identify novel targets for RA therapy...
  41. Mugford S, Louveau T, Melton R, Qi X, Bakht S, Hill L, et al. Modularity of plant metabolic gene clusters: a trio of linked genes that are collectively required for acylation of triterpenes in oat. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1078-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the characterization of these genes and their encoded proteins we present a model of the subcellular organization of triterpenoid biosynthesis. ..
  42. Li Q, Qu H. Study on the hypoglycemic activities and metabolism of alcohol extract of Alismatis Rhizoma. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:1046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Alismatis Rhizoma (AEA) revealed that the eight compounds gotten from AEA are all belonging to protostane-type triterpenes. The AEA and compounds were incubated with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, glucose level in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes culture ..
  43. Shao M, Wang Y, Huang X, Fan C, Zhang Q, Zhang X, et al. Four new triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, compound 4 was characterized as an unusual ursane-type triterpenoid with cis-fused C/D ring system...
  44. Nader M, Baraka H. Effect of betulinic acid on neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory mediator expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in rats. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;46:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with BA was found to significantly attenuate all these alterations. The present results suggest that BA is endowed with antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties that protect the lung against the deleterious actions of LPS. ..
  45. Lopez Haber C, Kazanietz M. Cucurbitacin I inhibits Rac1 activation in breast cancer cells by a reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism and independently of Janus tyrosine kinase 2 and P-Rex1. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:1141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they established that the inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin I on Rac1 activity involves the alteration of the balance between Rho and Rac. ..
  46. Ren A, Ouyang X, Shi L, Jiang A, Mu D, Li M, et al. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of GlHMGS, a gene encoding hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase from Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-zhi) in ganoderic acid biosynthesis pathway. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of GlHMGS enhanced GA content in G. lucidum. This study provides useful information for further studying this gene and on its function in the ganoderic acid biosynthetic pathway in G. lucidum...
  47. Zhang D, Shu C, Chen J, Sodani K, Wang J, Bhatnagar J, et al. BBA, a derivative of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid, potently reverses ABCB1-mediated drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:3147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that BBA can reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR by inhibiting its efflux function of ABCB1, which supports the development of BBA as a novel potential MDR reversal agent used in the clinic. ..
  48. Grover A, Priyandoko D, Gao R, Shandilya A, Widodo N, Bisaria V, et al. Withanone binds to mortalin and abrogates mortalin-p53 complex: computational and experimental evidence. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Accurate knowledge of the 3D structure of mortalin would further enhance the potential of such analyses to understand the molecular basis of mortalin biology and mortalin based cancer therapy. ..
  49. Zhong Y, Wang J, Wang Y, Wu B. Preparation and evaluation of liposome-encapsulated codrug LMX. Int J Pharm. 2012;438:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2% relative to 50% alcohol solution after intravenous (i.v.) administration. These results indicated that LMX-loaded liposomes were valued to develop as a practical preparation for oral or i.v. administration. ..
  50. Pudhom K, Nuanyai T, Matsubara K, Vilaivan T. Antiangiogenic activity of 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Thai Gardenia spp. and their semi-synthetic analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:512-7 pubmed publisher
    Twelve naturally occurring 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes (1-12) isolated from Gardenia sootepensis and Gardenia obtusifolia, and eight semi-synthetic derivatives (13-20) were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity on a rat aortic ..
  51. Kusy S, Ghosn E, Herzenberg L, Contag C. Development of B cells and erythrocytes is specifically impaired by the drug celastrol in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35733 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide valuable information for further assessment prior to clinical trials. ..
  52. Acimovic J, Rozman D. Steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis. Molecules. 2013;18:4002-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures...
  53. Kausar H, Munagala R, Bansal S, Aqil F, Vadhanam M, Gupta R. Cucurbitacin B potently suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer growth: identification of intracellular thiols as critical targets. Cancer Lett. 2013;332:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data sheds new light on the working mechanisms of CuB and demonstrate its therapeutic potential against NSCLC. ..
  54. Csuk R, Stark S, Nitsche C, Barthel A, Siewert B. Alkylidene branched lupane derivatives: synthesis and antitumor activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;53:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxicity can be improved by encapsulation in liposomes. These compounds act by triggering apoptotic cell death as shown by DNA-laddering experiments and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. ..
  55. Liu X, Yue R, Zhang J, Shan L, Wang R, Zhang W. Neuroprotective effects of bacopaside I in ischemic brain injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31:109-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that bacopaside I possess a neuroprotective effect against injury caused by cerebral ischemia. The protective mechanism might be related to improving cerebral energy metabolism and increasing antioxidant levels. ..
  56. Kim S, Hong J, Lee Y. Ursolic acid, a potential PPAR? agonist, suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and Penh by down-regulating IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17 in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;701:131-43 pubmed publisher
  57. Isaka M, Chinthanom P, Kongthong S, Srichomthong K, Choeyklin R. Lanostane triterpenes from cultures of the Basidiomycete Ganoderma orbiforme BCC 22324. Phytochemistry. 2013;87:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The C-3 epimer of ganoderic acid T also exhibited significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (MIC 1.3 ?M). ..
  58. Arpha K, Phosri C, Suwannasai N, Mongkolthanaruk W, Sodngam S. Astraodoric acids A-D: new lanostane triterpenes from edible mushroom Astraeus odoratus and their anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and cytotoxic activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9834-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotoxic activity against cancerous cell lines was also evaluated. Four new lanostane triterpenes, astraodoric acids A-D, and new 5-hydroxyhypaphorine have been isolated together with four known compounds...
  59. Hussain Shaik A, Rasool S, Abdul Kareem M, Krushna G, Akhtar P, Devi K. Maslinic acid protects against isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in albino Wistar rats. J Med Food. 2012;15:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed cardioprotective effects may be due to the antihyperlipidemic potential of MA, inhibition of LPO, and antioxidant activity...
  60. Liu Y, Hu X, Lu T, Cheng Y, Young C, Yuan H, et al. Retigeric acid B exhibits antitumor activity through suppression of nuclear factor-?B signaling in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38000 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggested that RB exerted its anti-tumor effect by targeting the NF-?B pathway in PCa cells, and this could be a general mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of RB in other types of cancers as well. ..
  61. Kim K, Seo H, Choi H, Choi I, Shin Y, Ko S. Induction of apoptotic cell death by ursolic acid through mitochondrial death pathway and extrinsic death receptor pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data clearly indicate that ursolic acid could be used as a potential anticancer drug for breast cancer. ..
  62. Zhang H, Li X, Ding J, Xu H, Dai X, Hou Z, et al. Delivery of ursolic acid (UA) in polymeric nanoparticles effectively promotes the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through enhanced inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Int J Pharm. 2013;441:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the study offer an effective way to improve the anticancer efficiency of UA through nano-drug delivery system. ..
  63. Fernandes C, Xavier A, Pacheco J, Santos M, Mexas R, Ratcliffe N, et al. Laboratory evaluation of the effects of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard extracts and triterpenes on the development of Dysdercus peruvianus and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Pest Manag Sci. 2013;69:292-301 pubmed publisher
    Studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of Manilkara subsericea extracts and triterpenes on the development of two species of agricultural pest insects, Oncopelus fasciatus and Dysdercus peruvianus.
  64. Martin R, Miana M, Jurado López R, Martínez Martínez E, Gómez Hurtado N, Delgado C, et al. DIOL triterpenes block profibrotic effects of angiotensin II and protect from cardiac hypertrophy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41545 pubmed publisher
    The natural triterpenes, erythrodiol and uvaol, exert anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxing and anti-proliferative effects...
  65. Yin M, Lin M, Mong M, Lin C. Bioavailability, distribution, and antioxidative effects of selected triterpenes in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7697-701 pubmed publisher
    This study analyzed the content of eight triterpenes (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, boswellic acid, corosolic acid, madecassic acid, and maslinic acid) in ten vegetables and eight fruits...
  66. Sörensen P, Iacob R, Fritzsche M, Engen J, Brieher W, Charras G, et al. The natural product cucurbitacin E inhibits depolymerization of actin filaments. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1502-8 pubmed
    ..Cucurbitacin E is a widely available plant-derived natural product, making it a useful tool to study actin dynamics in cells and actin-based processes such as cytokinesis. ..
  67. Li Z, Wu X, Li J, Yao L, Sun L, Shi Y, et al. Antitumor activity of celastrol nanoparticles in a xenograft retinoblastoma tumor model. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..CNPs may represent a potential alternative treatment for retinoblastoma. ..
  68. Urban M, Vlk M, Dzubak P, Hajduch M, Sarek J. Cytotoxic heterocyclic triterpenoids derived from betulin and betulinic acid. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:3666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The preferential cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines, particularly to hematological tumors was observed, the bromo acids 5, 6 showed highest activity and selectivity against tumor cells. ..
  69. Wu G, Lu J, Guo J, Li Y, Tan W, Dang Y, et al. Ganoderic acid DM, a natural triterpenoid, induces DNA damage, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have advanced our current understandings of the anti-cancer mechanisms of GADM. ..
  70. Smina T, Mathew J, Janardhanan K, Devasagayam T. Antioxidant activity and toxicity profile of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:438-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Total triterpenes successfully scavenged DPPH(+), ABTS(+) and superoxide radicals, showed significant ferric reducing activity ..
  71. Reyes Zurita F, Rufino Palomares E, Medina P, Leticia García Salguero E, Peragón J, Cascante M, et al. Antitumour activity on extrinsic apoptotic targets of the triterpenoid maslinic acid in p53-deficient Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells. Biochimie. 2013;95:2157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Natural agents able to activate both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways by avoiding the mitochondrial resistance mechanisms may be useful for treatment against colon cancer regardless of its aetiology. ..
  72. Yang H, Cho H, Sim S, Chung Y, Kim D, Sung S, et al. Cytotoxic terpenoids from Juglans sinensis leaves and twigs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:2079-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of an 80% MeOH extract of Juglan sinensis leaves and twigs has resulted in the isolation of three new triterpenes (1-3) and two new sesquiterpenes (4-5) along with two known sesquiterpenes (6-7)...
  73. Qiu F, Imai A, McAlpine J, Lankin D, Burton I, Karakach T, et al. Dereplication, residual complexity, and rational naming: the case of the Actaea triterpenes. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:432-43 pubmed publisher
    The genus Actaea (including Cimicifuga) has been the source of ?200 cycloartane triterpenes. While they are major bioactive constituents of complementary and alternative medicines, their structural similarity is a major dereplication ..
  74. Checker R, Sandur S, Sharma D, Patwardhan R, Jayakumar S, Kohli V, et al. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of ursolic acid, a triterpenoid antioxidant, is mediated through suppression of NF-?B, AP-1 and NF-AT. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31318 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study describes the detailed mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of UA. Further, UA may find application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. ..
  75. Nanjundaiah S, Venkatesha S, Yu H, Tong L, Stains J, Moudgil K. Celastrus and its bioactive celastrol protect against bone damage in autoimmune arthritis by modulating osteoimmune cross-talk. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, celastrus and celastrol controlled inflammation-induced bone damage by modulating the osteoimmune cross-talk. These natural products deserve further consideration and evaluation as adjuncts to conventional therapy for RA...
  76. Zheng Q, Li P, Jin F, Yao C, Zhang G, Zang T, et al. Ursolic acid induces ER stress response to activate ASK1-JNK signaling and induce apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Cell Signal. 2013;25:206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Ursolic acid induces IRE1-TRAF2-ASK1 signaling complex formation to activate pro-apoptotic ASK1-JNK signaling. We suggest that ER stress contributes to ursolic acid's effects against bladder cancer cells. ..
  77. Lee J, Won Y, Park K, Lee M, Tachibana H, Yamada K, et al. Celastrol inhibits growth and induces apoptotic cell death in melanoma cells via the activation ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway and the suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling. Apoptosis. 2012;17:1275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that celastrol inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells via the activation of ROS-mediated caspase-dependent and -independent pathways and the suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling. ..
  78. Nian Y, Wang H, Zhou L, Su J, Li Y, Qiu M. Cytotoxic cycloartane triterpenes of the traditional Chinese medicine "shengma" (Cimicifuga dahurica). Planta Med. 2013;79:60-9 pubmed publisher
    Twelve new 9,19-cycloartane triterpenes (1-12), together with fourteen known compounds (13-26), were isolated from the roots of Cimicifuga dahurica...
  79. Zhou L, Chen Y, Zhang Z, He J, Du M, Wu Q. Preparation of tripterine nanostructured lipid carriers and their absorption in rat intestine. Pharmazie. 2012;67:304-10 pubmed
    ..According to the result, the tripterine-loaded NLCs could greatly decrease the cytotoxicity of the drug. In conclusion, the NLC formulation remarkably improved the absorption of tripterine and showed a better biocompatibility. ..
  80. Ding Q, Cheng Y, Chen W, Zhong H, Wang X. Celastrol, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90? potently suppresses the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in primary human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;708:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that celastrol could be a useful agent for prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. ..