Genomes and Genes
vitamin k 1
Summary: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
- Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham New S, Shearer M, Gilbody S, Torgerson D. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1256-61 pubmed..This systematic review suggests that supplementation with phytonadione and menaquinone-4 reduces bone loss. In the case of the latter, there is a strong effect on incident fractures among Japanese patients. ..
- Pereira S, Rowbotham D, Fitt S, Shearer M, Wendon J, Williams R. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of oral versus intravenous mixed-micellar phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in severe acute liver disease. J Hepatol. 2005;42:365-70 pubmed..v. K1. The intestinal absorption of mixed-micellar K1 is unreliable in adults with severe acute liver dysfunction. ..
- Suhara Y, Wada A, Okano T. Elucidation of the mechanism producing menaquinone-4 in osteoblastic cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1054-7 pubmed publisher..In this study, we studied the mechanism of MK-4's conversion with chemical techniques using deuterated analogues. ..
- Schurgers L, Vermeer C. Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1570:27-32 pubmed..Moreover, the very long half-life time of MK-9 in the circulation indicates that it may form a more constant source of vitamin K than are either K1 or MK-4. ..
- Tanaka S, Nishiumi S, Nishida M, Mizushina Y, Kobayashi K, Masuda A, et al. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:283-92 pubmed publisher..Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. ..
- Erkkilä A, Booth S, Hu F, Jacques P, Lichtenstein A. Phylloquinone intake and risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17:58-62 pubmed..These results suggest that although not an independent risk factor, high phylloquinone intake may be a marker of dietary patterns associated with lower CHD risk and useful when used within that context. ..
- Koivu Tikkanen T, Ollilainen V, Piironen V. Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in animal products with fluorescence detection after postcolumn reduction with metallic zinc. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:6325-31 pubmed..The total vitamin K contents calculated as the sum of quantified K vitamers were in general low (mean content 10-100 ng/g); the highest amount was analyzed in chicken meat (600 ng/g). ..
- Booth S, Dallal G, Shea M, Gundberg C, Peterson J, Dawson Hughes B. Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1217-23 pubmed publisher..Phylloquinone supplementation in a dose attainable in the diet does not confer any additional benefit for bone health at the spine or hip when taken with recommended amounts of calcium and vitamin D. ..
- Jones K, Bluck L, Wang L, Coward W. A stable isotope method for the simultaneous measurement of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) kinetics and absorption. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62:1273-81 pubmed..The kinetic parameters determined from the intravenous dose allowed determination of the absolute absorption of vitamin K(1) from a bolus oral dose. ..
- Li J, Lin J, Wang H, Peterson J, Furie B, Furie B, et al. Novel role of vitamin k in preventing oxidative injury to developing oligodendrocytes and neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5816-26 pubmed
- Gross J, Cho W, Lezhneva L, Falk J, Krupinska K, Shinozaki K, et al. A plant locus essential for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) biosynthesis originated from a fusion of four eubacterial genes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17189-96 pubmed publisher..Therefore, gene fusion, duplication, and fission events adapted a eubacterial multienzymatic system to the metabolic requirements of plants...
- ..Also discussed is the role of the carboxylase in mammals and lower organisms, including the bacterial pathogen Leptospira interrogans that has acquired a VKD carboxylase by horizontal transfer. ..
- Ibarrola Jurado N, Salas Salvado J, Martinez Gonzalez M, Bullo M. Dietary phylloquinone intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1113-8 pubmed publisher..We conclude that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. ..
- Yoshida M, Booth S, Meigs J, Saltzman E, Jacques P. Phylloquinone intake, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic status in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:210-5 pubmed..009)]. Phylloquinone intake was not associated with fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR, or HbA(1c). Our findings support a potential beneficial role for phylloquinone in glucose homeostasis in men and women. ..
- Pereira S, Shearer M, Williams R, Mieli Vergani G. Intestinal absorption of mixed micellar phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is unreliable in infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia: implications for oral prophylaxis of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003;88:F113-8 pubmed..Given the strong association between cholestasis and late vitamin K deficiency bleeding, these data provide an explanation for the failure of some oral vitamin K(1) prophylaxis regimens in infants with latent cholestasis. ..
- McDonald M, Rieder M, Nakano M, Hsia C, Rettie A. CYP4F2 is a vitamin K1 oxidase: An explanation for altered warfarin dose in carriers of the V433M variant. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1337-46 pubmed publisher..Therefore, patients with the rs2108622 polymorphism are likely to have elevated hepatic levels of VK1, necessitating a higher warfarin dose to elicit the same anticoagulant response. ..
- Binkley N, Krueger D, Engelke J, Foley A, Suttie J. Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1523-8 pubmed..Phylloquinone supplementation reduced serum osteocalcin concentration but did not alter other markers of serum bone turnover. ..
- Oostende C, Widhalm J, Basset G. Detection and quantification of vitamin K(1) quinol in leaf tissues. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:2457-62 pubmed publisher..The putative origin of PhQH(2) and its recycling into PhQ are discussed. ..
- Bolton Smith C, Price R, Fenton S, Harrington D, Shearer M. Compilation of a provisional UK database for the phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods. Br J Nutr. 2000;83:389-99 pubmed..Within the scope of this present study, it has not been possible to address issues such as inter-sample variability, losses during storage or the bioavailability from different foods and further work on these aspects is needed. ..
- Shearer M, Newman P. Metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K. Thromb Haemost. 2008;100:530-47 pubmed..In humans, MK-7 has a greater efficacy than phylloquinone in carboxylating both liver and bone Gla proteins. A daily supplement of phylloquinone has shown potential for improving anticoagulation control. ..
- Gast G, de Roos N, Sluijs I, Bots M, Beulens J, Geleijnse J, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19:504-10 pubmed publisher..A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD. However, more research is necessary to define optimal intake levels of vitamin K intake for the prevention of CHD. ..
- Pan Y, Jackson R. Dietary phylloquinone intakes and metabolic syndrome in US young adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28:369-79 pubmed..Although our data suggest a potential role of vitamin K in MetS, the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations must be elucidated. ..
- Tomková H, Pospísková M, Zábojníková M, Kohoutek M, Serclová M, Gharibyar M, et al. Phytomenadione pre-treatment in EGFR inhibitor-induced folliculitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:514-9 pubmed publisher..Topical pre-treatment with phytomenadione cream might become useful in epidermal growth factor inhibitor-associated acneiform eruptions. ..
- Bugel S, Sørensen A, Hels O, Kristensen M, Vermeer C, Jakobsen J, et al. Effect of phylloquinone supplementation on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:373-80 pubmed..In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 200 and 500 microg phylloquinone/d for 6 weeks increased vitamin K status in postmenopausal women, it had no effect on bone turnover. ..
- Schurgers L, Dissel P, Spronk H, Soute B, Dhore C, Cleutjens J, et al. Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification. Z Kardiol. 2001;90 Suppl 3:57-63 pubmed..The hypothesis is put forward that undercarboxylation of MGP is a risk factor for vascular calcification and that the present RDA values are too low to ensure full carboxylation of MGP. ..
- da Silva A, Contri R, Jornada D, Pohlmann A, Guterres S. Vitamin K1-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and in vitro skin permeation. Skin Res Technol. 2013;19:e223-30 pubmed publisher..Thus, nanoencapsulation can lead to the selective permeation of vitamin K1 through the skin. ..
- Okayasu H, Ishihara M, Satoh K, Sakagami H. Cytotoxic activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 against human oral tumor cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:2387-92 pubmed
- Shea M, Gundberg C, Meigs J, Dallal G, Saltzman E, Yoshida M, et al. Gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin and insulin resistance in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1230-5 pubmed publisher..The role of vitamin K status in this association remains unclear and merits further investigation. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001. ..
- Wu Y, Chang C, Chung C, Lin H, Wang C, Shen M. Superwarfarin intoxication: hematuria is a major clinical manifestation. Int J Hematol. 2009;90:170-173 pubmed publisher..Prolonged use of large doses of vitamin K1 is needed for the treatment of superwarfarin intoxication. ..
- Tsang C, Kamei Y. Novel effect of vitamin K(1) (phylloquinone) and vitamin K(2) (menaquinone) on promoting nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells. Neurosci Lett. 2002;323:9-12 pubmed..These results suggest that the K vitamins enhance neurite outgrowth via the activation of PKA and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways in PC12D cells. ..
- Binkley N, Krueger D, Kawahara T, Engelke J, Chappell R, Suttie J. A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1055-60 pubmed..A daily phylloquinone intake of approximately 1000 micro g is required to maximally gamma-carboxylate circulating osteocalcin. ..
- Erkkilä A, Booth S, Hu F, Jacques P, Manson J, Rexrode K, et al. Phylloquinone intake as a marker for coronary heart disease risk but not stroke in women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:196-204 pubmed..Dietary and lifestyle patterns associated with phylloquinone intakes, rather than intake of the nutrient itself, might account for all or part of the weak association. . ..
- Geleijnse J, Vermeer C, Grobbee D, Schurgers L, Knapen M, van der Meer I, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004;134:3100-5 pubmed..71 (0.50, 1.00) and 0.48 (0.32, 0.71), respectively]. Phylloquinone intake was not related to any of the outcomes. These findings suggest that an adequate intake of menaquinone could be important for CHD prevention. ..
- Kruger M, Booth C, Coad J, Schollum L, Kuhn Sherlock B, Shearer M. Effect of calcium fortified milk supplementation with or without vitamin K on biochemical markers of bone turnover in premenopausal women. Nutrition. 2006;22:1120-8 pubmed..Phylloquinone fortification substantially improved vitamin K status but had no demonstrable additive effect on bone turnover in this short-term study. ..
- Shea M, Dallal G, Dawson Hughes B, Ordovas J, O Donnell C, Gundberg C, et al. Vitamin K, circulating cytokines, and bone mineral density in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:356-63 pubmed..The healthy status of this cohort may explain a lack of effect of vitamin K supplementation on cytokine concentrations. This trial was registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00183001. ..
- Shea M, Benjamin E, Dupuis J, Massaro J, Jacques P, D Agostino R, et al. Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:458-64 pubmed..Variability in biomarkers of vitamin K status was attributed to nongenetic factors, whereas plasma 25(OH)D was found to be significantly heritable. Further studies are warranted to investigate genetic loci influencing vitamin D status. ..
- Okano T, Shimomura Y, Yamane M, Suhara Y, Kamao M, Sugiura M, et al. Conversion of phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) into menaquinone-4 (Vitamin K2) in mice: two possible routes for menaquinone-4 accumulation in cerebra of mice. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11270-9 pubmed
- Beulens J, van der A D, Grobbee D, Sluijs I, Spijkerman A, van der Schouw Y. Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1699-705 pubmed publisher..93 (0.87-1.00) for each 10-microg increment in the multivariate model. This study shows that both phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. ..
- Pansatiankul B, Jitapunkul S. Risk factors of acquired prothrombin complex deficiency syndrome: a case-control study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91 Suppl 3:S1-8 pubmed..Intramuscular vitamin K1 prophylactics should be routinely given to all newborn babies who will receive breast feeding. Effectiveness of oral vitamin K1 prophylactics regimen must be studied urgently. ..
- Pérez Ruiz T, Martínez Lozano C, Martin J, García M. Automatic determination of phylloquinone in vegetables and fruits using on-line photochemical reduction and fluorescence detection via solid phase extraction and flow injection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;384:280-5 pubmed..Extractions were made with hexane, and an automated solid phase extraction system was used to purify the sample extracts prior to injection into the flow injection manifold. ..
- O Seaghdha C, Hwang S, Holden R, Booth S, Fox C. Phylloquinone and vitamin D status: associations with incident chronic kidney disease in the Framingham Offspring cohort. Am J Nephrol. 2012;36:68-77 pubmed publisher..Whether plasma phylloquinone is a marker for another unmeasured risk factor requires further study. External validation is necessary given the unexpected nature of these results. ..
- Ginovart N, Tournier B, Moulin Sallanon M, Steimer T, Ibanez V, Millet P. Chronic ??-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure induces a sensitization of dopamine D?/? receptors in the mesoaccumbens and nigrostriatal systems. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2355-67 pubmed publisher..Such D?/?R neuroadaptations may contribute to the reinforcing and habit-forming properties of THC. ..
- Lo V, Ching C, Chan A, Mak T. Bromadiolone toxicokinetics: diagnosis and treatment implications. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:703-10 pubmed
- Epel B, Niklas J, Sinnecker S, Zimmermann H, Lubitz W. Phylloquinone and related radical anions studied by pulse electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy at 34 GHz and density functional theory. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:11549-60 pubmed..For all radicals very good agreement between experimental and calculated data is observed. The influence of different substituents on the spin density distribution and hydrogen bond geometries is discussed. ..
- Lamb J, Holick M, Lerman R, Konda V, Minich D, Desai A, et al. Nutritional supplementation of hop rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D?, and vitamin K? produces a favorable bone biomarker profile supporting healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res. 2011;31:347-55 pubmed publisher..Treatment with rho iso-alpha acids, berberine, vitamin D?, and vitamin K? produced a more favorable bone biomarker profile indicative of healthy bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. ..
- Kamao M, Suhara Y, Tsugawa N, Uwano M, Yamaguchi N, Uenishi K, et al. Vitamin K content of foods and dietary vitamin K intake in Japanese young women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007;53:464-70 pubmed..7, 7.3 and 24.9%, respectively. PK from vegetables and algae and MK-7 from pulses (including fermented soybean foods) were the major contributors to the total vitamin K intake of young women living in eastern Japan. ..
- Su Q, Li Y. Interaction between warfarin and the herbal product Shengmai-yin: a case report of intracerebral hematoma. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:793-6 pubmed publisher..Patients on warfarin therapy should be discouraged from taking herbal medicines, especially preparations that are already known to have antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. ..
- Kim H, van Oostende C, Basset G, Browse J. The AAE14 gene encodes the Arabidopsis o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA ligase that is essential for phylloquinone synthesis and photosystem-I function. Plant J. 2008;54:272-83 pubmed publisher..This and other evidence suggests that the enzymes of phylloquinone synthesis from isochorismate may form a complex in the chloroplast stroma to facilitate the efficient channeling of intermediates through the pathway. ..
- Reumann S. Biosynthesis of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) by plant peroxisomes and its integration into signaling molecule synthesis pathways. Subcell Biochem. 2013;69:213-29 pubmed publisher..Numerous mechanisms to regulate intermediate flux and the fine-tuned inducible production of secondary metabolites, including signalling molecules, await their characterization at the molecular level. ..
- Valko M, Morris H, Mazur M, Rapta P, Bilton R. Oxygen free radical generating mechanisms in the colon: do the semiquinones of vitamin K play a role in the aetiology of colon cancer?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1527:161-6 pubmed..A model is presented in which the reduced K vitamins may initiate superoxide radical, O2(-*) generation leading to Fe(II) mediated Fenton reactions in the stem colon cells. ..
- Craciun A, Vermeer C. Apolipoprotein E genotype may influence urinary gammacarboxyglutamate (Gla) concentrations in young individuals. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2013;32:303-10 pubmed publisher..3 ± 4.1). The novelty of this study resides in the evaluation of urinary Gla excretion in relation with apo E genotype, suggesting that apo ?2 allele is a risk factor for developing vitamin K insufficiency. ..
- Gebuis E, Rosendaal F, van Meegen E, van Der Meer F. Vitamin K1 supplementation to improve the stability of anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists: a dose-finding study. Haematologica. 2011;96:583-9 pubmed publisher..For future studies we recommend selecting only patients with instable anticoagulant control. (This study was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN37109430). ..
- Yan L, Zhou B, Greenberg D, Wang L, Nigdikar S, Prynne C, et al. Vitamin K status of older individuals in northern China is superior to that of older individuals in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:939-45 pubmed..0003) and Cambridge subjects (coefficient -0.17 (SE 0.07); P=0.02). The present study demonstrates that older individuals in northern China have a better vitamin K status compared with their British counterparts in Cambridge, UK. ..
- Hanzawa F, Nomura S, Sakuma E, Uchida T, Ikeda S. Dietary sesame seed and its lignan, sesamin, increase tocopherol and phylloquinone concentrations in male rats. J Nutr. 2013;143:1067-73 pubmed publisher..The present study revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, that dietary sesame seed and sesame lignan increase not only vitamin E but also vitamin K concentrations in rat tissues. ..
- Kruger T, Oelenberg S, Kaesler N, Schurgers L, van de Sandt A, Boor P, et al. Warfarin induces cardiovascular damage in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2618-24 pubmed publisher..The model would enable future researchers to decipher mechanisms of vascular calcification and may guide them in the development of new therapeutic strategies. ..
- Tran H, Chunilal S, Harper P, Tran H, Wood E, Gallus A. An update of consensus guidelines for warfarin reversal. Med J Aust. 2013;198:198-9 pubmed..Perioperative management of anticoagulant therapy requires an evaluation of the risk of thrombosis if warfarin is temporarily stopped, relative to the risk of bleeding if it is continued or modified. ..
- Ozawa S, Kosugi M, Kashino Y, Sugimura T, Takahashi Y. 5'-monohydroxyphylloquinone is the dominant naphthoquinone of PSI in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:237-43 pubmed publisher..We conclude that both 5'-monohydroxyphylloquinone and phylloquinone stably co-exist as major and minor naphthoquinones in Chlamydomonas PSI. ..
- Henriksen C, Helland I, Rønnestad A, Grønn M, Iversen P, Drevon C. Fat-soluble vitamins in breast-fed preterm and term infants. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60:756-62 pubmed..Further trials are needed to evaluate whether changes in vitamin supplementation may improve clinical outcome in VLBW infants. ..
- Camidge R, Reigner B, Cassidy J, Grange S, Abt M, Weidekamm E, et al. Significant effect of capecitabine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4719-25 pubmed..Patients receiving warfarin anticoagulant therapy concomitantly with capecitabine should have their INR closely monitored and warfarin doses adjusted accordingly. ..
- Wade Johnson T, Naithani S, Stewart C, Zybailov B, Daniel Jones A, Golbeck J, et al. The menD and menE homologs code for 2-succinyl-6-hydroxyl-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase and O-succinylbenzoic acid-CoA synthase in the phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1557:67-76 pubmed..The slower growth rate and high-light sensitivity of the menD(-) and menE(-) mutants are therefore attributed to a lower content of PS I per cell. ..
- Shinkarev V, Zybailov B, Vassiliev I, Golbeck J. Modeling of the P700+ charge recombination kinetics with phylloquinone and plastoquinone-9 in the A1 site of photosystem I. Biophys J. 2002;83:2885-97 pubmed..This fully quantitative description of PS I relates electron transfer rates, equilibrium constants, and redox potentials, and can be used to predict changes in these parameters upon substitution of electron transfer cofactors. ..
- Johnson T, Zybailov B, Jones A, Bittl R, Zech S, Stehlik D, et al. Recruitment of a foreign quinone into the A1 site of photosystem I. In vivo replacement of plastoquinone-9 by media-supplemented naphthoquinones in phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39512-21 pubmed..These findings open the possibility of biologically incorporating novel quinones into the A(1) site by supplementing the growth medium of menB26 mutant cells. ..
- Kamali F, Edwards C, Butler T, Wynne H. The influence of (R)- and (S)-warfarin, vitamin K and vitamin K epoxide upon warfarin anticoagulation. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84:39-42 pubmed..0001). Patient age accounted for 25% of variation in warfarin dosage requirements (R2 = 0.25). The combined effects of age and vitamin K appear to account for much of the inter-individual variability in warfarin dosage requirements. ..
- Wakabayashi H, Onodera K, Yamato S, Shimada K. Simultaneous determination of vitamin K analogs in human serum by sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Nutrition. 2003;19:661-5 pubmed..6% to 2.1% and 2.4% to 3.6%, respectively, for all VKs. This method was sensitive and selective for detection of VKs and was satisfactory in the simultaneous determination of VKs in small volumes of human serum. ..