Summary: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.

Top Publications

  1. Boenisch M, Schäfer W. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:110 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that trichothecene biosynthesis is specifically induced in infection structures, but is neither necessary for their development nor for formation of primary symptoms on wheat. ..
  2. Osselaere A, Devreese M, Goossens J, Vandenbroucke V, De Baere S, De Backer P, et al. Toxicokinetic study and absolute oral bioavailability of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in broiler chickens. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;51:350-5 pubmed publisher
    ..12, 0.03 and 0.48L/minkg for deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, respectively. After IV administration, T-2 toxin had the shortest elimination half-life (3.9min), followed by deoxynivalenol (27.9min) and zearalenone (31.8min). ..
  3. Sato I, Ito M, Ishizaka M, Ikunaga Y, Sato Y, Yoshida S, et al. Thirteen novel deoxynivalenol-degrading bacteria are classified within two genera with distinct degradation mechanisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;327:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that aerobic DDBs are distributed within at least two phylogenetically restricted genera, suggesting independent evolution of the DON-degradation mechanisms. ..
  4. Zhang X, Li G, Ma J, Zeng Y, Ma W, Zhao P. Endophytic fungus Trichothecium roseum LZ93 antagonizing pathogenic fungi in vitro and its secondary metabolites. J Microbiol. 2010;48:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven compounds were obtained, including two trichothecenes, five rosenonolactones, two cardiotonic cyclodepsipeptides, and two sterols...
  5. Turner P, Flannery B, Isitt C, Ali M, Pestka J. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food. Nutr Res Rev. 2012;25:162-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health. ..
  6. Winter M, Koopmann B, Döll K, Karlovsky P, Kropf U, Schlüter K, et al. Mechanisms regulating grain contamination with trichothecenes translocated from the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum) infected with Fusarium culmorum. Phytopathology. 2013;103:682-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate the effective control of influx of systemically translocated fungal mycotoxins into grains at the rachilla-seed interface by the xylem discontinuity tissue in wheat ears. ..
  7. Pan X, Whitten D, Wu M, Chan C, Wilkerson C, Pestka J. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;268:201-11 pubmed publisher
  8. Amuzie C, Flannery B, Ulrich A, Pestka J. Effects of deoxynivalenol consumption on body weight and adiposity in the diet-induced obese mouse. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, DON consumption lowered weight gain and produced weight loss in diet-induced obese mice at higher thresholds than that observed previously in normal B6C3F1 mice. ..
  9. Girardet C, Bonnet M, Jdir R, Sadoud M, Thirion S, Tardivel C, et al. Central inflammation and sickness-like behavior induced by the food contaminant deoxynivalenol: a PGE2-independent mechanism. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:179-91 pubmed publisher
    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant trichothecenes found on cereals, has been implicated in mycotoxicoses in both humans and farm animals...

More Information


  1. Malachova A, Dzuman Z, Veprikova Z, Vaclavikova M, Zachariasova M, Hajslova J. Deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and enniatins: the major mycotoxins found in cereal-based products on the Czech market. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12990-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Czech retail market in 2010, the occurrence of "traditional" mycotoxins such as groups of A and B trichothecenes and zearalenone, less routinely determined Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and ..
  2. Talas F, Kalih R, Miedaner T. Within-field variation of Fusarium graminearum isolates for aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol production in wheat head blight. Phytopathology. 2012;102:128-34 pubmed publisher
  3. Zachariasova M, Vaclavikova M, Lacina O, Vaclavik L, Hajslova J. Deoxynivalenol oligoglycosides: new "masked" fusarium toxins occurring in malt, beer, and breadstuff. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study documenting the complexity of masked deoxynivalenol issue. ..
  4. Osselaere A, Devreese M, Watteyn A, Vandenbroucke V, Goossens J, Hautekiet V, et al. Efficacy and safety testing of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents in broilers following the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycotoxin-detoxifying agents can thus interact with the oral bioavailability of antibiotics depending on the antibiotic and detoxifying agent, with possible adverse effects on the health of animals and humans. ..
  5. Goossens J, Vandenbroucke V, Pasmans F, De Baere S, Devreese M, Osselaere A, et al. Influence of mycotoxins and a mycotoxin adsorbing agent on the oral bioavailability of commonly used antibiotics in pigs. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:281-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This could have consequences for animal toxicity, withdrawal time for oral antibiotics, or public health. ..
  6. Maul R, Warth B, Kant J, Schebb N, Krska R, Koch M, et al. Investigation of the hepatic glucuronidation pattern of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in various species. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:2715-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While the activity of human liver microsomes was low (0.8 to 2.2 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1)), bovine liver and rat liver microsomes conjugated DON with activities of 525 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) and 80 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively. ..
  7. Awad W, Aschenbach J, Zentek J. Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by deoxynivalenol in the porcine intestinal IPEC-J2 cell line. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2012;96:709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant decrease in ATP levels was seen at 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. It could be demonstrated that DON has a distinct cytotoxic effect on IPEC-J2 cells. ..
  8. Eckard S, Wettstein F, Forrer H, Vogelgsang S. Incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in silage maize. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:949-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins...
  9. Sneller C, Guttieri M, Paul P, Costa J, Jackwood R. Variation for resistance to kernel infection and toxin accumulation in winter wheat infected with Fusarium graminearum. Phytopathology. 2012;102:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This work indicates that there is a need to develop a better understanding of RTA and rapid screening methods for this trait. ..
  10. Pestka J. Deoxynivalenol-induced proinflammatory gene expression: mechanisms and pathological sequelae. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:1300-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that these investigations will enable the identification of robust biomarkers of effect that will be applicable to epidemiological studies of the human health effects of this common mycotoxin. ..
  11. Girardet C, Bonnet M, Jdir R, Sadoud M, Thirion S, Tardivel C, et al. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26134 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders...
  12. Li F, Yu C, Shao B, Wang W, Yu H. [Natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and multi-mycotoxins in cereals from China harvested in 2007 and 2008]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;45:57-63 pubmed
    ..086, P < 0.05). Wheat and corn samples from parts of China were contaminated with multi-mycotoxins and DON was the predominant;in comparison of wheat, corn was more heavily contaminated with DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN. ..
  13. Pinton P, Tsybulskyy D, Lucioli J, Laffitte J, Callu P, Lyazhri F, et al. Toxicity of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives on the intestine: differential effects on morphology, barrier function, tight junction proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicol Sci. 2012;130:180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the higher toxicity of 15-DON is due to its ability to activate the MAPK. Given that cereal-based foods are contaminated with DON and acetylated-DON, the higher toxicity of 15-ADON should be taken into account. ..
  14. McCormick S, Stanley A, Stover N, Alexander N. Trichothecenes: from simple to complex mycotoxins. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:802-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers the types of trichothecenes, their complexity, and proposed biosynthetic pathways of trichothecenes.
  15. Rasmussen P, Nielsen K, Ghorbani F, Spliid N, Nielsen G, Jørgensen L. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-?-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants. Mycotoxin Res. 2012;28:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below the detection limit of the ..
  16. Alassane Kpembi I, Kolf Clauw M, Gauthier T, Abrami R, Abiola F, Oswald I, et al. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: the toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;272:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DON is often present with other type B trichothecenes such as 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (..
  17. Diesing A, Nossol C, Ponsuksili S, Wimmers K, Kluess J, Walk N, et al. Gene regulation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2 is dependent on the site of deoxynivalenol toxicological action. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34136 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of toxicological potentials of mycotoxins should take this difference in gene regulation dependent on route of application into account. ..
  18. Kobayashi Hattori K, Amuzie C, Flannery B, Pestka J. Body composition and hormonal effects following exposure to mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1070-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DON-mediated effects on body weight, fat mass, food intake, and hormonal levels in obese mice were consistent with a state of chronic energy restriction. ..
  19. Park S, Choi H, Yang H, Do K, Kim J, Moon Y. Repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by mucosal ribotoxic insult-activated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein. J Immunol. 2010;185:5522-30 pubmed publisher
  20. Warth B, Sulyok M, Fruhmann P, Berthiller F, Schuhmacher R, Hametner C, et al. Assessment of human deoxynivalenol exposure using an LC-MS/MS based biomarker method. Toxicol Lett. 2012;211:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The reported new findings clearly demonstrate the great potential of suitable biomarkers to critically assess exposure of humans and animals to DON. ..
  21. Uhlig S, Ivanova L, Fæste C. Enzyme-assisted synthesis and structural characterization of the 3-, 8-, and 15-glucuronides of deoxynivalenol. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:2006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This glucuronide was finally identified as deoxynivalenol 8-O-?-D-glucuronide. The present study provides unequivocal structural evidence for three glucuronides of deoxynivalenol formed by liver enzymes. ..
  22. Medvedova M, Kolesarova A, Capcarova M, Labuda R, Sirotkin A, Kovacik J, et al. The effect of deoxynivalenol on the secretion activity, proliferation and apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. J Environ Sci Health B. 2011;46:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro study suggests the dose-dependent association of DON on porcine ovarian functions. ..
  23. Ponts N, Pinson Gadais L, Boutigny A, Barreau C, Richard Forget F. Cinnamic-derived acids significantly affect Fusarium graminearum growth and in vitro synthesis of type B trichothecenes. Phytopathology. 2011;101:929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that, in planta, different compositions in phenolic acids of kernels from various cultivars may reflect different degrees of sensitivity to "mycotoxinogenesis." ..
  24. Sanden M, Jørgensen S, Hemre G, Ørnsrud R, Sissener N. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for investigating dietary toxic effects of deoxynivalenol contamination in aquaculture feeds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We do not know if effects observed on fecundity and larvae swimming activity are attributed to a direct interaction of DON with the reproductive organ or secondary to the maternal/paternal liver oxidative imbalance. ..
  25. Puri K, Zhong S. The 3ADON population of Fusarium graminearum found in North Dakota is more aggressive and produces a higher level of DON than the prevalent 15ADON population in spring wheat. Phytopathology. 2010;100:1007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained in this study could have an impact on development of FHB-resistant wheat cultivars and disease management. ..
  26. Pestka J. Deoxynivalenol: mechanisms of action, human exposure, and toxicological relevance. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:663-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, a fusion of basic and translational research is needed to validate or refine existing risk assessments and regulatory standards for this common mycotoxin. ..
  27. He K, Zhou H, Pestka J. Targets and intracellular signaling mechanisms for deoxynivalenol-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:382-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck ?p38?p53?caspase 8/9?caspase 3. ..
  28. Dänicke S, Brosig B, Klunker L, Kahlert S, Kluess J, Doll S, et al. Systemic and local effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) are not alleviated by dietary supplementation of humic substances (HS). Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes had no consequences for nutrient digestibility or LPS levels in systemic blood (0.02-0.08 EU/mL). As portal LPS levels were not measured, FUS effects on intestinal LPS translocation cannot be excluded. ..
  29. Gaig S, Bonnet M, Tardivel C, Pinton P, Trouslard J, Jean A, et al. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2013;34:135-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin...
  30. Islam R, Zhou T, Young J, Goodwin P, Pauls K. Aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxydation of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by bacteria originating from agricultural soil. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The culture could be used to detoxify DON contaminated feed and might be a potential source for gene(s) for DON de-epoxydation. ..
  31. Kluger B, Bueschl C, Lemmens M, Berthiller F, Häubl G, Jaunecker G, et al. Stable isotopic labelling-assisted untargeted metabolic profiling reveals novel conjugates of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:5031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Future MS/MS measurements shall reveal the molecular structures of the detected conjugates in more detail...
  32. Khatibi P, Newmister S, Rayment I, McCormick S, Alexander N, Schmale D. Bioprospecting for trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases in the fungal genus Fusarium yields functional enzymes with different abilities to modify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1162-70 pubmed publisher
  33. Alexander N, McCormick S, Waalwijk C, van der Lee T, Proctor R. The genetic basis for 3-ADON and 15-ADON trichothecene chemotypes in Fusarium. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that differential activity of Tri8 determines the 3-ADON and 15-ADON chemotypes in Fusarium. ..
  34. Flannery B, Wu W, Pestka J. Characterization of deoxynivalenol-induced anorexia using mouse bioassay. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1863-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The short-term mouse bioassay described here was useful in characterizing DON-induced anorexia and should be applicable to elucidating mechanisms underlying this adverse nutritional effect...
  35. Merhej J, Richard Forget F, Barreau C. Regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium: recent advances and new insights. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;91:519-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichothecenes are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi mainly belonging to the Fusarium genus. Production of these mycotoxins occurs during infection of crops and is a threat to human and animal health...
  36. He K, Zhou H, Pestka J. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;265:10-8 pubmed publisher
  37. Merhej J, Richard Forget F, Barreau C. The pH regulatory factor Pac1 regulates Tri gene expression and trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Pac1 negatively regulates Tri gene expression and toxin production in F. graminearum. ..
  38. Turner P, Hopton R, White K, Fisher J, Cade J, Wild C. Assessment of deoxynivalenol metabolite profiles in UK adults. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study needs to be extended to understand whether the fD / DG ratio provides a phenotypic measure of DON susceptibility. ..
  39. van der Fels Klerx H, Goedhart P, Elen O, Börjesson T, Hietaniemi V, Booij C. Modeling deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in northwestern Europe for climate change assessments. J Food Prot. 2012;75:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of the model in possible climate change scenarios is illustrated. ..
  40. Chaytor A, See M, Hansen J, de Souza A, Middleton T, Kim S. Effects of chronic exposure of diets with reduced concentrations of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on growth and immune status of pigs. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:124-35 pubmed publisher
  41. Klunker L, Kahlert S, Panther P, Diesing A, Reinhardt N, Brosig B, et al. Deoxynivalenol and E.coli lipopolysaccharide alter epithelial proliferation and spatial distribution of apical junction proteins along the small intestinal axis. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, results indicate that LPS changed the spatial distribution of ZO-1. A synergistic effect of DON and LPS on intestinal architecture could not be verified in the present study. ..
  42. Pinton P, Braicu C, Nougayrede J, Laffitte J, Taranu I, Oswald I. Deoxynivalenol impairs porcine intestinal barrier function and decreases the protein expression of claudin-4 through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. J Nutr. 2010;140:1956-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the high levels of DON in cereal grains, these observations of impaired barrier function have implications for human and animal health. ..
  43. Berthiller F, Krska R, Domig K, Kneifel W, Juge N, Schuhmacher R, et al. Hydrolytic fate of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside during digestion. Toxicol Lett. 2011;206:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data indicate that D3G is of toxicological relevance and should be regarded as a masked mycotoxin. ..
  44. Sarver B, Ward T, Gale L, Broz K, Kistler H, Aoki T, et al. Novel Fusarium head blight pathogens from Nepal and Louisiana revealed by multilocus genealogical concordance. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:1096-107 pubmed publisher
    ..nepalense and F. louisianense could produce 15ADON and nivalenol, respectively, in planta. In addition, both species were only able to induce mild FHB symptoms on wheat in pathogenicity experiments. ..
  45. Cano P, Seeboth J, Meurens F, Cognie J, Abrami R, Oswald I, et al. Deoxynivalenol as a new factor in the persistence of intestinal inflammatory diseases: an emerging hypothesis through possible modulation of Th17-mediated response. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53647 pubmed publisher
    ..DON triggered multiple immune modulatory effects which could be associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammatory diseases. ..
  46. Razafimanjato H, Benzaria A, Taïeb N, Guo X, Vidal N, Di Scala C, et al. The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and functions of glial cells. Glia. 2011;59:1672-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that environmental ribotoxins such as DON could, at low doses, cause modifications of brain homeostasis and possibly participate in the etiology of neurological diseases in which alterations of the glia are involved. ..
  47. Dorn B, Forrer H, Jenny E, Wettstein F, Bucheli T, Vogelgsang S. Fusarium species complex and mycotoxins in grain maize from maize hybrid trials and from grower's fields. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;111:693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate a high need to identify cropping factors influencing the infection of maize by Fusarium species to establish recommendations for growers. ..
  48. Ghareeb K, Awad W, Bohm J. Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol. Poult Sci. 2012;91:800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the dietary Mycofix select supplementation as a detoxifying agent was successful in overcoming the mycotoxin-related effects. ..
  49. Menke J, Dong Y, Kistler H. Fusarium graminearum Tri12p influences virulence to wheat and trichothecene accumulation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:1408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate Tri12 plays a role in self-protection and influences toxin production and virulence of the fungus in planta. ..
  50. Nagl V, Schwartz H, Krska R, Moll W, Knasmuller S, Ritzmann M, et al. Metabolism of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2012;213:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that D3G is of considerably lower toxicological relevance than DON, at least in rats. ..
  51. Wegulo S. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:1157-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. ..
  52. Streit E, Schatzmayr G, Tassis P, Tzika E, Marin D, Taranu I, et al. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:788-809 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. ..
  53. Tsuyuki R, Yoshinari T, Sakamoto N, Nagasawa H, Sakuda S. Enhancement of trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum by cobalt chloride. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that cobalt chloride is useful for investigating regulatory mechanisms of trichothecene and ergosterol production in F. graminearum. ..
  54. Jakšić S, Abramović B, Jajić I, Baloš M, Mihaljev Z, Despotović V, et al. Co-occurrence of fumonisins and deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize harvested in Serbia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:615-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the one of rare reports of the natural co-occurrence of FUMs and DON in wheat and maize, and the first report of their correlation in different wheat cultivars...
  55. Vandenbroucke V, Croubels S, Martel A, Verbrugghe E, Goossens J, Van Deun K, et al. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol potentiates intestinal inflammation by Salmonella typhimurium in porcine ileal loops. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23871 pubmed publisher
    ..These data imply that the intake of low and relevant concentrations of DON renders the intestinal epithelium more susceptible to Salmonella Typhimurium with a subsequent potentiation of the inflammatory response in the gut. ..
  56. Dall Erta A, Cirlini M, Dall Asta M, Del Rio D, Galaverna G, Dall Asta C. Masked mycotoxins are efficiently hydrolyzed by human colonic microbiota releasing their aglycones. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013;26:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, masked mycotoxins should be considered when evaluating population exposure. ..
  57. Skládanka J, Nedělník J, Adam V, Dolezal P, Moravcová H, Dohnal V. Forage as a primary source of mycotoxins in animal diets. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the level of the occurrence of mould was quantified as ergosterol content, which was higher at the specific date of cut. All results were statistically processed and significant changes were discussed...
  58. Warth B, Sulyok M, Berthiller F, Schuhmacher R, Fruhmann P, Hametner C, et al. Direct quantification of deoxynivalenol glucuronide in human urine as biomarker of exposure to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In regular-diet urine samples, D3GlcA was quantified in concentrations >30 ?g l(-1) by this approach. ..
  59. Wang X, Liu Q, Ihsan A, Huang L, Dai M, Hao H, et al. JAK/STAT pathway plays a critical role in the proinflammatory gene expression and apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells induced by trichothecenes as DON and T-2 toxin. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:412-24 pubmed publisher
    ..with inflammatory process and apoptosis and is worth investigating its role when cells were exposed to trichothecenes. The results showed that DON and T-2 upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, ..
  60. Yunus A, Blajet Kosicka A, Kosicki R, Khan M, Rehman H, Bohm J. Deoxynivalenol as a contaminant of broiler feed: intestinal development, absorptive functionality, and metabolism of the mycotoxin. Poult Sci. 2012;91:852-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Some metabolites of zearalenone found in this study were previously unknown for chickens. ..
  61. Bonnet M, Roux J, Mounien L, Dallaporta M, Troadec J. Advances in deoxynivalenol toxicity mechanisms: the brain as a target. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:1120-38 pubmed publisher
    ..It is one of the most abundant trichothecenes which contaminate cereals consumed by farm animals and humans...
  62. Bianco G, Fontanella B, Severino L, Quaroni A, Autore G, Marzocco S. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52051 pubmed publisher
    ..Following their ingestion, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to concentrations of these trichothecenes high enough to cause mycotoxicosis...
  63. Wu Q, Dohnal V, Kuca K, Yuan Z. Trichothecenes: structure-toxic activity relationships. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14:641-60 pubmed
    b>Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature...
  64. Woloshuk C, Shim W. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes: a convergence of knowledge. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013;37:94-109 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, these fungi produce aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes, respectively, which threaten health and food security worldwide...
  65. Wu Q, Lohrey L, Cramer B, Yuan Z, Humpf H. Impact of physicochemical parameters on the decomposition of deoxynivalenol during extrusion cooking of wheat grits. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As known from cooking, deoxynivalenol could also be easily degraded by extrusion under alkaline conditions. Furthermore, an increase of the protein content of the starting material resulted in higher reduction rates of deoxynivalenol. ..
  66. Bracarense A, Lucioli J, Grenier B, Drociunas Pacheco G, Moll W, Schatzmayr G, et al. Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, alone or in interaction, induces morphological and immunological changes in the intestine of piglets. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:1776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present data provide strong evidence that chronic ingestion of low doses of mycotoxins alters the intestine, and thus may predispose animals to infections by enteric pathogens. ..
  67. Scherm B, Orrù M, Balmas V, Spanu F, Azara E, Delogu G, et al. Altered trichothecene biosynthesis in TRI6-silenced transformants of Fusarium culmorum influences the severity of crown and foot rot on durum wheat seedlings. Mol Plant Pathol. 2011;12:759-71 pubmed publisher
  68. Ikunaga Y, Sato I, Grond S, Numaziri N, Yoshida S, Yamaya H, et al. Nocardioides sp. strain WSN05-2, isolated from a wheat field, degrades deoxynivalenol, producing the novel intermediate 3-epi-deoxynivalenol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a Nocardioides sp. strain able to degrade DON and of the yet unknown 3-epi-DON as an intermediate in the degradation of DON by a microorganism. ..
  69. Awad W, Ghareeb K, Dadak A, Gille L, Staniek K, Hess M, et al. Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds. Poult Sci. 2012;91:550-5 pubmed publisher
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide...
  70. Gratz S, Duncan G, Richardson A. The human fecal microbiota metabolizes deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and may be responsible for urinary deepoxy-deoxynivalenol. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:1821-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this is first evidence that the human fecal microbiota of one volunteer detoxifies DON, resulting in the appearance of DOM-1 in urine. ..
  71. Merhej J, Urban M, Dufresne M, Hammond Kosack K, Richard Forget F, Barreau C. The velvet gene, FgVe1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:363-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichothecenes are a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) during the infection of crop plants, including wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye and rice...
  72. Pietsch C, Bucheli T, Wettstein F, Burkhardt Holm P. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. ..
  73. Schweiger W, Pasquet J, Nussbaumer T, Paris M, Wiesenberger G, Macadré C, et al. Functional characterization of two clusters of Brachypodium distachyon UDP-glycosyltransferases encoding putative deoxynivalenol detoxification genes. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:781-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Seemingly, the UGT genes undergo rapid evolution and changes in copy number, making it difficult to identify orthologs with conserved substrate specificity. ..
  74. Doll S, Dänicke S. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in animal feeding. Prev Vet Med. 2011;102:132-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of DON and ZON on susceptible animals as well as management strategies to cope with the contamination of grain with those toxins are reviewed. ..
  75. Bin Umer M, McLaughlin J, Basu D, McCormick S, Tumer N. Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation--implication for the mechanism of toxicity. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:1484-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the direct effects of type A and type B trichothecenes on mitochondrial translation and membrane integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  76. Gale L, Harrison S, Ward T, O Donnell K, Milus E, Gale S, et al. Nivalenol-type populations of Fusarium graminearum and F. asiaticum are prevalent on wheat in southern Louisiana. Phytopathology. 2011;101:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..S. NIV types accumulated four times less trichothecene toxin than DON types on inoculated wheat. This is the first report of NIV-type populations of F. graminearum s. s. and F. asiaticum in the United States. ..