Summary: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.

Top Publications

  1. Kitau J, Oxborough R, Tungu P, Matowo J, Malima R, Magesa S, et al. Species shifts in the Anopheles gambiae complex: do LLINs successfully control Anopheles arabiensis?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31481 pubmed publisher
    ..arabiensis is likely to remain responsible for residual malaria transmission, and species shifts might be reported over larger areas. Supplementary control measures to LLINs may be necessary to control this vector species. ..
  2. Chandra N, Jain N, Sondhia S, Srivastava A. Deltamethrin induced toxicity and ameliorative effect of alpha-tocopherol in broilers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DM residue was found higher in liver as compared to breast and leg muscles. ..
  3. Adam Y, Cecchi G, Kgori P, Marcotty T, Mahama C, Abavana M, et al. The sequential aerosol technique: a major component in an integrated strategy of intervention against Riverine Tsetse in Ghana. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2135 pubmed publisher
  4. Cecere M, Vazquez Prokopec G, Ceballos L, Boragno S, Zárate J, Kitron U, et al. Improved chemical control of Chagas disease vectors in the dry Chaco region. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:394-403 pubmed
    ..The application of SC deltamethrin at double dose in goat or pig corrals may suppress T. infestans foci and achieve more sustained effects in the dry Chaco...
  5. Protopopoff N, Matowo J, Malima R, Kavishe R, Kaaya R, Wright A, et al. High level of resistance in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroid insecticides and reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb in north-western Tanzania. Malar J. 2013;12:149 pubmed publisher
    ..s persists at high frequency in north-western Tanzania, probably due to selection of pyrethroid resistance, and this trend is likely to arise in other areas as resistance spreads or is subject to local selection from IRS or LLINs. ..
  6. Oulhote Y, Bouchard M. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides and behavioral problems in Canadian children. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some pyrethroid urinary metabolites were associated with a high level of parent-reported behavioral problems. Longitudinal studies should be conducted on the potential risks of pyrethroids. ..
  7. Chen S, Dong Y, Chang C, Deng Y, Zhang X, Zhong G, et al. Characterization of a novel cyfluthrin-degrading bacterial strain Brevibacterium aureum and its biochemical degradation pathway. Bioresour Technol. 2013;132:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that B. aureum DG-12 may be an ideal microorganism for bioremediation of the pyrethroid-contaminated environments...
  8. Zhu F, Gujar H, Gordon J, Haynes K, Potter M, Palli S. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1456 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the complexity of adaptive strategies employed by bed bugs will help in designing the most effective and sustainable bed bug control methods. ..
  9. Zhang C, Jia L, Wang S, Qu J, Li K, Xu L, et al. Biodegradation of beta-cypermethrin by two Serratia spp. with different cell surface hydrophobicity. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:3423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biodegradation assays indicated that JCN13 has higher hydrophobicity and degradation ability than JC1, and it means the high hydrophobicity of strains could enhance the degradation of beta-CP...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chen L, Zhong D, Zhang D, Shi L, Zhou G, Gong M, et al. Molecular ecology of pyrethroid knockdown resistance in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11681 pubmed publisher
    ..pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies. ..
  2. Kaneko H. Pyrethroids: mammalian metabolism and toxicity. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2786-91 pubmed publisher
  3. Qin G, Jia M, Liu T, Xuan T, Yan Zhu K, Guo Y, et al. Identification and characterisation of ten glutathione S-transferase genes from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, ten cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were sequenced and characterised in L. migratoria manilensis. The effects of deltamethrin on the ten GST gene expressions were studied...
  4. Feng Y, Zhao S, Sun W, Li M, Lu W, He L. The sodium channel gene in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval): identification and expression analysis of a mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..cinnabarinus, but that decrease in the abundance of sodium channel did not confer this resistance. The F1538I mutation could be used as a molecular marker for detecting kdr resistance in Arachnida populations. ..
  5. Coppin C, Jackson C, Sutherland T, Hart P, Devonshire A, Russell R, et al. Testing the evolvability of an insect carboxylesterase for the detoxification of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:343-52 pubmed publisher
  6. Stevenson B, Pignatelli P, Nikou D, Paine M. Pinpointing P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti: developing new tools to combat insecticide resistance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1595 pubmed publisher
    ..P450s have been identified with the potential to confer pyrethroid resistance in Ae.aegypti. It is recommended that over expression of these enzymes should be monitored as indicators of resistance where pyrethroids are used. ..
  7. Gill R, Ramos Rodriguez O, Raine N. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature. 2012;491:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. ..
  8. Oxborough R, Kitau J, Matowo J, Mndeme R, Feston E, Boko P, et al. Evaluation of indoor residual spraying with the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:639-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Chlorfenapyr has the potential to be an important addition to the limited arsenal of public health insecticides for indoor residual control of A. arabiensis and pyrethroid-resistant species of mosquito. ..
  9. Fornadel C, Norris L, Glass G, Norris D. Analysis of Anopheles arabiensis blood feeding behavior in southern Zambia during the two years after introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:848-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Macha appear to be relatively exophagic and have been caught biting outdoors immediately after sunset and before sunrise, potentially circumventing some of the protective effects of ITNs...
  10. Malaithong N, Polsomboon S, Poolprasert P, Parbaripai A, Bangs M, Suwonkerd W, et al. Human-landing patterns of Anopheles dirus sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) in experimental huts treated with DDT or deltamethrin. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:823-32 pubmed
    ..002) effect on behavior than deltamethrin, resulting in greater movement away from the insecticide source and thus potential reduction of blood-feeding activity. ..
  11. Stevenson B, Bibby J, Pignatelli P, Muangnoicharoen S, O Neill P, Lian L, et al. Cytochrome P450 6M2 from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae metabolizes pyrethroids: Sequential metabolism of deltamethrin revealed. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:492-502 pubmed publisher
    ..gambiae, consistent with a role in detoxification. Our data indicates that CYP6M2 plays an important role in metabolic resistance to pyrethroids and thus an important target for the design of new tools to combat malaria. ..
  12. Mitchell S, Stevenson B, M ller P, Wilding C, Egyir Yawson A, Field S, et al. Identification and validation of a gene causing cross-resistance between insecticide classes in Anopheles gambiae from Ghana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in vitro assays we show that recombinant CYP6M2 is also capable of metabolizing the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the presence of solubilizing factor sodium cholate...
  13. Macedo P, Schleier J, Reed M, Kelley K, Goodman G, Brown D, et al. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2010;26:57-66 pubmed
    ..Culex pipiens, the District decided on July 26, 2007, to conduct aerial applications of Evergreen EC 60-6 (60% pyrethrins: 6% piperonyl butoxide) over approximately 215 km2 in the north area of Sacramento County on the nights of July ..
  14. Brun Barale A, Héma O, Martin T, Suraporn S, Audant P, Sezutsu H, et al. Multiple P450 genes overexpressed in deltamethrin-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is a first step towards the development of molecular tools for the detection of P450-based resistance in H. armigera. ..
  15. Bhatt R, Sharma S, Uragayala S, Dash A, Kamaraju R. Effectiveness and durability of Interceptor® long-lasting insecticidal nets in a malaria endemic area of central India. Malar J. 2012;11:189 pubmed publisher
    ..The nets were found to contain an effective concentration of alpha-cypermethrin against malaria vector after three years of household use. ..
  16. Zhu F, Wigginton J, Romero A, Moore A, Ferguson K, Palli R, et al. Widespread distribution of knockdown resistance mutations in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), populations in the United States. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;73:245-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that deltamethrin resistance conferred by target-site insensitivity of sodium channel is widely spread in bed bug populations across the United States...
  17. Stanneck D, Kruedewagen E, Fourie J, Horak I, Davis W, Krieger K. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:82 pubmed publisher
  18. Banek K, Kilian A, Allan R. Evaluation of Interceptor long-lasting insecticidal nets in eight communities in Liberia. Malar J. 2010;9:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration for end user preferences should be incorporated into product development of all LLINs in the future, in order to achieve optimum retention and utilization. ..
  19. Dai P, Wang Q, Sun J, Liu F, Wang X, Wu Y, et al. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 and 62.8 mg/L, respectively. ..
  20. Chuaycharoensuk T, Juntarajumnong W, Boonyuan W, Bangs M, Akratanakul P, Thammapalo S, et al. Frequency of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand. J Vector Ecol. 2011;36:204-12 pubmed publisher
  21. Faraj C, Ouahabi S, Adlaoui E, El Elkohli M, Lakraa L, El Rhazi M, et al. Insecticide susceptibility status of Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti and Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi in endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:51 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a study of insecticide susceptibility of these vectors in other foci of leishmaniasis is recommended and the level of their susceptibility should be regularly monitored. ..
  22. Nkya T, Akhouayri I, Kisinza W, David J. Impact of environment on mosquito response to pyrethroid insecticides: facts, evidences and prospects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested. ..
  23. Tantely M, Tortosa P, Alout H, Berticat C, Berthomieu A, Rutee A, et al. Insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes from La Réunion Island. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Rdl selection in these two mosquito species discloses current insecticide pressures in urban areas, from unknown origins, that should be taken into account to develop vector control strategies. ..
  24. Cuamba N, Morgan J, Irving H, Steven A, Wondji C. High level of pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population of the Chokwe District in Mozambique. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11010 pubmed publisher
    ..As DDT has now been re-introduced for IRS, susceptibility to DDT needs to be closely monitored to prevent the appearance and spread of resistance to this insecticide. ..
  25. van den Berg H, Zaim M, Yadav R, Soares A, Ameneshewa B, Mnzava A, et al. Global trends in the use of insecticides to control vector-borne diseases. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Managing insecticide resistance should be coordinated between disease-specific programs and sectors of public health and agriculture within the context of an integrated vector management approach. ..
  26. Alarico A, Romero N, Hernandez L, Catalá S, Gorla D. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:752-6 pubmed
    ..0 mg/mL) 14% of the nymphs survived. These results show that Inesfly 5A IGR is an appropriate tool for the elimination of intradomestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans resistant to pyrethroids...
  27. Stanneck D, Ebbinghaus Kintscher U, Schoenhense E, Kruedewagen E, Turberg A, Leisewitz A, et al. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:73 pubmed publisher
    ..This collar is therefore a convenient and safe tool for a long-term protection against ectoparasites. ..
  28. Tulve N, Egeghy P, Fortmann R, Xue J, Evans J, Whitaker D, et al. Methodologies for estimating cumulative human exposures to current-use pyrethroid pesticides. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011;21:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..g., activities, transfer coefficients, measurement techniques) are most relevant in making dermal exposure estimates. ..
  29. Dutta P, Khan S, Khan A, Borah J, Sarmah C, Mahanta J. The effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs) on Japanese encephalitis virus seroconversion in pigs and humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of the high preponderance of potential JE vector outdoors during the post-intervention period, an encouraging line of defense against circulation of JE virus through the use of ITMNs can be achieved in endemic areas. ..
  30. Chen S, Luo J, Hu M, Geng P, Zhang Y. Microbial detoxification of bifenthrin by a novel yeast and its potential for contaminated soils treatment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30862 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this is the first described yeast capable of degrading bifenthrin. ..
  31. Wondji C, Coleman M, Kleinschmidt I, Mzilahowa T, Irving H, Ndula M, et al. Impact of pyrethroid resistance on operational malaria control in Malawi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be monitored carefully as part of the operational activities in country. ..
  32. Domagalski J, Weston D, Zhang M, Hladik M. Pyrethroid insecticide concentrations and toxicity in streambed sediments and loads in surface waters of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:813-23 pubmed publisher
  33. Fontaine S, Caddoux L, Brazier C, Bertho C, Bertolla P, Micoud A, et al. Uncommon associations in target resistance among French populations of Myzus persicae from oilseed rape crops. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:881-5 pubmed publisher
  34. Manda H, Arce L, Foggie T, Shah P, Grieco J, Achee N. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1243 pubmed publisher
    ..It is this contact irritant response that may elicit escape behavior from a treated space and is a focus of exploitation for reducing man-vector contact inside homes. ..
  35. Etang J, Nwane P, Mbida J, Piameu M, Manga B, Souop D, et al. Variations of insecticide residual bio-efficacy on different types of walls: results from a community-based trial in south Cameroon. Malar J. 2011;10:333 pubmed publisher
    ..Current data suggest variable durations of spray cycles for each product, according to the type of wall surfaces, highlighting the importance of testing candidate products in local context before using them in large scale. ..
  36. Nardini L, Christian R, Coetzer N, Ranson H, Coetzee M, Koekemoer L. Detoxification enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis of different geographic origin. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:113 pubmed publisher
    ..These data emphasise the complexity associated with resistance phenotypes and suggest that specific insecticide resistance mechanisms cannot be extrapolated to different vector populations of the same species. ..
  37. Irving H, Riveron J, Ibrahim S, Lobo N, Wondji C. Positional cloning of rp2 QTL associates the P450 genes CYP6Z1, CYP6Z3 and CYP6M7 with pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;109:383-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterisation of this rp2 QTL significantly improves our understanding of resistance mechanisms in A. funestus. ..
  38. Wu S, Yang Y, Yuan G, Campbell P, Teese M, Russell R, et al. Overexpressed esterases in a fenvalerate resistant strain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative PCR on these four genes showed several-fold greater expression in tissues of YGF compared to SCD but no differences was found in the number of copies of the genes between the strains. ..
  39. Stampfli N, Knillmann S, Liess M, Beketov M. Environmental context determines community sensitivity of freshwater zooplankton to a pesticide. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;104:116-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that environmental context is more important for ecotoxicological evaluation than assumed previously...
  40. Faulde M, Albiez G, Nehring O. Novel long-lasting impregnation technique transferred from clothing to bednets: extended efficacy and residual activity of different pyrethroids against Aedes aegypti as shown by EN ISO 6330-standardized machine laundering. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:2341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized machine laundering and drying according to EN ISO 6330 is highly recommended to monitor and validate wash durability and residual activity of LLINs. ..
  41. Bariami V, Jones C, Poupardin R, Vontas J, Ranson H. Gene amplification, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450s: unraveling the molecular basis of pyrethroid resistance in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1692 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of copy number polymorphisms in detoxification and transporter genes in providing protection against insecticide exposure requires further investigation. ..
  42. Lu C, Schenck F, Pearson M, Wong J. Assessing children's dietary pesticide exposure: direct measurement of pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation. ..
  43. Jin Y, Zheng S, Fu Z. Embryonic exposure to cypermethrin induces apoptosis and immunotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The information presented in this study will help elucidate the mechanism of CYP-induced toxicity in fish. ..
  44. Chen S, Hu Q, Hu M, Luo J, Weng Q, Lai K. Isolation and characterization of a fungus able to degrade pyrethroids and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..73 d(-1), 99.20 mgL(-1) and 449.75 mgL(-1), respectively. Degradation followed first-order kinetics. These results show that the fungal strain may possess potential to be used in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environments. ..
  45. Kawada H, Dida G, Ohashi K, Komagata O, Kasai S, Tomita T, et al. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22574 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. ..
  46. Yewhalaw D, Bortel W, Denis L, Coosemans M, Duchateau L, Speybroeck N. First evidence of high knockdown resistance frequency in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..05% deltamethrin from bioassay results was 1.0%, 18.1%, and 82.2%, respectively. We report here the highest kdr allele frequency ever observed in An. arabiensis and its implications in malaria vector control in Ethiopia are discussed. ..
  47. Zhang J, Yang M, Wang W, Sun H, Xu Y, Ma L, et al. prag01, a novel deltamethrin-resistance-associated gene from Culex pipiens pallens. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data for the first time approved that prag01 gene might play some role in the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. pipiens pallens. ..
  48. Liu J, Yang Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Liu W. Disrupting effects of bifenthrin on ovulatory gene expression and prostaglandin synthesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Toxicology. 2011;282:47-55 pubmed publisher
  49. Chen S, Hu M, Liu J, Zhong G, Yang L, Rizwan ul Haq M, et al. Biodegradation of beta-cypermethrin and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a novel Ochrobactrum lupini DG-S-01. J Hazard Mater. 2011;187:433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the strain also degraded beta-cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin and deltamethrin. These results reveal that DG-S-01 may possess potential to be used in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment...
  50. Fuseini G, Ebsworth P, Jones S, Knight D. The efficacy of ACTELLIC 50 EC, pirimiphos methyl, for indoor residual spraying in Ahafo, Ghana: area of high vector resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:437-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is recommended for use in IRS programs in this part of Ghana, where there is high vector resistance to most of the insecticides. ..
  51. Zhang C, Wang S, Yan Y. Isomerization and biodegradation of beta-cypermethrin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CH7 with biosurfactant production. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:7139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, CH7 may serve as a promising strain in the bioremediation of wastewater and soil polluted by beta-cypermethrin. ..
  52. Ngufor C, N Guessan R, Boko P, Odjo A, Vigninou E, Asidi A, et al. Combining indoor residual spraying with chlorfenapyr and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets for improved control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Benin. Malar J. 2011;10:343 pubmed publisher
    ..Chlorfenapyr has potential to manage pyrethroid resistance in the context of an expanding LLIN/IRS strategy. ..
  53. Jiang W, Haver D, RUST M, Gan J. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls. Water Res. 2012;46:645-52 pubmed publisher
  54. Haddi K, Berger M, Bielza P, Cifuentes D, Field L, Gorman K, et al. Identification of mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in the voltage-gated sodium channel of the tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:506-13 pubmed publisher
  55. Niu J, Dou W, Ding T, Shen G, Zhang K, Smagghe G, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, and its gene expression by exposure to insecticide/acaricide. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:422-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study will facilitate molecular research on pesticide resistance in citrus red mites, as well as in other phytophagous mites...
  56. Asidi A, N Guessan R, Akogbeto M, Curtis C, Rowland M. Loss of household protection from use of insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes, benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ITNs provide little or no protection once the mosquitoes become resistant and the netting acquires holes. Resistance seriously threatens malaria control strategies based on ITN. ..
  57. Kawada H, Dida G, Sonye G, Njenga S, Mwandawiro C, Minakawa N. Reconsideration of Anopheles rivulorum as a vector of Plasmodium falciparum in western Kenya: some evidence from biting time, blood preference, sporozoite positive rate, and pyrethroid resistance. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:230 pubmed publisher
    ..funestus group. The role of An. rivulorum as a malaria vector has not been fully studied, although it has been found to be a minor or opportunistic transmitter of Plasmodium falciparum...
  58. Xu Q, Zhang L, Li T, Zhang L, He L, Dong K, et al. Evolutionary adaptation of the amino acid and codon usage of the mosquito sodium channel following insecticide selection in the field mosquitoes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47609 pubmed publisher
  59. Jorgenson B, Young T. Formulation effects and the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from urban hard surfaces. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:4951-7 pubmed publisher
  60. Morgan J, Irving H, Okedi L, Steven A, Wondji C. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11872 pubmed publisher
    ..funestus may be more widespread than previously assumed and therefore this should be taken into account for the implementation and management of vector control programs in Africa. ..
  61. Greenberg L, Rust M, Klotz J, Haver D, Kabashima J, Bondarenko S, et al. Impact of ant control technologies on insecticide runoff and efficacy. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:980-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The pin stream application and applications limited to the house foundation should be further evaluated for their potential to reduce pesticide runoff from residential homes. ..
  62. Fenlon K, Jones K, Semple K. The effect of soil:water ratios on the induction of isoproturon, cypermethrin and diazinon mineralisation. Chemosphere. 2011;82:163-8 pubmed publisher
  63. Zhang S, Yin L, Liu Y, Zhang D, Luo X, Cheng J, et al. Cometabolic biotransformation of fenpropathrin by Clostridium species strain ZP3. Biodegradation. 2011;22:869-75 pubmed publisher
    ..5, and degradation efficiency was 20.0 mg l(-1) day(-1), and it might be potential using for rapid treating fenpropathrin, for example, on the surface of fruits and vegetables. ..
  64. Zhao X, Wang Q, Ji Y, Wang H, Liu P, Zhang C, et al. Fenvalerate induces germ cell apoptosis in mouse testes through the Fas/FasL signaling pathway. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, fenvalerate did not cause the activation of caspase-9 in testes. Taken together, these results suggest that fenvalerate induces germ cell apoptosis in testes through the Fas/FasL signaling pathway. ..
  65. Bingham G, Strode C, Tran L, Khoa P, Jamet H. Can piperonyl butoxide enhance the efficacy of pyrethroids against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti?. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..PBO used in combination with DM resulted in higher mortality than DM alone. Synergists may have an important role to play in the future design of vector control products in an era when alternatives to pyrethroids are scarce. ..
  66. Raghavendra K, Ghosh S, Eapen A, Tiwari S, Satyanarayan T, Ravindran J, et al. Field evaluation of lambda-cyhalothrin (ICON 10 CS) indoor residual spraying against Anopheles culicifacies in India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011;48:18-26 pubmed
    ..It can be used for IRS for malaria vector control with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3 months for curtailing the malaria transmission and an additional round is recommended in perennial malaria transmission areas. ..
  67. Cao Z, Shafer T, Crofton K, Gennings C, Murray T. Additivity of pyrethroid actions on sodium influx in cerebrocortical neurons in primary culture. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with a previous report of the additivity of pyrethroids in vivo. ..
  68. Fan X, Liu X, Huang R, Liu Y. Identification and characterization of a novel thermostable pyrethroid-hydrolyzing enzyme isolated through metagenomic approach. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant Sys410 with broad substrate specificities and high activity was the most thermostable one of the pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterases studied before, which made it an ideal candidate for the detoxification of pyrethroids. ..
  69. Burns M, Rowland M, N Guessan R, Carneiro I, Beeche A, Ruiz S, et al. Insecticide-treated plastic sheeting for emergency malaria prevention and shelter among displaced populations: an observational cohort study in a refugee setting in Sierra Leone. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Anemia rates improved under ITPS in both camps. This novel tool proved to be a convenient, safe, and long-lasting method of malaria control when used as a full shelter lining in an emergency setting. ..
  70. Morgan M. Children's exposures to pyrethroid insecticides at home: a review of data collected in published exposure measurement studies conducted in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:2964-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids. ..
  71. Yousef M. Vitamin E modulates reproductive toxicity of pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin in male rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was suggested that LCT exerted a significant adverse effect on reproductive performance of male rabbits. Furthermore, vitamin E antagonized the toxic effects of LCT and improved semen quality of male rabbit. ..
  72. Yadouleton A, Padonou G, Asidi A, Moiroux N, Bio Banganna S, Corbel V, et al. Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae in southern Benin. Malar J. 2010;9:83 pubmed publisher
    ..The low frequency of Ace-1 recorded in all populations is encouraging for the use of bendiocarb as an alternative insecticide to pyrethroids for IRS in Benin. ..
  73. Ansari R, Rahman S, Kaur M, Anjum S, Raisuddin S. In vivo cytogenetic and oxidative stress-inducing effects of cypermethrin in freshwater fish, Channa punctata Bloch. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The genotoxic effects were invariably accompanied and correlated with increased oxidative stress and disturbance of antioxidant enzymes. ..
  74. Dinesh D, Das M, Picado A, Roy L, Rijal S, Singh S, et al. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in visceral leishmaniasis endemic districts in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e859 pubmed publisher
    ..In both countries P. argentipes sand flies were susceptible to deltamethrin. ..
  75. Liu P, Liu Y, Liu Q, Liu J. Photodegradation mechanism of deltamethrin and fenvalerate. J Environ Sci (China). 2010;22:1123-8 pubmed
    ..This study could be a good reference for the degradation of pyrethroids in practical circumstances. ..
  76. Raghavendra K, Barik T, Sharma P, Bhatt R, Srivastava H, Sreehari U, et al. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors. Malar J. 2011;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..culicifacies have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a suitable insecticide for malaria vector control, in multiple-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes especially in areas with pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes. ..
  77. Toto J, Besnard P, Le Mire J, Almeida D, dos Santos M, Fortes F, et al. [Preliminary evaluation of the insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from Lobito (Angola), using WHO standard assay]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011;104:307-12 pubmed publisher
  78. Jones C, Sanou A, Guelbeogo W, Sagnon N, Johnson P, Ranson H. Aging partially restores the efficacy of malaria vector control in insecticide-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso. Malar J. 2012;11:24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, LLINs and IRS were tested against young (three to five days) and old (17-19 days) pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso...
  79. Marcombe S, Mathieu R, Pocquet N, Riaz M, Poupardin R, Sélior S, et al. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30989 pubmed publisher
    ..Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed. ..
  80. Kumar A, Sharma B, Pandey R. Assessment of stress in effect to pyrethroid insecticides, ?-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin, in a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (BLOCH). Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2012;58:153-9 pubmed
    ..The importance of the current study lies in indicating the potential risk of muddy freshwater fishes due to strong soil binding property of pyrethroids along with their slow metabolism in fishes as compared to that of mammals. ..
  81. Du Y, Song W, Groome J, Nomura Y, Luo N, Dong K. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;247:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids. ..
  82. Chuang J, Wilson N. Multiresidue analysis of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in duplicate-diet solid food by pressurized liquid extraction. J Environ Sci Health B. 2011;46:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed analytical methods were successfully applied to 278 duplicate-diet food samples from preschool children, demonstrating that these methods are robust and suitable for routine analysis in future exposure monitoring studies. ..
  83. Chen S, Yang L, Hu M, Liu J. Biodegradation of fenvalerate and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by a novel Stenotrophomonas sp. strain ZS-S-01 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 4.9 days. Compared with the controls, the half-lives for fenvalerate and 3-PBA reduced by 16.9-156.3 days. These results highlight strain ZS-S-01 may have potential for use in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment...
  84. Damien G, Djènontin A, Rogier C, Corbel V, Bangana S, Chandre F, et al. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin. Malar J. 2010;9:380 pubmed publisher
    ..The used LLINs rate was high and only the correct use of LLINs was found to reduce malaria infection without influencing malaria morbidity. ..
  85. Somwang P, Yanola J, Suwan W, Walton C, Lumjuan N, Prapanthadara L, et al. Enzymes-based resistant mechanism in pyrethroid resistant and susceptible Aedes aegypti strains from northern Thailand. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results have indicated the presence of a metabolic metabolism involving P450, ADHs, and ALDHs in both PMD and PMD-R strains, with greater enzyme activity in the latter...
  86. Zhuang R, Chen H, Yao J, Li Z, Burnet J, Choi M. Impact of beta-cypermethrin on soil microbial community associated with its bioavailability: a combined study by isothermal microcalorimetry and enzyme assay techniques. J Hazard Mater. 2011;189:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These results suggest that the heavy application of beta-CYP may not cause damage to soil microbial community which is very different from its high toxicity to the aquatic organism. ..
  87. Jin Y, Wang L, Ruan M, Liu J, Yang Y, Zhou C, et al. Cypermethrin exposure during puberty induces oxidative stress and endocrine disruption in male mice. Chemosphere. 2011;84:124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results indicated that CYP can induce endocrine disruption in adolescent mice. The findings will be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of toxicity induced by CYP in adolescent mice. ..
  88. Hata Y, Zimmermann S, Quitschau M, Kaiser M, Hamburger M, Adams M. Antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity of pyrethrins and pyrethroids. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:9172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Vis. flowers showed strong activity against Plasmodium falciparum. We isolated the five pyrethrins [i.e., pyrethrin II (1), jasmolin II (2), cinerin II (3), pyrethrin I (4), and jasmolin I (5)] from this extract...
  89. Amin K, Hashem K. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus): antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of 12 ?g/l ?-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of ?-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish. ..
  90. Jorgenson B, Wissel Tyson C, Young T. Factors contributing to the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from urban surfaces. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment effects were analyzed by ANOVA on main factors of formulation, surface type, and set time. Factor effects were not purely additive; a significant interaction between formulation and surface type was noted. ..
  91. Fourie J, Crafford D, Horak I, Stanneck D. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:151 pubmed publisher
    ..5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes...
  92. Harris A, Rajatileka S, Ranson H. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti from Grand Cayman. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The F1534C mutation was strongly correlated with resistance to DDT and permethrin. ..