Summary: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.

Top Publications

  1. Monson R, Grote R, Niinemets U, Schnitzler J. Modeling the isoprene emission rate from leaves. New Phytol. 2012;195:541-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Where possible, we identify gaps in our knowledge that have prevented us from achieving a greater mechanistic foundation for the models, and we discuss the insight and data that must be gained to fill those gaps. ..
  2. Tiiva P, Rinnan R, Faubert P, Räsänen J, Holopainen T, Kyrö E, et al. Isoprene emission from a subarctic peatland under enhanced UV-B radiation. New Phytol. 2007;176:346-55 pubmed
    ..Warming of the Arctic together with enhanced UV-B radiation may substantially increase the emissions...
  3. Behnke K, Ehlting B, Teuber M, Bauerfeind M, Louis S, Hansch R, et al. Transgenic, non-isoprene emitting poplars don't like it hot. Plant J. 2007;51:485-99 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, using a molecular genetic approach, we show that down-regulation of isoprene emission affects thermotolerance of photosynthesis and induces increased energy dissipation by NPQ pathways. ..
  4. Calfapietra C, Wiberley A, Falbel T, Linskey A, Mugnozza G, Karnosky D, et al. Isoprene synthase expression and protein levels are reduced under elevated O3 but not under elevated CO2 (FACE) in field-grown aspen trees. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the data indicated that other mechanisms also contributed to the observed strong inhibition of isoprene emission under elevated O(3)...
  5. Tritsch D, Hemmerlin A, Bach T, Rohmer M. Plant isoprenoid biosynthesis via the MEP pathway: in vivo IPP/DMAPP ratio produced by (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:129-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Meraviglia S, Eberl M, Vermijlen D, Todaro M, Buccheri S, Cicero G, et al. In vivo manipulation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells with zoledronate and low-dose interleukin-2 for immunotherapy of advanced breast cancer patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161:290-7 pubmed publisher
  7. King J, Mochalski P, Kupferthaler A, Unterkofler K, Koc H, Filipiak W, et al. Dynamic profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as determined by a coupled PTR-MS/GC-MS study. Physiol Meas. 2010;31:1169-84 pubmed publisher
  8. Rasulov B, Hüve K, Bichele I, Laisk A, Niinemets U. Temperature response of isoprene emission in vivo reflects a combined effect of substrate limitations and isoprene synthase activity: a kinetic analysis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1558-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the development of process-based models of isoprene emission. ..
  9. Rasulov B, Hüve K, Laisk A, Niinemets U. Induction of a longer term component of isoprene release in darkened aspen leaves: origin and regulation under different environmental conditions. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:816-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These metabolites are converted to isoprene as soon as ATP and NADPH become available, likely by dark activation of chloroplastic glycolysis and chlororespiration. ..

More Information


  1. Velikova V, Sharkey T, Loreto F. Stabilization of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emitting plants reduces formation of reactive oxygen species. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:139-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We present considerations that make the latter a more likely mechanism, under our experimental circumstances. ..
  2. King J, Koc H, Unterkofler K, Mochalski P, Kupferthaler A, Teschl G, et al. Physiological modeling of isoprene dynamics in exhaled breath. J Theor Biol. 2010;267:626-37 pubmed publisher
  3. Calfapietra C, Mugnozza G, Karnosky D, Loreto F, Sharkey T. Isoprene emission rates under elevated CO2 and O3 in two field-grown aspen clones differing in their sensitivity to O3. New Phytol. 2008;179:55-61 pubmed publisher
  4. Takahashi S, Takagi H, Toyoda A, Uramoto M, Nogawa T, Ueki M, et al. Biochemical characterization of a novel indole prenyltransferase from Streptomyces sp. SN-593. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2839-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, DeltaiptA mutants abolished the production of 6-DMAI-3-carbaldehyde as well as 6-dimethylallyl-L-Trp, suggesting that the iptA gene is involved in the production of 6-DMAI-3-carbaldehyde. ..
  5. Vickers C, Possell M, Cojocariu C, Velikova V, Laothawornkitkul J, Ryan A, et al. Isoprene synthesis protects transgenic tobacco plants from oxidative stress. Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:520-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that endogenously produced isoprene provides protection from oxidative damage. ..
  6. Takeno S, Bamba T, Nakazawa Y, Fukusaki E, Okazawa A, Kobayashi A. Quantification of trans-1,4-polyisoprene in Eucommia ulmoides by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Biosci Bioeng. 2008;105:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We successfully applied the extraction/quantification method for study of seasonal changes in EU-rubber content and molecular weight distribution...
  7. Martins G, Ferreira Rodrigues A, Rodrigues F, de Souza G, Mason N, Eden S, et al. Valence shell electronic spectroscopy of isoprene studied by theoretical calculations and by electron scattering, photoelectron, and absolute photoabsorption measurements. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:11219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculations are compared with the He(i) photoelectron spectrum (8 to 17 eV) and new vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. ..
  8. Kiendler Scharr A, Wildt J, Dal Maso M, Hohaus T, Kleist E, Mentel T, et al. New particle formation in forests inhibited by isoprene emissions. Nature. 2009;461:381-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Kourtchev I, Warnke J, Maenhaut W, Hoffmann T, Claeys M. Polar organic marker compounds in PM2.5 aerosol from a mixed forest site in western Germany. Chemosphere. 2008;73:1308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the occurrence of levoglucosan and pyrogallol indicates that the site is affected by biomass combustion. Their median concentrations were 30 and 8.9 ng m(-3), respectively...
  10. Kushch I, Arendacká B, Stolc S, Mochalski P, Filipiak W, Schwarz K, et al. Breath isoprene--aspects of normal physiology related to age, gender and cholesterol profile as determined in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry study. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations are necessary to clarify the relation between isoprene concentrations in exhaled breath and cholesterol levels and synthesis rates in blood. ..
  11. Loreto F, Centritto M, Barta C, Calfapietra C, Fares S, Monson R. The relationship between isoprene emission rate and dark respiration rate in white poplar (Populus alba L.) leaves. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:662-9 pubmed
  12. Loivamäki M, Gilmer F, Fischbach R, Sörgel C, Bachl A, Walter A, et al. Arabidopsis, a model to study biological functions of isoprene emission?. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1066-78 pubmed
    ..Hence, this study demonstrates the enormous potential but also the pitfalls of transgenic Arabidopsis (or other nonnatural isoprenoid emitters) in studying isoprene biosynthesis and its biological function(s). ..
  13. Lin Y, Park J, De Schutter J, Huang X, Berghuis A, Sebag M, et al. Design and synthesis of active site inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: apoptosis and inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in multiple myeloma cells. J Med Chem. 2012;55:3201-15 pubmed publisher
    ..An analogue of this series was used to demonstrate inhibition of the intended biological target, resulting in apoptosis and down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation in human MM cell lines. ..
  14. Sharkey T, Wiberley A, Donohue A. Isoprene emission from plants: why and how. Ann Bot. 2008;101:5-18 pubmed
    ..Understanding the regulation of isoprene emission is advancing rapidly now that the pathway that provides the substrate is known. ..
  15. Vickers C, Possell M, Nicholas Hewitt C, Mullineaux P. Genetic structure and regulation of isoprene synthase in Poplar (Populus spp.). Plant Mol Biol. 2010;73:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..No thylakoid isoforms could be identified in Populus alba or in Salix babylonica. Together, these data show that control of isoprene emission at the genetic level is far more complicated than previously assumed. ..
  16. Velikova V, Várkonyi Z, Szabó M, Maslenkova L, Nogues I, Kovacs L, et al. Increased thermostability of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emitting leaves probed with three biophysical techniques. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to our understanding of isoprene mechanism of action in plant protection against environmental stresses. ..
  17. Teuber M, Zimmer I, Kreuzwieser J, Ache P, Polle A, Rennenberg H, et al. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2008;10:86-96 pubmed publisher
    ..6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed. ..
  18. Laothawornkitkul J, Paul N, Vickers C, Possell M, Taylor J, Mullineaux P, et al. Isoprene emissions influence herbivore feeding decisions. Plant Cell Environ. 2008;31:1410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that isoprene can activate feeding avoidance behaviour in this system with a dose-response effect on caterpillar behaviour and an isoprene emission threshold level of <6 nmol m(-2) s(-1). ..
  19. Xue J, Ahring B. Enhancing isoprene production by genetic modification of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway in Bacillus subtilis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, induction and repression effects are independent of SigB, which is the general stress-responsive alternative sigma factor of Gram-positive bacteria. ..
  20. Rohmer M. From molecular fossils of bacterial hopanoids to the formation of isoprene units: discovery and elucidation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. Lipids. 2008;43:1095-107 pubmed publisher
    ..It is present in most bacteria and in the plastids of all organisms belonging to phototrophic phyla. The key steps of the discovery and elucidation of this metabolic route are presented in this review...
  21. Cinege G, Louis S, Hansch R, Schnitzler J. Regulation of isoprene synthase promoter by environmental and internal factors. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;69:593-604 pubmed publisher
  22. Rasulov B, Copolovici L, Laisk A, Niinemets U. Postillumination isoprene emission: in vivo measurements of dimethylallyldiphosphate pool size and isoprene synthase kinetics in aspen leaves. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1609-18 pubmed publisher
  23. Fu P, Kawamura K, Chen J, Barrie L. Isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene oxidation products in the high Arctic aerosols during late winter to early summer. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4022-8 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that photochemical oxidation of BVOCs also contributes to the formation of OC and WSOC in the Arctic atmosphere during late winter to early summer. ..
  24. Lindberg P, Park S, Melis A. Engineering a platform for photosynthetic isoprene production in cyanobacteria, using Synechocystis as the model organism. Metab Eng. 2010;12:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that oxygenic photosynthesis can be re-directed to generate useful small volatile hydrocarbons, while consuming CO(2), without a prior requirement for the harvesting, dewatering and processing of the respective biomass. ..
  25. Ghirardo A, Zimmer I, Bruggemann N, Schnitzler J. Analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase activity in Grey poplar leaves using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:918-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, we found lower DXS activity in non-isoprene-emitting lines of poplar than in emitting plants as indicator of a lower demand of metabolic flux within the MEP pathway. ..
  26. Behnke K, Kleist E, Uerlings R, Wildt J, Rennenberg H, Schnitzler J. RNAi-mediated suppression of isoprene biosynthesis in hybrid poplar impacts ozone tolerance. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:725-36 pubmed publisher
  27. Hartikainen K, Nerg A, Kivimäenpää M, Kontunen Soppela S, Mäenpää M, Oksanen E, et al. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and leaf structural characteristics of European aspen (Populus tremula) grown under elevated ozone and temperature. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:1163-73 pubmed publisher
  28. van Beilen J, Poirier Y. Establishment of new crops for the production of natural rubber. Trends Biotechnol. 2007;25:522-9 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes our knowledge of plants that can serve as alternative sources of natural rubber, of rubber biosynthesis and the scientific gaps that must be filled to bring the alternative crops into production. ..
  29. Yu X, Liu Y, Xie X, Zheng X, Li S. Biochemical characterization of indole prenyltransferases: filling the last gap of prenylation positions by a 5-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from Aspergillus clavatus. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1371-80 pubmed publisher
  30. Behnke K, Loivamäki M, Zimmer I, Rennenberg H, Schnitzler J, Louis S. Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis in sunfleck exposed Grey poplar. Photosynth Res. 2010;104:5-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is evidence for an adjustment of the antioxidative system in the non-isoprene emitting poplars even under normal growth conditions. ..
  31. Das A, Yoon S, Lee S, Kim J, Oh D, Kim S. An update on microbial carotenoid production: application of recent metabolic engineering tools. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:505-12 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will describe the recent progress made in metabolic engineering of non-carotenogenic microorganisms with particular focus on the potential of Escherichia coli for improved carotenoid productivity. ..
  32. Brilli F, Barta C, Fortunati A, Lerdau M, Loreto F, Centritto M. Response of isoprene emission and carbon metabolism to drought in white poplar (Populus alba) saplings. New Phytol. 2007;175:244-54 pubmed
    ..Isoprene emission was likely controlled at the posttranscriptional level under severe drought. ..
  33. Julsing M, Rijpkema M, Woerdenbag H, Quax W, Kayser O. Functional analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoprene in Bacillus subtilis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;75:1377-84 pubmed
    ..subtilis. ..
  34. Sasaki K, Saito T, Lämsä M, Oksman Caldentey K, Suzuki M, Ohyama K, et al. Plants utilize isoprene emission as a thermotolerance mechanism. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1254-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast, neither strong light nor drought treatments showed an apparent difference. These data suggest that isoprene emission plays a crucial role in a heat protection mechanism in plants. ..
  35. Campos N, Rodríguez Concepción M, Sauret Güeto S, Gallego F, Lois L, Boronat A. Escherichia coli engineered to synthesize isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate from mevalonate: a novel system for the genetic analysis of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Biochem J. 2001;353:59-67 pubmed
    ..We used this system to show that the ygbP, ychB and ygbB genes are essential in E. coli and that the steps catalysed by the products of these genes belong to the trunk line of the MEP pathway...
  36. Wesch D, Glatzel A, Kabelitz D. Differentiation of resting human peripheral blood gamma delta T cells toward Th1- or Th2-phenotype. Cell Immunol. 2001;212:110-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the major subset of human gamma delta T cells can be polarized into either Th1 or Th2 cytokine pattern depending on the cytokine milieu in which contact with antigen occurs. ..
  37. Wilkins C, Clausen P, Wolkoff P, Larsen S, Hammer M, Larsen K, et al. Formation of strong airway irritants in mixtures of isoprene/ozone and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:937-41 pubmed
    ..This suggests that one or more strong airway irritants were formed. It is thus possible that oxidation reactions of common unsaturated compounds may be relevant for indoor air quality. ..
  38. Sharkey T, Chen X, Yeh S. Isoprene increases thermotolerance of fosmidomycin-fed leaves. Plant Physiol. 2001;125:2001-6 pubmed
    ..The effect may be a general hydrocarbon effect and related to the double bonds in the isoprene molecule. ..
  39. Mayrhofer S, Teuber M, Zimmer I, Louis S, Fischbach R, Schnitzler J. Diurnal and seasonal variation of isoprene biosynthesis-related genes in grey poplar leaves. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:474-84 pubmed
  40. Cunningham F, Lafond T, Gantt E. Evidence of a role for LytB in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:5841-8 pubmed
  41. Song Y, Zhang Y, Wang H, Raker A, Sanders J, Broderick E, et al. Synthesis of chiral phosphoantigens and their activity in gamma delta T cell stimulation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:4471-7 pubmed
    ..The activities of the epoxy but-3-enyl diphosphates were both very low. These results suggest that chiral phosphoantigens, as opposed to racemic mixtures, may have utility in immunotherapy. ..
  42. Siwko M, Marrink S, de Vries A, Kozubek A, Schoot Uiterkamp A, Mark A. Does isoprene protect plant membranes from thermal shock? A molecular dynamics study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:198-206 pubmed
    ..Furthermore it provides a clear mechanistic picture as to why plants specifically utilize isoprene for this purpose. ..
  43. Rohdich F, Kis K, Bacher A, Eisenreich W. The non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoids: genes, enzymes and intermediates. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2001;5:535-40 pubmed
    ..The genes specifying these enzymes have been cloned from bacteria, plants and protozoa. Their expression in recombinant bacterial hosts has opened the way to the identification of several novel pathway intermediates...
  44. Wilding E, Brown J, Bryant A, Chalker A, Holmes D, Ingraham K, et al. Identification, evolution, and essentiality of the mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis in gram-positive cocci. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:4319-27 pubmed
    ..The mevalonate pathway thus represents a potential antibacterial target in the low-G+C gram-positive cocci...
  45. Bruggemann N, Schnitzler J. Relationship of isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) isomerase activity to isoprene emission of oak leaves. Tree Physiol. 2002;22:1011-8 pubmed
    ..robur and Q. pubescens leaves, and both enzyme activities showed a linear relationship to isoprene emission factors in leaves of these oak species, indicating the possible involvement of IDI in isoprene biosynthesis by oak leaves. ..
  46. Laule O, Fürholz A, Chang H, Zhu T, Wang X, Heifetz P, et al. Crosstalk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:6866-71 pubmed
    ..The lack of correlation between gene expression patterns and the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites indicates that posttranscriptional processes may play an important role in regulating flux through isoprenoid metabolic pathways. ..
  47. Lange B, Wildung M, McCaskill D, Croteau R. A family of transketolases that directs isoprenoid biosynthesis via a mevalonate-independent pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2100-4 pubmed
    ..The enzyme appears to represent a novel class of highly conserved transketolases and likely plays a key role in the biosynthesis of plastid-derived isoprenoids essential for growth, development, and defense in plants. ..
  48. Schubert J, Miekisch W, Birken T, Geiger K, Nöldge Schomburg G. Impact of inspired substance concentrations on the results of breath analysis in mechanically ventilated patients. Biomarkers. 2005;10:138-52 pubmed
    ..Hence, substances having inspired concentrations>5% of expired concentrations should not be used as breath markers in these patients without knowledge of concentrations in blood and breath. ..
  49. Rosenstiel T, Potosnak M, Griffin K, Fall R, Monson R. Increased CO2 uncouples growth from isoprene emission in an agriforest ecosystem. Nature. 2003;421:256-9 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the potential for uncoupling isoprene emission from biomass accumulation in an agriforest species, and show that negative air-quality effects of proliferating agriforests may be offset by increases in CO2. ..
  50. Schnitzler J, Graus M, Kreuzwieser J, Heizmann U, Rennenberg H, Wisthaler A, et al. Contribution of different carbon sources to isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:152-60 pubmed
  51. Smit A, Mushegian A. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids via mevalonate in Archaea: the lost pathway. Genome Res. 2000;10:1468-84 pubmed
    ..Combining these approaches resulted in the generation of a short list of 13 candidate genes for the three missing functions in archaea, whose participation in isoprenoid biosynthesis is amenable to biochemical and genetic investigation. ..
  52. Adam P, Hecht S, Eisenreich W, Kaiser J, Grawert T, Arigoni D, et al. Biosynthesis of terpenes: studies on 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The low intrinsic catalytic activities of wild-type E. coli cell extract and isolated chromoplasts of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) are enhanced by the addition of purified recombinant IspH protein...
  53. Rohr A, Wilkins C, Clausen P, Hammer M, Nielsen G, Wolkoff P, et al. Upper airway and pulmonary effects of oxidation products of (+)-alpha-pinene, d-limonene, and isoprene in BALB/c mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2002;14:663-84 pubmed
    ..This may be important in the context of the etiology or exacerbation of lower airway symptoms in office workers, or of occupational asthma in workers involved in industrial cleaning operations. ..
  54. Loreto F, Pinelli P, Brancaleoni E, Ciccioli P. 13C labeling reveals chloroplastic and extrachloroplastic pools of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and their contribution to isoprene formation. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:1903-7 pubmed
    ..Refixation of unlabeled respiratory CO(2) in the light may explain incomplete labeling of isoprene emission, as we found a good association between these two parameters. ..
  55. Logan B, Monson R, Potosnak M. Biochemistry and physiology of foliar isoprene production. Trends Plant Sci. 2000;5:477-81 pubmed
  56. Altincicek B, Kollas A, Sanderbrand S, Wiesner J, Hintz M, Beck E, et al. GcpE is involved in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2411-6 pubmed
    ..These cells were then deleted for the essential gcpE gene and were viable only if the medium was supplemented with mevalonate or the cells were complemented with an episomal copy of gcpE. ..
  57. Kang H, Kang M, Han K. Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree. Plant Physiol. 2000;123:1133-42 pubmed
  58. Cipriani B, Borsellino G, Poccia F, Placido R, Tramonti D, Bach S, et al. Activation of C-C beta-chemokines in human peripheral blood gammadelta T cells by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and regulation by cytokines. Blood. 2000;95:39-47 pubmed
    ..Blood. 2000, 95:39-47) ..
  59. Takahashi S, Kuzuyama T, Watanabe H, Seto H. A 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase catalyzing the formation of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate in an alternative nonmevalonate pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9879-84 pubmed
  60. Lafont V, Liautard J, Liautard J, Favero J. Production of TNF-alpha by human V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells via engagement of Fc gamma RIIIA, the low affinity type 3 receptor for the Fc portion of IgG, expressed upon TCR activation by nonpeptidic antigen. J Immunol. 2001;166:7190-9 pubmed
    ..This strongly suggests that, in the general scheme of the immune response, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells represent an important subpopulation of cells that play a key role in the defense against invading pathogens. ..
  61. Karl T, Fall R, Rosenstiel T, Prazeller P, Larsen B, Seufert G, et al. On-line analysis of the (13)CO(2) labeling of leaf isoprene suggests multiple subcellular origins of isoprene precursors. Planta. 2002;215:894-905 pubmed
    ..The data obtained shed light on the half-lives of photosynthetic metabolites, exchanges of carbon between cellular pools, and suggest multiple origins of isoprene precursors in leaves. ..
  62. Dudareva N, Andersson S, Orlova I, Gatto N, Reichelt M, Rhodes D, et al. The nonmevalonate pathway supports both monoterpene and sesquiterpene formation in snapdragon flowers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:933-8 pubmed
    ..The trafficking of IPP occurs unidirectionally from the plastids to cytosol. The MEP pathway operates in a rhythmic manner controlled by the circadian clock, which determines the rhythmicity of terpenoid emission...
  63. da Costa B, Keasling J, Cornish K. Regulation of rubber biosynthetic rate and molecular weight in Hevea brasiliensis by metal cofactor. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:279-89 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that H. brasiliensis could use [Mg(2+)] as a regulatory mechanism for rubber biosynthesis and molecular weight in vivo. ..
  64. Grochowski L, Xu H, White R. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii uses a modified mevalonate pathway for biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3192-8 pubmed
    ..Unlike other known kinases associated with isoprene biosynthesis, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii isopentenyl phosphate kinase is predicted to be a member of the aspartokinase superfamily...
  65. Meskhidze N, Nenes A. Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean. Science. 2006;314:1419-23 pubmed
    ..Model simulations support this hypothesis, indicating that 100% of the observed changes in cloud properties can be attributed to the isoprene secondary organic aerosol. ..
  66. Loivamäki M, Louis S, Cinege G, Zimmer I, Fischbach R, Schnitzler J. Circadian rhythms of isoprene biosynthesis in grey poplar leaves. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:540-51 pubmed
  67. Schubert J, Spittler K, Braun G, Geiger K, Guttmann J. CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;90:486-92 pubmed
    ..By using the new sampling technique, sensitivity of breath analysis was nearly doubled...