t 2 toxin


Summary: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.

Top Publications

  1. Roscoe V, Lombaert G, Huzel V, Neumann G, Melietio J, Kitchen D, et al. Mycotoxins in breakfast cereals from the Canadian retail market: a 3-year survey. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008;25:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Nivalenol and HT-2 toxin were each detected in only one sample. The survey clearly demonstrated regular occurrence of low levels of multiple mycotoxins in breakfast cereals on the Canadian market. ..
  2. Li M, Pestka J. Comparative induction of 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage by ricin and the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in the macrophage. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:67-78 pubmed publisher
  3. Nathanail A, Gibson B, Han L, Peltonen K, Ollilainen V, Jestoi M, et al. The lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus removes and transforms Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxins during fermentation of brewer's wort. Food Chem. 2016;203:448-455 pubmed publisher
    ..De(acetylation), glucosylation and sulfonation were the main metabolic pathways activated. ..
  4. Chang Y, Wang X, Sun Z, Jin Z, Chen M, Wang X, et al. Inflammatory cytokine of IL-1? is involved in T-2 toxin-triggered chondrocyte injury and metabolism imbalance by the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Mol Immunol. 2017;91:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study elucidates a new insight into how T-2 deteriorates the pathological progression of KBD by regulating inflammation-related pathways, indicating a promising anti-inflammation strategy for KBD therapy...
  5. Katsev A, Goĭster O, Starodub N. [Effect of mycotoxin T-2 on bioluminescence intensity of bacteria]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2003;75:99-103 pubmed
    ..Taking into account the analysis simplicity and rapidity, such analytical device may have a perspective for wide practical application. ..
  6. Joshi S, Segarra Fas A, Peters J, Zuilhof H, van Beek T, Nielen M. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance biosensing and its transferability towards imaging nanoplasmonics for detection of mycotoxins in barley. Analyst. 2016;141:1307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the prototype iSPR shows potential for future applications in rapid in-field and at-line screening of multiple mycotoxins. ..
  7. Yang H, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Xue S, Li S, Zhou X, et al. Increased Chondrocyte Apoptosis in Kashin-Beck Disease and Rats Induced by T-2 Toxin and Selenium Deficiency. Biomed Environ Sci. 2017;30:351-362 pubmed publisher
    ..T-2 toxin under a selenium-deficient nutritional status induces chondrocyte death, which emphasizes the role of chondrocyte apoptosis in cartilage damage and progression of KBD. ..
  8. Langseth W, Rundberget T. The occurrence of HT-2 toxin and other trichothecenes in Norwegian cereals. Mycopathologia. 1999;147:157-65 pubmed
    ..Norwegian oats were found to contain HT-2 and T-2 toxin in concentrations that might be at threat to human health for high consumers of oats. The amount of DON was significantly lower than in the crop from previous years. ..
  9. Madheswaran R, Balachandran C, Murali Manohar B. Influence of dietary culture material containing aflatoxin and T(2) toxin on certain serum biochemical constituents in Japanese quail. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:337-41 pubmed
    ..There was a reduction in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, ALT and elevation of AST and GGT and variable ALP levels observed in toxin treated groups...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Garber E, Eppley R, Stack M, McLaughlin M, Park D. Feasibility of immunodiagnostic devices for the detection of ricin, amanitin, and T-2 toxin in food. J Food Prot. 2005;68:1294-301 pubmed
    ..Competitive ELISAs, which typically have unacceptably high background reactions with food samples, successfully detected amanitin and T-2 toxin. ..
  2. Yuan Z, Matias F, Yi J, Wu J. T-2 toxin-induced cytotoxicity and damage on TM3 Leydig cells. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;181-182:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proves that T-2 toxin can damage the testes and thus affects the reproductive capacity of animals and humans. Furthermore, oxidative stress plays an important role in the cytotoxic effect of T-2 toxin. ..
  3. Perkowski J, Basinski T. Natural contamination of oat with group A trichothecene mycotoxins in Poland. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:478-82 pubmed
    ..The highest concentrations of HT-2, T-2 and DAS were 47, 703 and 111 microg kg(-1), respectively. Sixty-five samples were free of detectable amounts of the toxic metabolites analysed. ..
  4. Grove J. The trichothecenes and their biosynthesis. Fortschr Chem Org Naturst. 2007;88:63-130 pubmed
  5. Tanaka T, Abe H, Kimura M, Onda N, Mizukami S, Yoshida T, et al. Developmental exposure to T-2 toxin reversibly affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces neural stem cells and progenitor cells in mice. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:2009-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The no-observed-adverse-effect level for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 1 ppm (0.14-0.49 mg/kg body weight/day). ..
  6. Zhang J, Liu S, Zhang H, Li Y, Wu W, Zhang H. Gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin and glucagon-like Peptide-17-36 amide mediate anorexia induction by trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and neosolaniol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;335:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CCK plays a contributory role in anorexia induction but GLP-1 might play a lesser role in this response. ..
  7. Tolosa J, Graziani G, Gaspari A, Chianese D, Ferrer E, Manes J, et al. Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by  Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole  Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The highest contents corresponded to ENB and  ranged from 91.15?g/kg to 710.90 ?g/kg. ..
  8. Michlmayr H, Varga E, Malachová A, Fruhmann P, Piątkowska M, Hametner C, et al. UDP-Glucosyltransferases from Rice, Brachypodium, and Barley: Substrate Specificities and Synthesis of Type A and B Trichothecene-3-O-β-d-glucosides. Toxins (Basel). 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..These synthesized standards can be used to investigate the occurrence and toxicological properties of these modified mycotoxins. ..
  9. Nagase M, Alam M, Tsushima A, Yoshizawa T, Sakato N. Apoptosis induction by T-2 toxin: activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic release of cytochrome c in HL-60 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:1741-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that T-2-induced apoptosis involves activation of caspase-3 and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c along with caspase-9 activation. ..
  10. Le Drean G, Auffret M, Batina P, Arnold F, Sibiril Y, Arzur D, et al. Myelotoxicity of trichothecenes and apoptosis: an in vitro study on human cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005;19:1015-24 pubmed
    ..The hematological effects observed in T-2 toxin mycotoxicosis could then be assigned to hematopoiesis inhibition by apoptosis. Different mechanisms that need to be further elucidated are involved in DON myelotoxicity. ..
  11. Mankeviciene A, Butkute B, Dabkevicius Z, Suproniene S. Fusarium mycotoxins in Lithuanian cereals from the 2004-2005 harvests. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14:103-7 pubmed
    ..The weather conditions at harvesting contributed to an increase in the contents of Fusarium fungi and DON and ZEN mycotoxins produced by them in winter wheat grain. This risk factor increases the threat to human and animal health. ..
  12. McKean C, Tang L, Billam M, Tang M, Theodorakis C, Kendall R, et al. Comparative acute and combinative toxicity of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin in animals and immortalized human cell lines. J Appl Toxicol. 2006;26:139-47 pubmed
  13. Blesa J, Meca G, Rubert J, Soriano J, Ritieni A, Manes J. Glucose influence on the production of T-2 toxin by Fusarium sporotrichioides. Toxicon. 2010;55:1157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of T-2 toxin produced by the strain of F. sporotrichioides ranged from 0 to 1.45 mg/kg. The better T-2 production was evidenced in the fermentation operated with 20% of glucose. ..
  14. Bernhardt K, Valenta H, Kersten S, Humpf H, Dänicke S. Determination of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and three other type A trichothecenes in layer feed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)--comparison of two sample preparation methods. Mycotoxin Res. 2016;32:89-97 pubmed publisher
  15. De Boevre M, Van Poucke C, Ediage E, Vanderputten D, Van Landschoot A, De Saeger S. Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography as a Separation Tool for Fusarium Mycotoxins and Their Modified Forms. J AOAC Int. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This restricts the applicability of UHPSFC in multimycotoxin analyses. The present study is the first report on the use of UHPSFC for the analysis of free and modified Fusarium mycotoxins...
  16. Eskola M, Parikka P, Rizzo A. Trichothecenes, ochratoxin A and zearalenone contamination and fusarium infection in Finnish cereal samples in 1998. Food Addit Contam. 2001;18:707-18 pubmed
    ..Deoxynivalenol was detected in 54 samples in the concentration range 5-111 microg/kg. Nivalenol and HT-2 toxin were detected in three and two samples, respectively, in the concentration range 10-20 microg/kg. ..
  17. Proctor R, McCormick S, Alexander N, Desjardins A. Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1128-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, evolutionary forces have driven consolidation of TRI genes into fewer loci in some fusaria but have maintained three distinct TRI loci in others. ..
  18. Zhang Y, Su P, Wang L, Zheng H, Bai X, Li P, et al. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis via the Bax-dependent caspase-3 activation in mouse primary Leydig cells. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2018;28:23-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data showed that T-2 toxin appears to activate specific intracellular death-related pathways leading to Bax-dependent caspase-3 activation and the induction of apoptosis in Leydig cells...
  19. Yang R, Wang Y, Zhang L, Zhao Z, Zhao J, Peng S. Prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin advances pubertal onset and development in female rats via promoting the onset of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016;35:1276-1285 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to a high level of T-2 toxin promotes puberty onset in infantile female rats by advancing the initiation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in female rats. ..
  20. Gavrilova O, Skritnika A, Gagkaeva T. Identification and Characterization of Spontaneous Auxotrophic Mutants in Fusarium langsethiae. Microorganisms. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, the spontaneous mutations in F. langsethiae observed in the present work have not been previously reported. ..
  21. Hossain M, McCormick S, Maragos C. An Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Assay for the Detection of T-2 Toxin and Masked T-2 Toxin-3-Glucoside in Wheat. Toxins (Basel). 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The developed iSPR assay was rapid and provided enough sensitivity for the monitoring of T-2 toxin/T2-G in wheat. This is the first iSPR assay useful for detecting the "masked" T2-G in wheat. ..
  22. Bánáti H, Darvas B, Fehér Tóth S, Czéh A, Székács A. Determination of Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium Species in Genetically Modified Maize Varieties by Quantitative Flow Immunocytometry. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the utility of the Fungi-Plex™ quantitative flow immunocytometry method, applied for the high throughput parallel determination of the target mycotoxins. ..
  23. Smith M, Madec S, Troadec S, Coton E, Hymery N. Effects of fusariotoxin co-exposure on THP-1 human immune cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2018;34:191-205 pubmed publisher
  24. Brown D, McCormick S, Alexander N, Proctor R, Desjardins A. A genetic and biochemical approach to study trichothecene diversity in Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum. Fungal Genet Biol. 2001;32:121-33 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis indicated that F. graminearum TRI7 (FgTRI7) is nonfunctional. This is consistent with the fact that the FgTRI7 product is not required for DON synthesis in F. graminearum because C-4 is not oxygenated. ..
  25. Knutsen A, Torp M, Holst Jensen A. Phylogenetic analyses of the Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium langsethiae species complex based on partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004;95:287-95 pubmed
    ..In contrast, morphological characters indicate a closer relationship between F. langsethiae and F. poae on the one hand, and between F. sporotrichioides and F. kyushuense on the other hand. ..
  26. Xue C, Wang G, Chen F, Zhang X, Bi Y, Cao Y. Immunopathological effects of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin combination on broilers. Poult Sci. 2010;89:1162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that it may be time to reduce the maximum allowable limits of OTA and T-2 mycotoxins in feeds to improve animal health and the safety of the food chain. ..
  27. Liu X, Wen J, Chen R, Zhang T, Jiang J, Deng Y. T-2 toxin induces the expression of porcine CYP3A22 via the upregulation of the transcription factor, NF-Y. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860:2191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Although porcine CYP3A22 is homologous to hCYP3A4, the regulation of basal and induced expression of CYP3A22 occurred via distinct mechanisms. This may account for the variety of CYP3A expression in animals and humans. ..
  28. McNamee S, Bravin F, Rosar G, Elliott C, Campbell K. Development of a nanoarray capable of the rapid and simultaneous detection of zearalenone, T2-toxin and fumonisin. Talanta. 2017;164:368-376 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvements in automated image and data analysis software for novice end users are required to improve the overall rapidity of analysis. ..
  29. De Gelder L, Audenaert K, Willems B, Schelfhout K, De Saeger S, De Boevre M. Processing of mycotoxin contaminated waste streams through anaerobic digestion. Waste Manag. 2018;71:122-128 pubmed publisher
    ..8 hydraulic retention time with stable biogas production and process parameters. This study shows that mycotoxin contaminated organic waste can be safely valorized to methane while the digestate is void of mycotoxin residues. ..
  30. Guo P, Liu A, Huang D, Wu Q, Fatima Z, Tao Y, et al. Brain damage and neurological symptoms induced by T-2 toxin in rat brain. Toxicol Lett. 2018;286:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, given its widespread pollution in food, we should pay more attention to the neurotoxic effects of the T-2 toxin, which may have widespread implications for human health. ..
  31. Sibanda L, De Saeger S, Van Peteghem C, Grabarkiewicz Szczesna J, Tomczak M. Detection of T-2 toxin in different cereals by flow-through enzyme immunoassay with a simultaneous internal reference. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:5864-7 pubmed
    ..05), whereas there was a significant difference between the internal control and positive samples (P < 0.05). The minimum detectable limit that could be visually detected with confidence was 50 ng of T-2 per gram of cereal sample. ..
  32. Male D, Wu W, Mitchell N, Bursian S, Pestka J, Wu F. Modeling the emetic potencies of food-borne trichothecenes by benchmark dose methodology. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;94:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these results provide key information on comparative toxicities, there is still a need for more animal based studies focusing on various endpoints and combined effects of trichothecenes before TEFs can be established. ..
  33. Sheik Abdul N, Nagiah S, Chuturgoon A. Fusaric acid induces mitochondrial stress in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Toxicon. 2016;119:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of FA (a neglected mycotoxin) induced hepatotoxicity. ..
  34. Ten Bosch L, Pfohl K, Avramidis G, Wieneke S, Viöl W, Karlovsky P. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains. ..
  35. Vila B, Jaradat Z, Marquardt R, Frohlich A. Effect of T-2 toxin on in vivo lipid peroxidation and vitamin E status in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:479-86 pubmed
    ..Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels decreased as soon as 6 h after the toxin challenge, while MDA did not increase until there was a severe depletion of vitamin E. These changes were accompanied by decrease in weight of spleen and thymus. ..
  36. El Golli E, Hassen W, Bouslimi A, Bouaziz C, Ladjimi M, Bacha H. Induction of Hsp 70 in Vero cells in response to mycotoxins cytoprotection by sub-lethal heat shock and by Vitamin E. Toxicol Lett. 2006;166:122-30 pubmed
  37. Sokolovic M, Garaj Vrhovac V, Ramic S, Simpraga B. Chicken nucleated blood cells as a cellular model for genotoxicity testing using the comet assay. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:2165-70 pubmed
    ..Our results show that T-2 toxin had induced significant DNA damage in treated chicken as compared with control animals, indicating that the assay can be used for the assessment of primary DNA damage caused by mycotoxins. ..
  38. Lattanzio V, Solfrizzo M, Visconti A. Determination of trichothecenes in cereals and cereal-based products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008;25:320-30 pubmed
    ..The method was applied to the analysis of 57 samples of ground wheat originated from South Italy and nine cereal food samples collected from retail markets. ..
  39. Borison H, Goodheart M. Neural factors in acute emetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects of T-2 toxin in cats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989;101:399-413 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that T-2 toxin exercised minimal influence on the brain stem CO2-VT regulator but it caused an acceleration of the central respiratory oscillator after interruption of forebrain connections. ..
  40. Torp M, Langseth W. Production of T-2 toxin by a Fusarium resembling Fusarium poae. Mycopathologia. 1999;147:89-96 pubmed
    ..poae isolates studied. The question of whether this Fusarium should be classified as F. poae or F. sporotrichioides or a separate taxon should be addressed. ..
  41. Rosenbloom M, Leikin J, Vogel S, Chaudry Z. Biological and chemical agents: a brief synopsis. Am J Ther. 2002;9:5-14 pubmed
    ..The information provided outlines the bare essentials needed to deal with any emergency or catastrophic event involving these agents...
  42. Schlatter J. Toxicity data relevant for hazard characterization. Toxicol Lett. 2004;153:83-9 pubmed
    ..Tolerable Daily Intakes of 1, 0.7 and 0.06 microg/kg b.w. were established for DON, NIV and the sum of T-2 and HT-2, respectively. The TDI's for NIV, T-2 and HT-2 were made temporary because of deficiencies the database. ..
  43. Sokolović M, Garaj Vrhovac V, Simpraga B. T-2 toxin: incidence and toxicity in poultry. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2008;59:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Regular control of grain and feed samples is a valuable preventive measure, and it is accurate only if representative samples are tested. This article reviews the incidence and toxic effects of T-2 toxin in poultry. ..
  44. Chen J, Cao J, Chu Y, Wang Z, Yang Z, Wang H. T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis involving Fas, p53, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in human chondrocytes. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008;9:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a possible underlying molecular mechanism for T-2 toxin to induce the apoptosis signaling pathway in human chondrocytes by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. ..
  45. Postupolski J, Rybińska K, Ledzion E, Kurpińska Jaworska J, Szczesna M, Karłowski K. [Monitoring programme of T-2 and HT-2 toxins level in cereal products]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2008;59:429-35 pubmed
    ..5 microg/kg (maximum level 109 microg/kg in oat flakes), in other samples (wheat and barley flakes, grouts, flours) - 7.0 microg/kg. Intake of T-2/HT-2 toxin by the consumer in Poland is much lower than the TDI. ..
  46. Basova E, Goryacheva I, Rusanova T, Burmistrova N, Dietrich R, Märtlbauer E, et al. An immunochemical test for rapid screening of zearalenone and T-2 toxin. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Under optimised conditions a cut-off level for ZEA and T2 of 100 microg/kg was established. Different feed types were analysed for ZEA and T2 contamination by the proposed method and results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. ..
  47. Strub C, Pocaznoi D, Lebrihi A, Fournier R, Mathieu F. Influence of barley malting operating parameters on T-2 and HT-2 toxinogenesis of Fusarium langsethiae, a worrying contaminant of malting barley in Europe. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:1247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the medium-term, the results will contribute to the development of a molecular tool to diagnose the presence of this contaminant and the detection of the toxins in barley, from fields to the end product. ..
  48. Pang V, Lambert R, Felsburg P, Beasley V, Buck W, Haschek W. Experimental T-2 toxicosis in swine following inhalation exposure: effects on pulmonary and systemic immunity, and morphologic changes. Toxicol Pathol. 1987;15:308-19 pubmed
    ..2 mg/kg (approximate LD50) or greater, as well as death. Mild pulmonary injury as well as transient impairment of pulmonary immunity was present in pigs surviving inhalation exposure. ..
  49. Fu Y, Lin W, BaoCheng Z, Quan G. The effect of T-2 toxin on IL-1beta and IL-6 secretion in human fetal chondrocytes. Int Orthop. 2001;25:199-201 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that T-2 toxin could superinduce IL-1beta and IL-6 secretion in chondrocytes. All these data suggested that superinduction of cytokines might be one of the key mechanisms of chondrocyte injuries by T-2 toxin. ..
  50. Kravchenko L, Avren eva L, Guseva G, Posdnyakov A, Tutel yan V. Effect of nutritional indoles on activity of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes and T-2 toxicity in rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2001;131:544-7 pubmed
    ..5-2-fold higher in rats receiving T-2 toxin against the background of indole-enriched diet compared to toxin-treated rats kept on standard ration. ..
  51. Fuchs E, Binder E, Heidler D, Krska R. Structural characterization of metabolites after the microbial degradation of type A trichothecenes by the bacterial strain BBSH 797. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:379-86 pubmed
    ..Besides the mass spectra of already known degradation products, spectra of new metabolites could be recorded by LC-PB-MS...
  52. Alm H, Brüssow K, Torner H, Vanselow J, Tomek W, Danicke S, et al. Influence of Fusarium-toxin contaminated feed on initial quality and meiotic competence of gilt oocytes. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;22:44-50 pubmed
    ..We conclude that oocyte quality is significantly reduced by feeding of Fusarium-toxins to gilts. ..
  53. Garvey G, McCormick S, Rayment I. Structural and functional characterization of the TRI101 trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: kinetic insights to combating Fusarium head blight. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1660-9 pubmed
    ..The structural and kinetic results together emphasize that the choice of an enzymatic resistance gene in transgenic crop protection strategies must take into account the kinetic profile of the selected protein. ..
  54. Meissonnier G, Laffitte J, Raymond I, Benoit E, Cossalter A, Pinton P, et al. Subclinical doses of T-2 toxin impair acquired immune response and liver cytochrome P450 in pigs. Toxicology. 2008;247:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of monooxygenase activities, even though the liver presented no tissue lesion or lipid peroxidation, suggests possible deleterious interactions of T-2 toxin with these enzymes. ..
  55. Trebstein A, Seefelder W, Lauber U, Humpf H. Determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereals including oats after immunoaffinity cleanup by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4968-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, when comparing the commercially available immunoaffinity columns for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, significant differences regarding capacity and cleanup performance were observed. ..
  56. Huff W, Harvey R, Kubena L, Rottinghaus G. Toxic synergism between aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1988;67:1418-23 pubmed
    ..This synergism is a threat to poultry production due to the prevalence of these mycotoxins and severity of the interactive toxicity of these mycotoxins...
  57. Ishigami N, Shinozuka J, Katayama K, Nakayama H, Doi K. Apoptosis in mouse fetuses from dams exposed to T-2 toxin at different days of gestation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001;52:493-501 pubmed
    ..From the present findings and the well known fact that T-2 toxin readily crosses the rat placenta, it seems that T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in the developing mouse fetuses might be a direct effect of T-2 toxin on fetuses. ..
  58. Froquet R, Sibiril Y, Parent Massin D. Trichothecene toxicity on human megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK). Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001;20:84-9 pubmed
    ..Sensitivity of human CFU-MK is compared to respective sensitivities of human red blood cell progenitors (BFU-E) and white blood cell progenitors (CF-U-GM) that were described in previous works. ..
  59. Nagata T, Suzuki H, Ishigami N, Shinozuka J, Uetsuka K, Nakayama H, et al. Development of apoptosis and changes in lymphocyte subsets in thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of mice orally inoculated with T-2 toxin. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001;53:309-15 pubmed
    ..In addition, among IgM+, IgG+ and IgA+ B cells, the number of IA+ B cells which are more important in the mucosal immunity was most severely affected. ..
  60. Peplow A, Meek I, Wiles M, Phillips T, Beremand M. Tri16 is required for esterification of position C-8 during trichothecene mycotoxin production by Fusarium sporotrichioides. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5935-40 pubmed
    ..We also report the presence of a Tri16 ortholog in Gibberella pulicaris R-6380 that is likely linked to a presumably inactive ortholog for Tri1. ..
  61. Visconti A, Lattanzio V, Pascale M, Haidukowski M. Analysis of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal grains by immunoaffinity clean-up and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1075:151-8 pubmed
    ..HT-2 toxin was detected in ten naturally contaminated wheat samples out of 14 samples analyzed, with toxin levels ranging from 10 to 71 microg/kg; three of them contained also T-2 toxin up to 12 microg/kg. ..
  62. Sehata S, Kiyosawa N, Atsumi F, Ito K, Yamoto T, Teranishi M, et al. Microarray analysis of T-2 toxin-induced liver, placenta and fetal liver lesions in pregnant rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2005;57:15-28 pubmed
    ..The c-jun gene may play an important role in T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis. ..
  63. Chen J, Chu Y, Cao J, Yang Z, Guo X, Wang Z. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis, and selenium partly blocks, T-2 toxin induced apoptosis in chondrocytes through modulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:567-73 pubmed
  64. Bouaziz C, Abid Essefi S, Bouslimi A, El Golli E, Bacha H. Cytotoxicity and related effects of T-2 toxin on cultured Vero cells. Toxicon. 2006;48:343-52 pubmed
    ..This fragmentation is in relation with apoptosis induction which was confirmed by activation of caspase-3, and depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential reflecting a mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  65. Dohnal V, Jezkova A, Kuca K, Jun D. [T-2 toxin: occurrence and detection]. Ceska Slov Farm. 2007;56:174-7 pubmed
    ..Due to its physical-chemical properties and high toxicity, T-2 toxin is classified as a potential biological warfare agent. ..
  66. Albarenque S, Suzuki K, Shinozuka J, Nakayama H, Doi K. Kinetics of apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression in the dorsal skin of hypotrichotic WBN/ILA-ht rats after topical application of T-2 toxin. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001;52:553-6 pubmed
  67. Kravchenko L, Avren eva L. [Protective influence of bioactive food supplement "Rekicen RD" in alimentary T-2-mycotoxicosis in rats]. Vopr Pitan. 2002;71:38-41 pubmed
  68. Kamalavenkatesh P, Vairamuthu S, Balachandran C, Manohar B, raj G. Immunopathological effect of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and T-2 toxin on broiler chicken. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:273-9 pubmed
    ..Significant (p<0.01) interaction was found for lymphocyte subsets, SI and HI titres to NDV. The study indicated the immunosuppressive effect of these toxins either alone or in combination in broiler chicks. ..
  69. Biancardi A, Gasparini M, Dall Asta C, Marchelli R. A rapid multiresidual determination of type A and type B trichothecenes in wheat flour by HPLC-ESI-MS. Food Addit Contam. 2005;22:251-8 pubmed
    ..The method performance is reported in terms of linearity (r2 = 0.999), specificity, accuracy (recoveries from 70-120%) and precision (CV% = 5), the LOQs are in the range 10-20 microg/Kg. ..
  70. Nabok A, Tsargorodskaya A, Holloway A, Starodub N, Gojster O. Registration of T-2 mycotoxin with total internal reflection ellipsometry and QCM impedance methods. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007;22:885-90 pubmed
    ..The QCM impedance measurements data showed anomalously large mass increase and film softening, most likely, due to the binding of large T-2 aggregates to antibodies. ..
  71. Schollenberger M, Drochner W, Müller H. Fusarium toxins of the scirpentriol subgroup: a review. Mycopathologia. 2007;164:101-18 pubmed
    ..Basing on literature reports about the toxicity of scirpentriol toxins an attempt is made to summarise the state of knowledge for risk evaluation for human and animal health. ..
  72. Nabok A, Tsargorodskaya A, Holloway A, Starodub N, Demchenko A. Specific binding of large aggregates of amphiphilic molecules to the respective antibodies. Langmuir. 2007;23:8485-90 pubmed
    ..The formation of large molecular aggregates of nonylphenol and T-2 mycotoxin molecules on the surface was proved by the AFM study. ..
  73. Rafai P, Pettersson H, Bata A, Papp Z, Glavits R, Tuboly S, et al. Effect of dietary T-2 fusariotoxin concentrations on the health and production of white Pekin duck broilers. Poult Sci. 2000;79:1548-56 pubmed
    ..In the 3 and 4 mg/kg groups, the histological examination revealed lymphocyte depletion in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. ..
  74. Rasmussen P, Ghorbani F, Berg T. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:396-404 pubmed
    ..The concentration of T-2 toxin in durum wheat flour was also high with five of the 10 analysed samples containing more than 100 g kg(-1). ..
  75. Perkowski J, Kiecana I, Stachowiak J, Basinski T. Natural occurrence of scirpentriol in cereals infected by Fusarium species. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:572-8 pubmed
    ..5 mm 28 microg x kg(-1), <2.5 mm 297 microg x kg(-1)). In oats, STO levels were highest in the chaff, lower in the stalk's apical internode and lowest in the grain. ..
  76. Albarenque S, Doi K. T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in rat keratinocyte primary cultures. Exp Mol Pathol. 2005;78:144-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that c-fos and c-jun oncogenes and TNF-alpha and IL-1beta play an important role in the development of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes. ..
  77. Minervini F, Fornelli F, Lucivero G, Romano C, Visconti A. T-2 toxin immunotoxicity on human B and T lymphoid cell lines. Toxicology. 2005;210:81-91 pubmed
    ..Cytotoxicity appeared to be due to early apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells, as indicated by increased Annexin V binding and activation of caspase-3, and to direct cell membrane damage in IM-9 cells. ..
  78. Trufanov O, Kotyk A, Bozhok L. [Effect of probiotic preparation based on Bacillus subtilis (BPS-44) in experimental mycotoxicoses of chickens]. Mikrobiol Z. 2008;70:52-8 pubmed
  79. Bernhoft A, Clasen P, Kristoffersen A, Torp M. Less Fusarium infestation and mycotoxin contamination in organic than in conventional cereals. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies of these issues will be presented separately. ..
  80. Schwake Anduschus C, Langenkämper G, Unbehend G, Dietrich R, Märtlbauer E, Münzing K. Occurrence of Fusarium T-2 and HT-2 toxins in oats from cultivar studies in Germany and degradation of the toxins during grain cleaning treatment and food processing. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:1253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized baking experiments using 20% oat meal showed that T-2 and HT-2 toxins are relatively stable during the baking process, probably due to their temperature stability. ..
  81. Rafai P, Bata A, Jakab L, Vanyi A. Evaluation of mycotoxin-contaminated cereals for their use in animal feeds in Hungary. Food Addit Contam. 2000;17:799-808 pubmed
    ..1, 6.7, and 6.3%, respectively). The results of the present investigation indicate a need for regular screening for mycotoxins of importance and individual appraisal of each commodity from the point of their use in animal feeds. ..
  82. Konjevic D, Srebocan E, Gudan A, Lojkic I, Severin K, Sokolović M. A pathological condition possibly caused by spontaneous trichotecene poisoning in Brahma poultry: first report. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:377-80 pubmed
    ..97 mg/kg), parasitological, virological and histopathological results indicate trichotecenes as the causative agents of this pathological condition. ..
  83. Pal A, Acharya D, Saha D, Dhar T. Development of a membrane-based immunofiltration assay for the detection of T-2 toxin. Anal Chem. 2004;76:4237-40 pubmed
    ..Mean recoveries by both methods were between 80 and 108%. The correlation between the two methods was excellent (R(2) = 0.99). ..
  84. Koch P. State of the art of trichothecenes analysis. Toxicol Lett. 2004;153:109-12 pubmed
    ..Up to now, a method which is able to detect types A and B trichothecenes simultaneously with a sufficiently low limit of detection is lacking, even though methods are published which have at least the same clean up step. ..
  85. Sehata S, Kiyosawa N, Makino T, Atsumi F, Ito K, Yamoto T, et al. Morphological and microarray analysis of T-2 toxin-induced rat fetal brain lesion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:1727-36 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in the fetal brain is due to oxidative stress, and that the MAPK pathway may be involved in T-2 toxin-induced toxicity. ..
  86. Hymery N, Sibiril Y, Parent Massin D. In vitro effects of trichothecenes on human dendritic cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:899-909 pubmed
    ..These results suggest trichothecenes have adverse effects on dendritic cells and dendritic cell maturation process. ..
  87. Jaradat Z, Viià B, Marquardt R. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E. Toxicology. 2006;225:90-6 pubmed
    ..The difference in the effect between the two forms of Vitamin E might be related to their relative solubility in the culture media which in turn may affect their availability for protection. ..
  88. Chen J, Chu Y, Cao J, Yang Z, Shi Z, Guo X, et al. [Effect of NO and Fas pathway on T-2 induced apoptosis in chondrocytes]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006;37:583-6 pubmed
    ..T-2 toxin can enhance NO production and upregulate the expression of iNOS and Fas protein. Both NO and Fas signaling pathway are involved in T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis. ..
  89. Lattanzio V, Solfrizzo M, Powers S, Visconti A. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins in maize by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after multitoxin immunoaffinity cleanup. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:3253-61 pubmed
    ..Limits of detection in maize ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 microg/kg. Recoveries higher than 79% were obtained for all tested mycotoxins with relative standard deviations less than 13%. ..
  90. Ahmadi K, Riazipour M. Effects of T-2 toxin on cytokine production by mice peritoneal macrophages and lymph node T-cells. Iran J Immunol. 2008;5:177-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05, p<0.001). The results suggest that T-2 toxin at low concentrations can highly induce secretion of IL-12, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-2 and it may be used as a positive immunomodulator in the human model. ..
  91. Brown D, McCormick S, Alexander N, Proctor R, Desjardins A. Inactivation of a cytochrome P-450 is a determinant of trichothecene diversity in Fusarium species. Fungal Genet Biol. 2002;36:224-33 pubmed
    ..These genetic observations are consistent with chemical observations that biosynthesis of T-2 toxin and NIV requires a C-4 hydroxylase while biosynthesis of DON does not. ..
  92. Sklan D, Shelly M, Makovsky B, Geyra A, Klipper E, Friedman A. The effect of chronic feeding of diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and antibody production in turkey poults. Br Poult Sci. 2003;44:46-52 pubmed
    ..5. This study indicates that tricothecene toxins at concentrations of up to 1 ppm for more than 30 d influenced small intestinal morphology but did not affect growth or antibody production. ..