Summary: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).

Top Publications

  1. Viljoen A, Mncwangi N, Vermaak I. Anti-inflammatory iridoids of botanical origin. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:2104-27 pubmed
    ..Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation...
  2. Dinda B, Debnath S, Banik R. Naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. An updated review, part 4. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2011;59:803-33 pubmed
    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids including their glycosides, esters, aglycones, derivatives and dimers reported during mid 2008-2010 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [?](D), UV, ..
  3. Xu J, Guo P, Fang L, Li Y, Guo Y. Iridoids from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Two new iridoids, jatamanvaltrates N (1) and O (2), together with four known compounds (3-6), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi...
  4. Guo L, Xia Z, Gao X, Yin F, Liu J. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor plays a critical role in geniposide-regulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mmol/L). Geniposide increases insulin secretion through glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in rat INS-1 insulinoma cells. ..
  5. Nagatoshi M, Terasaka K, Nagatsu A, Mizukami H. Iridoid-specific glucosyltransferase from Gardenia jasminoides. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32866-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Iridoids are one of the most widely distributed secondary metabolites in higher plants...
  6. Kim E, Jeong C, Moon A. Genipin, a constituent of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:567-72 pubmed publisher
  7. Koriyama Y, Takagi Y, Chiba K, Yamazaki M, Arai K, Matsukawa T, et al. Neuritogenic activity of a genipin derivative in retinal ganglion cells is mediated by retinoic acid receptor ? expression through nitric oxide/S-nitrosylation signaling. J Neurochem. 2011;119:1232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The both neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of genipin could be a new target for the regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after glaucomatous conditions. ..
  8. Kojima K, Shimada T, Nagareda Y, Watanabe M, Ishizaki J, Sai Y, et al. Preventive effect of geniposide on metabolic disease status in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic mice and free fatty acid-treated HepG2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1613-8 pubmed
  9. Liu X, Wang J. Iridoid glycosides fraction of Folium syringae leaves modulates NF-?B signal pathway and intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis in experimental colitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24740 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether IG modulates the inflammatory response in experimental colitis at the level of NF-?B signal pathway and epithelial cell apoptosis...

More Information


  1. Ayyasamy V, Owens K, Desouki M, Liang P, Bakin A, Thangaraj K, et al. Cellular model of Warburg effect identifies tumor promoting function of UCP2 in breast cancer and its suppression by genipin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24792 pubmed publisher
  2. Koo H, Song Y, Kim H, Lee Y, Hong S, Kim S, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of genipin, an active principle of gardenia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;495:201-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate that genipin possesses antiinflammatory and is a specific hydroxyl radical scavenger. Its antiangiogenic and NO production-inhibitory properties are also presented...
  3. Yamabe N, Noh J, Park C, Kang K, Shibahara N, Tanaka T, et al. Evaluation of loganin, iridoid glycoside from Corni Fructus, on hepatic and renal glucolipotoxicity and inflammation in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;648:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Loganin exhibits protective effects against hepatic injury and other diabetic complications associated with abnormal metabolic states and inflammation caused by oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproduct formation. ..
  4. Kupeli E, Tatli I, Akdemir Z, Yesilada E. Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive glycoterpenoids from the flowers of Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Bentham. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110:444-50 pubmed
    ..Results of the present study support the continued and expanded utilization of plants employed in Turkish folk medicine...
  5. Avila M, Navia J. Effect of genipin collagen crosslinking on porcine corneas. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36:659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This crosslinker could be useful in treating corneal ectasia and corneal infectious and noninfectious diseases involving corneal melting. ..
  6. Wang G, Zheng L, Zhao H, Miao J, Sun C, Ren N, et al. In vitro assessment of the differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on genipin-chitosan conjugation scaffold with surface hydroxyapatite nanostructure for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:1341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings open a new research avenue to controlling stem cell lineage commitment and provide a promising scaffold for bone tissue engineering. ..
  7. Yamazaki M, Chiba K, Mohri T, Hatanaka H. Cyclic GMP-dependent neurite outgrowth by genipin and nerve growth factor in PC12h cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;488:35-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the soluble guanylate cyclase-PKG signaling pathway is important for MAPK activation by genipin as well as NGF during neuritogenesis in PC12h cells. ..
  8. Nieminen M, Suomi J, van Nouhuys S, Sauri P, Riekkola M. Effect of iridoid glycoside content on oviposition host plant choice and parasitism in a specialist herbivore. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:823-44 pubmed
    ..b>Iridoids are known to deter feeding or decrease the growth rate of many generalist insect herbivores, but they often act ..
  9. Li M, Shang X, Zhang R, Jia Z, Fan P, Ying Q, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoid glycosides extract of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these results suggested that the iridoid glycosides extract possesses the significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. ..
  10. Liu B, Yao C, Chen Y, Hsu S. In vitro evaluation of degradation and cytotoxicity of a novel composite as a bone substitute. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003;67:1163-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we found that gelatin and calcium continuously were released from the GGT composite in the soaking solution, which promoted differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblasts. ..
  11. Santoro A, Bianco G, Picerno P, Aquino R, Autore G, Marzocco S, et al. Verminoside- and verbascoside-induced genotoxicity on human lymphocytes: involvement of PARP-1 and p53 proteins. Toxicol Lett. 2008;178:71-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Anauate M, Torres L, de Mello S. Effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil's claw) on COX-1, COX-2 activity and nitric oxide production on whole-blood assay. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, other components from devil's claw crude extract could antagonize or increase the synthesis of inflammatory mediators...
  13. Harvey J, van Nouhuys S, Biere A. Effects of quantitative variation in allelochemicals in Plantago lanceolata on development of a generalist and a specialist herbivore and their endoparasitoids. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:287-302 pubmed
  14. Murata J, Roepke J, Gordon H, De Luca V. The leaf epidermome of Catharanthus roseus reveals its biochemical specialization. Plant Cell. 2008;20:524-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The value and versatility of this EST data set for biochemical and biological analysis of leaf epidermal cells is also discussed. ..
  15. Kim S, Koo K, Sung S, Ma C, Yoon J, Kim Y. Iridoids from Scrophularia buergeriana attenuate glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical cultures. J Neurosci Res. 2003;74:948-55 pubmed
  16. Bowers M. Hostplant suitability and defensive chemistry of the Catalpa sphinx, Ceratomia catalpae. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:2359-67 pubmed
  17. Peng C, Tseng T, Huang C, Hsu S, Wang C. Apoptosis induced by penta-acetyl geniposide in C6 glioma cells is associated with JNK activation and Fas ligand induction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;202:172-9 pubmed
    ..The JNK pathway is suggested to be the downstream signal of PKCdelta, since rottlerin impedes (AC)(5)GP-induced JNK activation. Therefore, (AC)(5)GP mediates cell death via activation of PKCdelta/JNK/FasL cascade signaling. ..
  18. Peng C, Huang C, Hsu S, Wang C. Penta-acetyl geniposide-induced apoptosis involving transcription of NGF/p75 via MAPK-mediated AP-1 activation in C6 glioma cells. Toxicology. 2007;238:130-9 pubmed
    ..These results further highlight the potential therapeutic effects of (Ac)(5)GP in chemoprevention or as an anti-tumor agent...
  19. Shim K, Choi S, Jeong M, Kang S. Effects of aucubin on the healing of oral wounds. In Vivo. 2007;21:1037-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, the number of inflammatory cells of the aucubin-treated group was fewer than that of the control group. In conclusion, aucubin may be useful for oral wound healing and can be applied as a topical agent to oral wounds. ..
  20. Parton L, Ye C, Coppari R, Enriori P, Choi B, Zhang C, et al. Glucose sensing by POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and is impaired in obesity. Nature. 2007;449:228-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that obesity-induced, UCP2-mediated loss of glucose sensing in glucose-excited neurons might have a pathogenic role in the development of type 2 diabetes. ..
  21. Chen Q, Zhang W, Youn U, Kim H, Lee I, Jung H, et al. Iridoid glycosides from Gardeniae Fructus for treatment of ankle sprain. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..01) with approximately 21-34% reduction in swelling ratio compared with those of the vehicle treated control group. This indicated the potential effect of geniposide (4) for the treatment of disorders such as ankle sprain. ..
  22. Okada K, Shoda J, Kano M, Suzuki S, Ohtake N, Yamamoto M, et al. Inchinkoto, a herbal medicine, and its ingredients dually exert Mrp2/MRP2-mediated choleresis and Nrf2-mediated antioxidative action in rat livers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1450-63 pubmed
  23. Liang H, Chang Y, Hsu C, Lee M, Sung H. Effects of crosslinking degree of an acellular biological tissue on its tissue regeneration pattern. Biomaterials. 2004;25:3541-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the crosslinking degree determines the degradation rate of the acellular tissue and its tissue regeneration pattern. ..
  24. Tian J, Cui Y, Hu L, Gao S, Chi W, Dong T, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of genipin in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2010;479:236-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that compared with fluoxetine, genipin exerts antidepressant-like effects significantly. A possible mechanism, at least in part, is the regulation of the 5-HT and NE levels in the hippocampus...
  25. Penuelas J, Sardans J, Stefanescu C, Parella T, Filella I. Lonicera Implexa leaves bearing naturally laid eggs of the specialist herbivore Euphydryas Aurinia have dramatically greater concentrations of iridoid glycosides than other leaves. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:1925-33 pubmed
    ..These huge foliar concentrations of iridoids (15% leaf dry weight) may provide specialist herbivores with compounds that they either sequester for their own ..
  26. Jin L, Xue H, Jin L, Li S, Xu Y. Antioxidant and pancreas-protective effect of aucubin on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;582:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that aucubin may have value as a safe preventive or therapeutic agent against diabetes mellitus. ..
  27. Yin F, Liu J, Zheng X, Guo L. GLP-1 receptor plays a critical role in geniposide-induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 in PC12 cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..GLP-1R plays a critical role in geniposide-induced HO-1 expression to attenuate oxidative insults in PC12 cells. ..
  28. Suomi J, Siren H, Jussila M, Wiedmer S, Riekkola M. Determination of iridoid glycosides in larvae and adults of butterfly Melitaea cinxia by partial filling micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;376:884-9 pubmed
    ..1% of the samplés dry mass. A correlation was noticed between the concentrations of iridoid glycosides in plants and the concentrations in larvae feeding on them. ..
  29. Suzuki H, Yamazaki M, Chiba K, Uemori Y, Sawanishi H. Neuritogenic activities of 1-alkyloxygenipins. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:168-71 pubmed
    ..1R)-isoPropyloxygenipin showed activity comparable to that of genipin, and unlike the parent compound genipin, it was found to be physiologically stable in rat liver homogenate. ..
  30. Koo H, Lee S, Shin K, Kim B, Lim C, Park E. Geniposide, an anti-angiogenic compound from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. Planta Med. 2004;70:467-9 pubmed
    ..Geniposide showed anti-angiogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner. It also exhibited an inhibitory effect in the range of 25-100 microM on the growth of the transformed NIH3T3 cell line...
  31. Zhou H, Zhao J, Zhang X. Inhibition of uncoupling protein 2 by genipin reduces insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;486:88-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling in adipocytes positively regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, and UCP2 may play an important role in insulin resistance. ..
  32. Nam K, Choi Y, Jung H, Park G, Park J, Moon S, et al. Genipin inhibits the inflammatory response of rat brain microglial cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that genipin provide neuroprotection by reducing the production of various neurotoxic molecules from activated microglia. ..
  33. Yamazaki M, Chiba K. Genipin exhibits neurotrophic effects through a common signaling pathway in nitric oxide synthase-expressing cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;581:255-61 pubmed publisher
  34. Cao Y, Liu J, Yu Y, Zheng P, Zhang X, Li T, et al. Synergistic protective effect of picroside II and NGF on PC12 cells against oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:573-9 pubmed
    ..Such action supports the therapeutic potential of picroside II and NGF in treating nervous disorders based on their synergistic effect. ..
  35. Tundis R, Loizzo M, Menichini F, Statti G, Menichini F. Biological and pharmacological activities of iridoids: recent developments. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008;8:399-420 pubmed
    b>Iridoids represent a large group of cyclopenta[c]pyran monoterpenoids that occur wide-spread in nature, mainly in dicotyledonous plant families like Apocynaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Diervillaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae and Rubiaceae...
  36. Zhang X, Zhang A, Jiang B, Bao Y, Wang J, An L. Further pharmacological evidence of the neuroprotective effect of catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Catalpol may be a potential anti-aging agent and worth testing for further preclinical study aimed for senescence or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
  37. Obied H, Prenzler P, Ryan D, Servili M, Taticchi A, Esposto S, et al. Biosynthesis and biotransformations of phenol-conjugated oleosidic secoiridoids from Olea europaea L. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Many questions regarding these processes remain unanswered, and yet these have significant impact on the quality and value of olive products such as olive oil. ..
  38. Wang G, Wu S, Rao J, Lu L, Xu W, Pang J, et al. Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis via nitric oxide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism for genipin. This compound may represent a new treatment for inflammation and/or thrombosis in which excess endothelial exocytosis plays a pathophysiological role. ..
  39. Cao H, Feng Q, Xu W, Li X, Kang Z, Ren Y, et al. Genipin induced apoptosis associated with activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p53 protein in HeLa cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1343-8 pubmed
    ..Taken all these together, it is possible to develop genipin as an anti-cancer drug. ..
  40. Levinton Shamuilov G, Cohen Y, Azoury M, Chaikovsky A, Almog J. Genipin, a novel fingerprint reagent with colorimetric and fluorogenic activity, part II: optimization, scope and limitations. J Forensic Sci. 2005;50:1367-71 pubmed
    ..Another potential advantage of genipin is that it is totally harmless and an environmentally friendly reagent. ..
  41. Chen H, Ouyang W, Lawuyi B, Martoni C, Prakash S. Reaction of chitosan with genipin and its fluorogenic attributes for potential microcapsule membrane characterization. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005;75:917-27 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a convenient and effective way of characterizing chitosan-based microcapsules using genipin as a fluorogenic marker, a technique that will be useful in microcapsule research and other biomedical applications. ..
  42. Chang Y, Hsu C, Wei H, Chen S, Liang H, Lai P, et al. Cell-free xenogenic vascular grafts fixed with glutaraldehyde or genipin: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Biotechnol. 2005;120:207-19 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the H-A-GP graft was superior to the H-A-GA graft in completeness of endothelialization on its luminal surface, and thus precluded thrombus formation. ..
  43. Kupeli E, Harput U, Varel M, Yesilada E, Saracoglu I. Bioassay-guided isolation of iridoid glucosides with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities from Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102:170-6 pubmed
    ..Results of the present study supported the utilization of the plant in Turkish folk medicine...
  44. Biere A, Marak H, van Damme J. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?. Oecologia. 2004;140:430-41 pubmed
  45. Jensen S, Franzyk H, Wallander E. Chemotaxonomy of the Oleaceae: iridoids as taxonomic markers. Phytochemistry. 2002;60:213-31 pubmed
    ..and biosynthesis of iridoid glucosides in the Oleaceae is reviewed and five distinct biosynthetic pathways to iridoids have been identified in the family, deoxyloganic acid apparently being a common intermediate...
  46. Wahlberg N. The phylogenetics and biochemistry of host-plant specialization in Melitaeine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Evolution. 2001;55:522-37 pubmed
    ..Of the 16 host-plant families, 12 produce secondary plant metabolites called iridoids. Earlier studies have shown that larvae of several melitaeine species use iridoids as feeding stimulants and ..
  47. Jeon W, Hong H, Kim B. Genipin up-regulates heme oxygenase-1 via PI3-kinase-JNK1/2-Nrf2 signaling pathway to enhance the anti-inflammatory capacity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;512:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, identification of PI 3-kinase-JNK1/2-Nrf2-linked signaling cascade in genipin-mediated HO-1 expression defines the signaling event that could participate in genipin-mediated anti-inflammatory response. ..
  48. Ragasa C, Pimenta L, Rideout J. Iridoids from Gardenia jasminoides. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:1078-84 pubmed
    ..afforded a new iridoid natural product (1), and a diastereomeric mixture of two new iridoids (2a and 2b) in a 2 : 1 ratio. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy...
  49. Sung H, Huang R, Huang L, Tsai C. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of a naturally occurring cross-linking reagent for biological tissue fixation. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 1999;10:63-78 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, as far as cytotoxicity is concerned, genipin is a promising cross-linking reagent for biological tissue fixation. ..
  50. Wood C, Lee K, Vaisberg A, Kingston D, Neto C, Hammond G. A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:1477-8 pubmed
  51. Delaporte R, Sánchez G, Cuellar A, Giuliani A, Palazzo de Mello J. Anti-inflammatory activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of iridoid lamiide isolated from Bouchea fluminensis (Vell.) Mold. (Verbenaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82:127-30 pubmed
    ..The activity of lamiide on rat-brain phospholipid peroxidation showed a powerful effect (IC(50)=0.92+/-0.01 mM) and an anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced paw edema test (ED(50)=62.3+/-7 mg/kg weight)...
  52. Reudler Talsma J, Biere A, Harvey J, van Nouhuys S. Oviposition cues for a specialist butterfly--plant chemistry and size. J Chem Ecol. 2008;34:1202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate that the rank of a cue used for oviposition may be dependent on environmental context...
  53. Ahmed B, Al Rehaily A, Al Howiriny T, El Sayed K, Ahmad M. Scropolioside-D2 and harpagoside-B: two new iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia deserti and their antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:462-7 pubmed
    ..The biological activity and the structure activity relationship of the compounds were also studied, and scropolioside-D (3) and harpagoside-B (2) were found to possess significant antidiabetic and antiinflammatory activity, respectively...
  54. Marak H, Biere A, van Damme J. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress. Evolution. 2003;57:2519-30 pubmed
    ..This indicates that fitness costs of defense may be modulated by environment-specific fitness effects of genetically associated traits. ..
  55. Fuchs A, Bowers M. Patterns of iridoid glycoside production and induction in Plantago lanceolata and the importance of plant age. J Chem Ecol. 2004;30:1723-41 pubmed
    ..lanceolata. We also investigated the importance of the timing of herbivory on P. lanceolata's inductive response, but neither herbivory after 5 wk of growth nor after 6 or 7 wk of growth induced an increase in aucubin or catalpol. ..
  56. Ozturk N, Korkmaz S, Ozturk Y, Baser K. Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. Planta Med. 2006;72:289-94 pubmed
    ..The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data...
  57. Selvaggini R, Servili M, Urbani S, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Montedoro G. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:2832-8 pubmed
    ..The efficiency of the new method, as compared to the liquid-liquid extraction, was higher to quantify phenyl alcohols, lignans, and 3,4-DHPEA-EA and lower for the evaluation of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA. ..
  58. Bas E, Recio M, Abdallah M, Máñez S, Giner R, Cerda Nicolas M, et al. Inhibition of the pro-inflammatory mediators' production and anti-inflammatory effect of the iridoid scrovalentinoside. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110:419-27 pubmed
    ..Finally, scrovalentinoside inhibited the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators' TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, LTB(4), and NO, but had no effect on the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10...
  59. Kitano A, Saika S, Yamanaka O, Ikeda K, Reinach P, Nakajima Y, et al. Genipin suppresses subconjunctival fibroblast migration, proliferation and myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Ophthalmic Res. 2006;38:355-60 pubmed
    ..Genipin suppresses injury-induced fibrogenic responses in SCFs. This result suggests that the herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to might have therapeutic value following trabeculotomy. ..
  60. Jiang B, Liu J, Bao Y, An L. Catalpol inhibits apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cells by preventing cytochrome c release and inactivating of caspase cascade. Toxicon. 2004;43:53-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that treatment of PC12 cells with catalpol can block H2O2-induced apoptosis by the regulation of Bcl-2 family members, as well as suppression of cytochrome c release and caspase cascade activation. ..
  61. Liu J, He Q, Zou W, Wang H, Bao Y, Liu Y, et al. Catalpol increases hippocampal neuroplasticity and up-regulates PKC and BDNF in the aged rats. Brain Res. 2006;1123:68-79 pubmed
    ..Consequently, it seemed to indicate that catalpol might ameliorate age-related neuroplasticity loss by "normalizing" presynaptic proteins and their relative signaling pathways in the aged rats. ..
  62. Vaijanathappa J, Badami S. Antiedematogenic and free radical scavenging activity of swertiamarin isolated from Enicostemma axillare. Planta Med. 2009;75:12-7 pubmed publisher
    ..51 mM of ascorbic acid per gram of swertiamarin. Swertiamarin possesses antiedematogenic and in vitro antioxidant activities, and it may be the active constituent responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of E. AXILLARE. ..
  63. Jaishree V, Badami S, Rupesh Kumar M, Tamizhmani T. Antinociceptive activity of swertiamarin isolated from Enicostemma axillare. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Iridoids present in a wide variety of medicinal plants possess a large number of medicinal properties...
  64. Dinda B, Debnath S, Harigaya Y. Naturally occurring secoiridoids and bioactivity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. A review, part 2. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007;55:689-728 pubmed
    ..The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 1998-2005 are also reviewed...
  65. Pacifico S, D Abrosca B, Pascarella M, Letizia M, Uzzo P, Piscopo V, et al. Antioxidant efficacy of iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Teucrium chamaedris in cell-free systems. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:6173-9 pubmed publisher
    Twelve glycosides, seven iridoids and five phenylethanoids, have been isolated from leaf and root methanolic extracts of Wall Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys), a Mediterranean species historically used as a medicinal plant...
  66. Yao R, Zhang L, Wang W, Li L. Cornel iridoid glycoside promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improves neurological function after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2009;79:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that CIG promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improved neurological function after ischemia in rats, and the mechanism might be related to CIG's increasing VEGF and Flk-1 in the brain. ..
  67. Chen L, Liu J, Zhang X, Guo Y, Xu Z, Cao W, et al. Down-regulation of NR2B receptors partially contributes to analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside in persistent inflammatory pain. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:1175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide strong evidence that analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside involve down-regulation of NR2B receptors in the ACC to persistent inflammatory pain. ..
  68. Sung H, Huang R, Huang L, Tsai C, Chiu C. Feasibility study of a natural crosslinking reagent for biological tissue fixation. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998;42:560-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that genipin can form stable crosslinked products. The results of this in vitro study demonstrate that genipin is an effective crosslinking reagent for biological tissue fixation. ..
  69. Liu H, He J, Li W, Yang Z, Wang Y, Yin J, et al. Geniposide inhibits interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production in lipopolysaccharide-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells by blocking p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that geniposide can inhibit LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in HUVECs by blocking p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. ..
  70. Picerno P, Autore G, Marzocco S, Meloni M, Sanogo R, Aquino R. Anti-inflammatory activity of verminoside from Kigelia africana and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:1610-4 pubmed
  71. Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Ikeda Y, Umemura K. Antithrombotic effect of geniposide and genipin in the mouse thrombosis model. Planta Med. 2001;67:807-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that geniposide showed an antithrombotic effect in vivo due to the suppression of platelet aggregation. PLA(2) inhibition by geniposide is one possible anti-platelet mechanism. ..
  72. Lima E, Tan A, Tai T, Marra K, DeFail A, Ateshian G, et al. Genipin enhances the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage and protects against inflammatory degradation when used as a medium supplement. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;91:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a potential use of genipin as a medium supplement to develop enhanced engineered cartilage. ..
  73. Jin J, Song M, Hourston D. Novel chitosan-based films cross-linked by genipin with improved physical properties. Biomacromolecules. 2004;5:162-8 pubmed
    ..The results showed that, with the one exception of cross-linked pure chitosan in 100% water, the cross-linked chitosan and chitosan/PEO blends were more hydrophobic than un-crosslinked ones. ..
  74. Machida K, Hishinuma E, Kikuchi M. Studies on the constituents of Catalpa species. IX. Iridoids from the fallen leaves of Catalpa ovata G. Don. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:618-21 pubmed
    Two new iridoids, 6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-7-deoxyrehmaglutin A (1) and 6-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-7-deoxyrehmaglutin A (2), were isolated from the fallen leaves of Catalpa ovata G. DON. together with six artifact iridoids (3-8)...
  75. Liu J, Yin F, Zheng X, Jing J, Hu Y. Geniposide, a novel agonist for GLP-1 receptor, prevents PC12 cells from oxidative damage via MAP kinase pathway. Neurochem Int. 2007;51:361-9 pubmed
    ..All these data demonstrate that geniposide, an agonist for GLP-1 receptor, regulates expression of anti-oxidative proteins including HO-1 and Bcl-2 by activating the transcriptor of p90RSK via MAPK signaling pathway in PC12 cells. ..
  76. Yin F, Liu J, Zheng X, Guo L, Xiao H. Geniposide induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 via PI3K/Nrf2-signaling to enhance the antioxidant capacity in primary hippocampal neurons. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1841-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the novel cytoprotective mechanism of geniposide to antagonize oxidative stress may be involved in PI3K- and Nrf2-mediated upregulation of the antioxidative enzyme HO-1...
  77. Smilanich A, Dyer L, Chambers J, Bowers M. Immunological cost of chemical defence and the evolution of herbivore diet breadth. Ecol Lett. 2009;12:612-21 pubmed publisher
  78. Zhang C, Parton L, Ye C, Krauss S, Shen R, Lin C, et al. Genipin inhibits UCP2-mediated proton leak and acutely reverses obesity- and high glucose-induced beta cell dysfunction in isolated pancreatic islets. Cell Metab. 2006;3:417-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, these agents represent lead compounds that comprise a starting point for the development of therapies aimed at treating beta cell dysfunction. ..
  79. Kaminski K, Zazakowny K, Szczubiałka K, Nowakowska M. pH-sensitive genipin-cross-linked chitosan microspheres for heparin removal. Biomacromolecules. 2008;9:3127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymeric material obtained thus can be potentially useful for heparin removal in biomedical applications. ..
  80. Sivakumar G, Briccoli Bati C, Uccella N. Demethyloleuropein and beta-glucosidase activity in olive fruits. Biotechnol J. 2007;2:381-5 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that demethyloleuropein derivatives could be influenced by beta-glucosidase activity to improve the quality of the olive products with the best dialdehyde nutraceutical content...
  81. Castillo D, Arevalo J, Herrera F, Ruiz C, Rojas R, Rengifo E, et al. Spirolactone iridoids might be responsible for the antileishmanial activity of a Peruvian traditional remedy made with Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:410-4 pubmed
    ..Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) afforded the spirolactone iridoids isoplumericin and plumericin...
  82. Yamazaki M, Chiba K, Yoshikawa C. Genipin suppresses A23187-induced cytotoxicity in neuro2a cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:1043-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, genipin may be effective in preventing neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease involving ER stress. ..
  83. Park J, Lee J, Kim H, Hahn T, Paik Y. Isolation and characterization of water-soluble intermediates of blue pigments transformed from geniposide of Gardenia jasminoides. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6511-4 pubmed
    ..The GM5 fraction was composed of two epimeric isomers, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, (13)C NMR, and HMQC and HMBC spectral measurements...
  84. Koriyama Y, Chiba K, Yamazaki M, Suzuki H, Muramoto K, Kato S. Long-acting genipin derivative protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress models in vitro and in vivo through the Nrf2/antioxidant response element signaling pathway. J Neurochem. 2010;115:79-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that IPRG001 exerts neuroprotective action in RGCs in vitro and in vivo, through the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway by S-nitrosylation against oxidative stress. ..