thymol

Summary

Summary: A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.

Top Publications

  1. Botelho M, Nogueira N, Bastos G, Fonseca S, Lemos T, Matos F, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:349-56 pubmed
    ..Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%)...
  2. Jukic M, Politeo O, Maksimovic M, Milos M, Milos M. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of thymol, carvacrol and their derivatives thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone. Phytother Res. 2007;21:259-61 pubmed
    ..on acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The total essential oil and selected compounds, specifically linalool and thymol, carvacrol and their derivatives thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone, were tested for AChE inhibition...
  3. Araujo A, Naspitz G, Chelotti A, Cai S. Effect of Cervitec on mutans streptococci in plaque and on caries formation on occlusal fissures of erupting permanent molars. Caries Res. 2002;36:373-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that treatment with Cervitec reduces MS in plaque on erupting permanent molars and can lead to a significant decrease in caries incidence. ..
  4. Begrow F, Engelbertz J, Feistel B, Lehnfeld R, Bauer K, Verspohl E. Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance. Planta Med. 2010;76:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Its activity on beta (2) receptors as a possible mechanism of action was demonstrated. Major components are thymol and carvacrol which are claimed to be responsible for its effects and, therefore, used for standardization in the ..
  5. Hagmüller W, Jugl Chizzola M, Zitterl Eglseer K, Gabler C, Spergser J, Chizzola R, et al. The use of Thymi Herba as feed additive (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) in weanling piglets with assessment of the shedding of haemolysing E. coli and the detection of thymol in the blood plasma. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2006;119:50-4 pubmed
    ..coli between the 4 groups. Neither was there a difference in the distribution of the various serotypes. Thymol was detected in the blood plasma in all thyme groups...
  6. Satooka H, Kubo I. Effects of thymol on B16-F10 melanoma cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2746-52 pubmed publisher
    Aromatic monoterpene, thymol, shows several beneficial activities, such as an antioxidative effect. However, the mechanism of its toxicity remains to be fully defined...
  7. Sokovic M, Glamoclija J, Ciric A, Kataranovski D, Marin P, Vukojevic J, et al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and thymol on experimentally induced dermatomycoses. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2008;34:1388-93 pubmed
    ..and its main component thymol was made on 2-month-old male Wistar rats...
  8. Ji L, Wang F, Liu Y, Tong Y, Li X, Feng X, et al. [Determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis by HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:1030-2 pubmed
    To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis. The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase...
  9. Braga P, Sasso M, Culici M, Alfieri M. Eugenol and thymol, alone or in combination, induce morphological alterations in the envelope of Candida albicans. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:396-400 pubmed
    ..We tested the anticandidal activity of eugenol, main component of clove oil, and thymol, main component of thyme oil, alone or in combination, by investigating their ability to interfere with the ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Sosto F, Benvenuti C. Controlled study on thymol + eugenol vaginal douche versus econazole in vaginal candidiasis and metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis. Arzneimittelforschung. 2011;61:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared the efficacy of a thymol + eugenol vaginal douche (SD) (CAS nr...
  2. Guo N, Liu J, Wu X, Bi X, Meng R, Wang X, et al. Antifungal activity of thymol against clinical isolates of fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:1074-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymol (THY) was found to have in vitro antifungal activity against 24 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant and 12 FLC-susceptible clinical isolates of Candida albicans, standard strain ATCC 10231 and one experimentally induced FLC-resistant C...
  3. Attin T, Abouassi T, Becker K, Wiegand A, Roos M, Attin R. A new method for chlorhexidine (CHX) determination: CHX release after application of differently concentrated CHX-containing preparations on artificial fissures. Clin Oral Investig. 2008;12:189-96 pubmed
    ..The new method is a reliable tool to quantify CHX in small volumes. Both tested varnishes demonstrate prolonged and higher CHX release from artificial fissures than the CHX-gel tested. ..
  4. Shimoda K, Kondo Y, Nishida T, Hamada H, Nakajima N, Hamada H. Biotransformation of thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol by cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:2256-61 pubmed
    The biotransformations of aroma compounds of spices, such as thymol (1), carvacrol (2), and eugenol (3), were investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana...
  5. Attin R, Tuna A, Attin T, Brunner E, Noack M. Efficacy of differently concentrated chlorhexidine varnishes in decreasing Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts. Arch Oral Biol. 2003;48:503-9 pubmed
    ..1% thymol) on levels of Mutans streptococci (ms), lactobacilli (lb) and plaque formation in interproximal plaque and saliva...
  6. Brailsford S, Fiske J, Gilbert S, Clark D, Beighton D. The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol- and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people. J Dent. 2002;30:319-24 pubmed
    ..The procedure could be performed by a dental hygienist and may be usefully applied in other high-risk groups including persons with Parkinson's disease, debilitating neuromuscular conditions and dry mouth from whatever cause. ..
  7. Weremczuk Jezyna I, Kisiel W, Wysokinska H. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana. Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:993-6 pubmed
    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods...
  8. Sköld Larsson K, Fornell A, Lussi A, Twetman S. Effect of topical applications of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish on fissure caries assessed by laser fluorescence. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004;62:339-42 pubmed
    ..A split-mouth study design was used in which the fissures were treated with either an antibacterial chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish or a placebo varnish every 6th week...
  9. Peixoto Neves D, Silva Alves K, Gomes M, Lima F, Lahlou S, Magalhães P, et al. Vasorelaxant effects of the monoterpenic phenol isomers, carvacrol and thymol, on rat isolated aorta. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010;24:341-50 pubmed publisher
    Various essential oils are rich in carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol isomeric with thymol. This study was undertaken to assess the vasorelaxant effects of thymol and carvacrol in rat isolated aorta and the putative mechanisms underlying ..
  10. Baca P, Clavero J, Baca A, González Rodríguez M, Bravo M, Valderrama M. Effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on root caries in a geriatric population: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. J Dent. 2009;37:679-85 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the effect of Cervitec, a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish, on root caries...
  11. Pandey S, Upadhyay S, Tripathi A. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:507-12 pubmed publisher
    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, ..
  12. Baca P, Muñoz M, Bravo M, Junco P, Baca A. Effectiveness of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish for caries reduction in permanent first molars of 6-7-year-old children: 24-month clinical trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2002;30:363-8 pubmed
    ..were followed up in a clinical trial, a group of 86 children whose teeth were treated with a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (Cervitec) and a control group of 95 children...
  13. Shapira R, Mimran E. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants exhibiting altered response to thymol. Microb Drug Resist. 2007;13:157-65 pubmed
    The antimicrobial mode of action of the plant essential oil thymol was studied with Escherichia coli. Random transposon-insertion mutants were screened for altered response to thymol...
  14. Baca P, Junco P, Bravo M, Baca A, Muñoz M. Caries incidence in permanent first molars after discontinuation of a school-based chlorhexidine-thymol varnish program. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:179-83 pubmed
    To determine whether the cessation for 3 years of a 24-month program of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish applications would affect caries incidence in the first permanent molars of a population of schoolchildren of middle and lower-middle ..
  15. Burt S, Vlielander R, Haagsman H, Veldhuizen E. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers. J Food Prot. 2005;68:919-26 pubmed
    ..The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E...
  16. Marsik P, Kokoska L, Landa P, Nepovim A, Soudek P, Vanek T. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Planta Med. 2005;71:739-42 pubmed
    Dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, thymol and thymoquinone, compounds derived from N. sativa seeds, were investigated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities using cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) assays...
  17. Segvić Klarić M, Kosalec I, Mastelic J, Pieckova E, Pepeljnak S. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;44:36-42 pubmed
    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings...
  18. Rivas L, McDonnell M, Burgess C, O Brien M, Navarro Villa A, Fanning S, et al. Inhibition of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in model broth and rumen systems by carvacrol and thymol. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;139:70-8 pubmed publisher
    The antimicrobial activities of thymol and carvacrol were assessed against a selection of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains (n=11) and other bacterial species and spoilage bacteria (n=7) using a model broth system...
  19. Baca P, Muñoz M, Bravo M, Junco P, Baca A. Effectiveness of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in preventing caries lesions in primary molars. J Dent Child (Chic). 2004;71:61-5 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on the prevention of caries lesions in primary molars among schoolchildren ages 6 to 7 in relation to their previous experience with caries...
  20. Si W, Gong J, Chanas C, Cui S, Yu H, Caballero C, et al. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde towards Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104: effects of pig diets and emulsification in hydrocolloids. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;101:1282-91 pubmed
    To determine the effect of pig diets in vitro on the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde, and to identify an emulsifier/stabilizer that can stabilize the essential oil (EO) components in aqueous solution and ..
  21. Hammer N, Löffler S, Feja C, Sandrock M, Schmidt W, Bechmann I, et al. Ethanol-glycerin fixation with thymol conservation: a potential alternative to formaldehyde and phenol embalming. Anat Sci Educ. 2012;5:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, an adequate substitute was developed. Ethanol-glycerin fixation and thymol conservation are described and compared with formaldehyde and phenol in this technical report...
  22. Valero M, Francés E. Synergistic bactericidal effect of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde or thymol and refrigeration to inhibit Bacillus cereus in carrot broth. Food Microbiol. 2006;23:68-73 pubmed
    ..Selected low concentrations of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or thymol showed a clear antibacterial activity against B. cereus in the vegetable substrate...
  23. Andersen A. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-cresol, chlorothymol, mixed cresols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, isopropyl cresols, thymol, o-cymen-5-ol, and carvacrol. Int J Toxicol. 2006;25 Suppl 1:29-127 pubmed
    Sodium p-Chloro-m-Cresol, p-Chloro-m-Cresol (PCMC), Mixed Cresols, m-Cresol, o-Cresol, p-Cresol, Isopropyl Cresols, Thymol, Chlorothymol, o-Cymen-5-ol, and Carvacrol are substituted phenols used as cosmetic biocides/preservatives and/or ..
  24. Braga P, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Bianchi T, Bordoni L, Marabini L. Anti-inflammatory activity of thymol: inhibitory effect on the release of human neutrophil elastase. Pharmacology. 2006;77:130-6 pubmed
    ..As thymol, one of the major components of thyme oil with a phenolic structure, has been credited with a series of ..
  25. Ahmad A, Khan A, Yousuf S, Khan L, Manzoor N. Proton translocating ATPase mediated fungicidal activity of eugenol and thymol. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:1157-62 pubmed publisher
    Eugenol (1) and thymol (2) exhibit excellent fungicidal activity against pathogenic yeasts, including isolates resistant to azoles...
  26. Braga P, Culici M, Alfieri M, Dal Sasso M. Thymol inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation and mature biofilm. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;31:472-7 pubmed publisher
    Candida albicans has a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to traditional antifungal agents. Thymol is credited with a series of pharmacological properties including antimicrobial and antifungal effects. As C...
  27. Elissondo M, Albani C, Gende L, Eguaras M, Denegri G. Efficacy of thymol against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:185-90 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro protoscolicidal effect of thymol against Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscoleces of E. granulosus were incubated with thymol at concentrations of 10, 5 and 1 mug/ml...
  28. Varel V, Miller D, Lindsay A. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently. Water Sci Technol. 2004;50:207-13 pubmed
    ..Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0...
  29. Wicht M, Haak R, Lummert D, Noack M. Treatment of root caries lesions with chlorhexidine-containing varnishes and dentin sealants. Am J Dent. 2003;16 Spec No:25A-30A pubmed
    ..053). Laser fluorescence values increased in the chlorhexidine groups (CE = 27.9 +/- 17.5, EC = 28.3 +/- 26.0) but remained stable in the sealant groups (PB = 15.1 +/- 22.0, SP = 10.2 +/- 7.3), (P < 0.05). ..
  30. Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:8788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..and insecticidal activities of the oil and its aromatic monoterpene constituents, carvacrol, p-cymene and thymol were also determined. The antifungal assays showed that O...
  31. Takeuchi Y, Guggenheim B, Filieri A, Baehni P. Effect of chlorhexidine/thymol and fluoride varnishes on dental biofilm formation in vitro. Eur J Oral Sci. 2007;115:468-72 pubmed
    This study evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine/thymol (CHX/T) and fluoride (F) varnishes on biofilm formation in vitro...
  32. Brambilla E, Cagetti M, Fadini L, Pariset P, Strohmenger L, Twetman S. Chlorhexidine concentration in saliva after topical treatment with an antibacterial dental varnish. Am J Dent. 2004;17:196-8 pubmed
    ..after a single professional treatment with an antibacterial dental varnish (Cervitec) containing 1% CHX and 1% thymol. Unstimulated whole saliva from 21 healthy young adults was collected at baseline and up to 24 hours after ..
  33. Chang H, Hsu S, Chou C, Cheng J, Wang J, Lin K, et al. Effect of thymol on Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Pharmacology. 2011;88:201-12 pubmed publisher
    The effect of the natural product thymol on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and viability in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells was examined. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)](i)...
  34. Schwarze T, Leyhausen G, Geurtsen W. Long-term cytocompatibility of various endodontic sealers using a new root canal model. J Endod. 2002;28:749-53 pubmed
    ..05). Furthermore, statistically significant cytotoxic alterations were also induced by 10-week eluates of Endomethasone (p < 0.05). All other investigated materials did not significantly alter cell metabolism. ..
  35. Stojakowska A, Michalska K, Malarz J. Simultaneous quantification of eudesmanolides and thymol derivatives from tissues of Inula helenium and I. royleana by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2006;17:157-61 pubmed
    ..high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of alantolactone/isoalantolactone and three thymol derivatives in roots and root cultures of Inula helenium and I. royleana has been developed...
  36. Luna A, Labaque M, Zygadlo J, Marin R. Effects of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Poult Sci. 2010;89:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluates the effects of thymol and its isomer carvacrol on lipid oxidation when supplemented to the feed...
  37. Zubek S, Stojakowska A, Anielska T, Turnau K. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter thymol derivative contents of Inula ensifolia L. Mycorrhiza. 2010;20:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..ensifolia. We found AMF species specificity in the stimulation of thymol derivative production in the roots of I. ensifolia...
  38. Karpanen T, Worthington T, Hendry E, Conway B, Lambert P. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:1031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), a widely used antiseptic in clinical practice, alone and in combination with tea tree oil (TTO), eucalyptus oil (EO) and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of S. epidermidis.
  39. Ahmad A, Khan A, Akhtar F, Yousuf S, Xess I, Khan L, et al. Fungicidal activity of thymol and carvacrol by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane integrity against Candida. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:41-50 pubmed publisher
    Natural isopropyl cresols have been reported to have antifungal activity. This work is an attempt to examine thymol and carvacrol against 111 fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida isolates...
  40. Huang M, Wu S, Shen A. Stimulatory actions of thymol, a natural product, on Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in pituitary GH(3) cells. Planta Med. 2005;71:1093-8 pubmed
    ..Activation of this channel is Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent. We have investigated the effects of thymol, a natural product, on ion currents in pituitary GH(3) cells...
  41. Zhang Y, Niu Y, Luo Y, Ge M, Yang T, Yu L, et al. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers. Food Chem. 2014;142:269-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface...
  42. Mastelic J, Jerkovic I, Blažević I, Poljak Blazi M, Borovic S, Ivancic Bace I, et al. Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol derivatives. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3989-96 pubmed publisher
    Four derivatives of thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol were synthesized: 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 4,4'-methylenebis(5-isopropyl-2-methyl)phenol, 4-allyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-isopropyl-..
  43. Braga P, Alfieri M, Culici M, Dal Sasso M. Inhibitory activity of thymol against the formation and viability of Candida albicans hyphae. Mycoses. 2007;50:502-6 pubmed
    ..an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of candiasis, the aim of this study was to investigate whether thymol, the major component of thyme oil, can interfere with the filamentous forms of Candida albicans and their ..
  44. Qiu J, Wang D, Xiang H, Feng H, Jiang Y, Xia L, et al. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9736 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus...
  45. García D, Bujons J, Vale C, Suñol C. Allosteric positive interaction of thymol with the GABAA receptor in primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:25-35 pubmed
    b>Thymol is a naturally occurring phenolic monoterpene known for its anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. It is used in dental practice and in anaesthetic halothane preparations...
  46. Silva E, Accorsi Mendonça T, Almeida J, Ferraz C, Gomes B, Zaia A. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and up-regulation of gelatinases in human fibroblast cells by four root canal sealers. Int Endod J. 2012;45:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human fibroblasts...
  47. Chen J, Tsai Y, Hwang T, Wang T. Thymol, benzofuranoid, and phenylpropanoid derivatives: anti-inflammatory constituents from Eupatorium cannabinum. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1021-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 2, 3, 10, 13, and 15 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values?18.3 ?M. ..
  48. Mastromatteo M, Danza A, Conte A, Muratore G, Del Nobile M. Shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps as affected by thymol essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;144:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..First, the effectiveness of the coating (Coat) and the active coating loaded with different concentrations of thymol (Coat-500, Coat-1000, and Coat-1500) on the quality loss of the investigated food product packaged in air was ..
  49. Bevilacqua A, Corbo M, Sinigaglia M. Combined effects of modified atmosphere packaging and thymol for prolonging the shelf life of caprese salad. J Food Prot. 2007;70:722-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of packaging atmosphere and a thymol dipping solution on the shelf life of caprese salad. Caprese salad was prepared with sliced tomatoes and mozzarella cheese...
  50. Mahmud H, Mauro D, Foller M, Lang F. Inhibitory effect of thymol on suicidal erythrocyte death. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;24:407-14 pubmed publisher
    The antibacterial plant component thymol has antioxidant activity...
  51. Dambolena J, Lopez A, Cánepa M, Theumer M, Zygadlo J, Rubinstein H. Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis. Toxicon. 2008;51:37-44 pubmed
    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) against Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 was assessed by using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique...
  52. Xu J, Zhou F, Ji B, Pei R, Xu N. The antibacterial mechanism of carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;47:174-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the antibacterial mechanism of carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli. The time-kill curve results showed that carvacrol and thymol at 200 mg l(-1) could inhibit the growth of E. coli...
  53. Lee S, Buber M, Yang Q, Cerne R, Cortés R, Sprous D, et al. Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate the hTRPA1 channel. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1739-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymol, a major component of thyme and oregano, has medical uses in oral care products as an astringent and antibiotic. Its distinctive sharp odour and pungent flavour are considered aversive properties...
  54. Szentesi P, Szappanos H, Szegedi C, Gönczi M, Jona I, Cseri J, et al. Altered elementary calcium release events and enhanced calcium release by thymol in rat skeletal muscle. Biophys J. 2004;86:1436-53 pubmed
    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents...
  55. Sánchez M, Turina A, García D, Nolan M, Perillo M. Surface activity of thymol: implications for an eventual pharmacological activity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2004;34:77-86 pubmed
    In the present work, we studied the ability of thymol to affect the organization of model membranes and the activity of an intrinsic membrane protein, the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R)...
  56. Buyukleyla M, Rencuzogullari E. The effects of thymol on sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration and micronucleus in human lymphocytes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:943-7 pubmed publisher
    The genotoxic effects of thymol were investigated in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 25, 50, 75, and 100 microg/ml concentrations of thymol for 24 and 48h treatment periods by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome ..
  57. Li K, Yuan J, Su W. Determination of liquiritin, naringin, hesperidin, thymol, imperatorin, honokiol, isoimperatorin, and magnolol in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huoxiang-zhengqi liquid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006;126:1185-90 pubmed
    ..was employed to determine the contents of the eight marker components liquiritin, naringin, hesperidin, thymol, imperatorin, honokiol, isoimperatorin, and magnolol in the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huoxiang-..
  58. Juneja V, Friedman M. Carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, and thymol inhibit Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey during chilling. J Food Prot. 2007;70:218-22 pubmed
    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens by plant-derived carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and oregano oil was evaluated during abusive chilling of cooked ground turkey...
  59. Slamenova D, Horvathova E, Sramkova M, Marsalkova L. DNA-protective effects of two components of essential plant oils carvacrol and thymol on mammalian cells cultured in vitro. Neoplasma. 2007;54:108-12 pubmed
    ..of the long-term (24 h) incubation of mammalian cells with two components of essential plant oils (carvacrol and thymol) in in vitro conditions...
  60. Braga P, Ricci D. Thymol-induced alterations in Candida albicans imaged by atomic force microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;736:401-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymol, a constituent of thyme essential oil that has been credited with interesting antimicrobial and antifungal effects, acts by interfering with the envelope of Candida albicans and this activity has been investigated by means of ..
  61. Robledo S, Osorio E, Munoz D, Jaramillo L, Restrepo A, Arango G, et al. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicities and antileishmanial activities of thymol and hemisynthetic derivatives. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1652-5 pubmed
    The in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of thymol and structural derivatives in comparison to those of Glucantime were studied...
  62. Braga P, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Spallino A. Inhibitory activity of thymol on native and mature Gardnerella vaginalis biofilms: in vitro study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2010;60:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether thymol (CAS 89-83-8), a molecule present in thyme essential oil, that is credited with having a series of pharmacological ..
  63. Nostro A, Sudano Roccaro A, Bisignano G, Marino A, Cannatelli M, Pizzimenti F, et al. Effects of oregano, carvacrol and thymol on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:519-23 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol on biofilm-grown Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, as well as the effects of the oils on biofilm formation...
  64. Sköld Larsson K, Sollenius O, Petersson L, Twetman S. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars. J Clin Dent. 2009;20:223-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development...
  65. Bi X, Guo N, Jin J, Liu J, Feng H, Shi J, et al. The global gene expression profile of the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae) cells upon exposure to thymol (THY)...
  66. Bernath M, Szabo J. Tissue reaction initiated by different sealers. Int Endod J. 2003;36:256-61 pubmed
    ..It also emphasizes the importance of confining root filling to the canal system because all sealers initiate inflammatory reactions when they are present in the apical tissues ..
  67. García García R, López Malo A, Palou E. Bactericidal action of binary and ternary mixtures of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol against Listeria innocua. J Food Sci. 2011;76:M95-100 pubmed publisher
    The bactericidal effect of 3 natural agents (carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol) was evaluated as well as their binary and ternary mixtures on Listeria innocua inactivation in liquid model systems...
  68. Deb D, Parimala G, Saravana Devi S, Chakraborty T. Effect of thymol on peripheral blood mononuclear cell PBMC and acute promyelotic cancer cell line HL-60. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;193:97-106 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymol, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, has been known for its antioxidant, anti microbial, and anti inflammatory activity...
  69. Zhou F, Ji B, Zhang H, Jiang H, Yang Z, Li J, et al. Synergistic effect of thymol and carvacrol combined with chelators and organic acids against Salmonella Typhimurium. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1704-9 pubmed
    To identify synergistic combinations of different food additives, the antimicrobial effects of thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella Typhimurium were assessed alone and in combination with various other preservatives including EDTA, ..