Genomes and Genes
13 dibutyrate phorbol 12
Summary: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
- Bie B, Zhang Y, Zhao Z. Inhibition of P2X receptor-mediated inward current by protein kinase C in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons of adult rats. Neurosci Bull. 2009;25:179-86 pubmed publisher..Activation of PKC negatively modulated the P2X receptor-mediated currents in rat DRG neurons, which may be of benefit to preventing the over-excitation of nociceptor under inflammatory or neuropathic conditions. ..
- Gobbi G, Mirandola P, Carubbi C, Micheloni C, Malinverno C, Lunghi P, et al. Phorbol ester-induced PKCepsilon down-modulation sensitizes AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cell differentiation. Blood. 2009;113:3080-7 pubmed publisher..We believe that the use of TRAIL in combination with phorbol esters (or possibly more specific PKCepsilon down-modulators) might represent a significative improvement of our therapeutic arsenal against AML. ..
- Goyal R, Mittal A, Chu N, Shi L, Zhang L, Longo L. Maturation and the role of PKC-mediated contractility in ovine cerebral arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H2242-52 pubmed publisher..Overall, the present study demonstrates an important maturational shift from RhoA/ROCK-mediated to CPI-17/caldesmon-mediated PKC-induced contractile response in ovine cerebral arteries. ..
- Visigalli R, Barilli A, Parolari A, Sala R, Rotoli B, Bussolati O, et al. Regulation of arginine transport and metabolism by protein kinase Calpha in endothelial cells: stimulation of CAT2 transporters and arginase activity. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:260-70 pubmed publisher..This metabolic deviation may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction associated with conditions of PKC overactivity. ..
- Sugaya A, Takeoka M, Itano N, Taguchi A, Ehara T, Taniguchi S. Calponin h1-S175T point mutation enhances resistance to actin cytoskeleton perturbation in human cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:1071-8 pubmed..This result indicates that S175T may be an effective target for new cancer treatments. ..
- Basu A, Sridharan S, Persaud S. Regulation of protein kinase C delta downregulation by protein kinase C epsilon and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1680-5 pubmed publisher..Depletion of PKC epsilon also enhanced PKC delta downregulation by PDBu. These results suggest that downregulation of PKC delta is regulated by PKC epsilon and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). ..
- Xiao H, Bai X, Kapus A, Lu W, Mak A, Liu M. The protein kinase C cascade regulates recruitment of matrix metalloprotease 9 to podosomes and its release and activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5545-61 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that multiple PKC isozymes form a signaling cascade that controls podosome formation and dynamics and MMP-9 recruitment, release, and activation in a coordinated fashion. ..
- Summers S, Hayashi Y, Nguyen S, Nguyen T, Purdy R. Hindlimb unweighting induces changes in the p38MAPK contractile pathway of the rat abdominal aorta. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:121-7 pubmed publisher..The results of this study demonstrate that HLU downregulates p38(MAPK), but not ERK, signaling. In turn, this may decrease actin availability for contraction. ..
- Gupte S, Kaminski P, George S, Kouznestova L, Olson S, Mathew R, et al. Peroxide generation by p47phox-Src activation of Nox2 has a key role in protein kinase C-induced arterial smooth muscle contraction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1048-57 pubmed publisher..Thus a p47(phox) and Src kinase activation of peroxide production by Nox2 appears to be an important contributor to vascular contractile mechanisms mediated through activation of PKC. ..
- Anderson A, Child E, Prasad A, Elphick L, Mann D. Cyclin D1 and cyclin D3 show divergent responses to distinct mitogenic stimulation. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:638-45 pubmed publisher..These findings uncover additional levels of complexity in the regulation of the cell cycle at the level of the D-type cyclins and thus may have important therapeutic implications in cancers where specific D-cyclins are overexpressed. ..
- Chen J, De S, Damron D, Chen W, Hay N, Byzova T. Impaired platelet responses to thrombin and collagen in AKT-1-deficient mice. Blood. 2004;104:1703-10 pubmed..As a consequence of impaired alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation and platelet aggregation, Akt-1 null mice showed significantly longer bleeding times than wild-type mice. ..
- Chang C, Jiang X, Moulder K, Mennerick S. Rapid activation of dormant presynaptic terminals by phorbol esters. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10048-60 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the initial release competence of synapses can dictate the acute response to second messenger modulation, and the results suggest multiple pathways to presynaptic dormancy and awakening. ..
- Sathishkumar K, Yallampalli U, Elkins R, Yallampalli C. Raf-1 kinase regulates smooth muscle contraction in the rat mesenteric arteries. J Vasc Res. 2010;47:384-98 pubmed publisher..The results indicate that Raf-1 kinase plays an important role in the regulation of vascular contractility through regulation of calcium sensitization. ..
- Wang J, Yin G, Menon P, Pang J, Smolock E, Yan C, et al. Phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-interacting protein 1 tyrosine 392 is required for phospholipase C-gamma activation and podosome formation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1976-82 pubmed publisher..We propose that specific signaling modules are assembled in a GIT1 phosphotyrosine-dependent manner as exemplified by PLC? activation versus extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. ..
- Shaha S, Tomic J, Shi Y, Pham T, Mero P, White D, et al. Prolonging microtubule dysruption enhances the immunogenicity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;158:186-98 pubmed publisher..Use of PKC agonists and microtubule inhibitors to mimic TLR-signalling, and increase the immunogenicity of CLL cells, has implications for the design of chemo-immunotherapeutic strategies. ..
- Appel S, Allen P, Vetterkind S, Jin J, Morgan K. h3/Acidic calponin: an actin-binding protein that controls extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in nonmuscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1409-22 pubmed publisher..2 migration in an in vitro wound healing assay. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby h3/acidic calponin controls fibroblast migration by regulation of ERK1/2-mediated l-caldesmon phosphorylation. ..
- Zoer B, Blanco C, Villamor E. Role of Rho-kinase in mediating contraction of chicken embryo femoral arteries. J Comp Physiol B. 2010;180:427-35 pubmed publisher..In summary, our findings are indicative of a role for Rho-kinase activity in depolarization- and agonist-induced force generation in chicken embryo femoral arteries...
- Bossuyt J, Despa S, Han F, Hou Z, Robia S, Lingrel J, et al. Isoform specificity of the Na/K-ATPase association and regulation by phospholemman. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26749-57 pubmed publisher..1 +/- 1.1 mm, respectively) but increased V(max) only for NKA-alpha2 (1.9 +/- 0.4 versus 1.2 +/- 0.5 mm/min). In conclusion, PLM associates with and modulates both NKA-alpha1 and NKA-alpha2 in a comparable but not identical manner. ..
- Shibasaki M, Kurokawa K, Katsura M, Ohkuma S. Direct evidence for the up-regulation of Vps34 regulated by PKCgamma during short-term treatment with morphine. Synapse. 2009;63:365-8 pubmed publisher..These results indicates that opioid receptor activation increases PKCgamma phosphorylation in the neurons and, in turn, upregulates Vps34 during short-term treatment with neurons. ..
- Zhang Y, Li W, Chi H, Chen J, DenBesten P. JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway mediates the fluoride-induced down-regulation of MMP-20 in vitro. Matrix Biol. 2007;26:633-41 pubmed..These in vitro findings suggest that c-Jun is a key regulatory element for MMP-20 expression, and human ameloblast lineage cells can respond to fluoride by down-regulating MMP-20 transcription through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway. ..
- Copel C, Osorio N, Crest M, Gola M, Delmas P, Clerc N. Activation of neurokinin 3 receptor increases Na(v)1.9 current in enteric neurons. J Physiol. 2009;587:1461-79 pubmed publisher..9) by NK3r activation is also likely to amplify slow EPSPs generated in the IPANs. These changes in excitability potentially have a profound effect on the entire enteric synaptic circuit and ultimately on gut motility and secretion. ..