Summary: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.

Top Publications

  1. Ragni L, Nieminen K, Pacheco Villalobos D, Sibout R, Schwechheimer C, Hardtke C. Mobile gibberellin directly stimulates Arabidopsis hypocotyl xylem expansion. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1322-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired GA signaling did not affect xylem expansion systemically, suggesting that it acts downstream of the mobile cue. By contrast, the GA effect was graft transmissible, suggesting that GA itself is the mobile shoot-derived signal...
  2. Wang Z, Zhao F, Zhao X, Ge H, Chai L, Chen S, et al. Proteomic analysis of berry-sizing effect of GA3 on seedless Vitis vinifera L. Proteomics. 2012;12:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our proteomic results and subsequent validation revealed, for the first time, the role of redox homeostasis in GA3-induced berry enlargement and markedly remodeled cellular protein expression in treated berries. ..
  3. Arana M, Marín de la Rosa N, Maloof J, Blázquez M, Alabadi D. Circadian oscillation of gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9292-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Pearce S, Saville R, Vaughan S, Chandler P, Wilhelm E, Sparks C, et al. Molecular characterization of Rht-1 dwarfing genes in hexaploid wheat. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1820-31 pubmed publisher
  5. Oracz K, Voegele A, Tarkowska D, Jacquemoud D, Turecková V, Urbanová T, et al. Myrigalone A inhibits Lepidium sativum seed germination by interference with gibberellin metabolism and apoplastic superoxide production required for embryo extension growth and endosperm rupture. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:81-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins in the tissues and found that the major bioactive forms of gibberellin in L...
  6. Bahin E, Bailly C, Sotta B, Kranner I, Corbineau F, Leymarie J. Crosstalk between reactive oxygen species and hormonal signalling pathways regulates grain dormancy in barley. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:980-993 pubmed publisher
    ..defined as the inability to germinate under favourable conditions, is controlled by abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs)...
  7. Wang Z, Bai M, Oh E, Zhu J. Brassinosteroid signaling network and regulation of photomorphogenesis. Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:701-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular connections in the BR signaling network demonstrate a robust steroid signaling system that has evolved in plants to orchestrate signal transduction, genome expression, metabolism, defense, and development. ..
  8. Li Q, He J. Mechanisms of signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e24686 pubmed publisher
    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and Gibberellins (GAs) are two principal groups of growth-promoting phytohormones. Accumulating evidence supports that there are crosstalks between BR and GA signaling pathways...
  9. Zhang Y, Liu Z, Liu R, Wang L, Bi Y. Gibberellins negatively regulate light-induced nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis seedlings. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:2161-8 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the role of phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) on regulating the nitrate reductase (NR) activity was tested in Arabidopsis seedlings...

More Information


  1. Foo E, Ross J, Jones W, Reid J. Plant hormones in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses: an emerging role for gibberellins. Ann Bot. 2013;111:769-79 pubmed publisher
    ..abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, strigolactones, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid is discussed, and the roles of gibberellins and brassinosteroids examined...
  2. Huang Y, Yang W, Pei Z, Guo X, Liu D, Sun J, et al. The genes for gibberellin biosynthesis in wheat. Funct Integr Genomics. 2012;12:199-206 pubmed publisher
  3. Barua D, Butler C, Tisdale T, Donohue K. Natural variation in germination responses of Arabidopsis to seasonal cues and their associated physiological mechanisms. Ann Bot. 2012;109:209-26 pubmed publisher
  4. An F, Zhang X, Zhu Z, Ji Y, He W, Jiang Z, et al. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. Cell Res. 2012;22:915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely ..
  5. Ishibashi Y, Tawaratsumida T, Kondo K, Kasa S, Sakamoto M, Aoki N, et al. Reactive oxygen species are involved in gibberellin/abscisic acid signaling in barley aleurone cells. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1705-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Gallego Bartolome J, Alabadi D, Blázquez M. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23918 pubmed publisher
    The hormones gibberellins (GAs) control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses...
  7. Plackett A, Thomas S, Wilson Z, Hedden P. Gibberellin control of stamen development: a fertile field. Trends Plant Sci. 2011;16:568-78 pubmed publisher
  8. Khan A, Hamayun M, Kang S, Kim Y, Jung H, Lee J, et al. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:3 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo...
  9. Pimenta Lange M, Knop N, Lange T. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:2681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth...
  10. Cheminant S, Wild M, Bouvier F, Pelletier S, Renou J, Erhardt M, et al. DELLAs regulate chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis to prevent photooxidative damage during seedling deetiolation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize the role of DELLAs in regulating the levels of POR, protochlorophyllide, and carotenoids in the dark and in protecting etiolated seedlings against photooxidative damage during initial light exposure. ..
  11. Yuan Y, Liu Y, Wu C, Chen S, Wang Z, Yang Z, et al. Water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation by regulating hormone metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42946 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation might through regulating hormone metabolism in S. baicalensis Georgi...
  12. Heinrich M, Hettenhausen C, Lange T, W nsche H, Fang J, Baldwin I, et al. High levels of jasmonic acid antagonize the biosynthesis of gibberellins and inhibit the growth of Nicotiana attenuata stems. Plant J. 2013;73:591-606 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gibberellins (GAs) promote stem and leaf growth and modulate seed germination, flowering time, and the development of ..
  13. Sun T. The molecular mechanism and evolution of the GA-GID1-DELLA signaling module in plants. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R338-45 pubmed publisher
    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are diterpene phytohormones that modulate growth and development throughout the whole life cycle of the flowering plant...
  14. Golldack D, Li C, Mohan H, Probst N. Gibberellins and abscisic acid signal crosstalk: living and developing under unfavorable conditions. Plant Cell Rep. 2013;32:1007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review and discuss how GRAS type proteins influence plant development and versatile adaptation as hubs in GA and ABA triggered signaling pathways. ..
  15. de Saint Germain A, Ligerot Y, Dun E, Pillot J, Ross J, Beveridge C, et al. Strigolactones stimulate internode elongation independently of gibberellins. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:1012-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate ..
  16. Csukasi F, Osorio S, Gutierrez J, Kitamura J, Giavalisco P, Nakajima M, et al. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signalling during development of the strawberry receptacle. New Phytol. 2011;191:376-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus reveals key elements of GA responses in strawberry and points to a critical role for GA in the development of the receptacle...
  17. Wang S, Liu Z, Sun C, Shi Q, Yao Y, You C, et al. Functional characterization of the apple MhGAI1 gene through ectopic expression and grafting experiments in tomatoes. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, MhGAI1, which functions as a repressor in the GA signaling pathway, and its GA-insensitive allele, Mhgai1, could turn out to be useful targets for the genetic improvement of dwarfing rootstocks in apples. ..
  18. Rodríguez M, Mendiondo G, Cantoro R, Auge G, Luna V, Masciarelli O, et al. Expression of seed dormancy in grain sorghum lines with contrasting pre-harvest sprouting behavior involves differential regulation of gibberellin metabolism genes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:64-80 pubmed publisher
    ..dormancy release in RedlandB2 is related to an early loss of embryo sensitivity to ABA and higher levels of gibberellins in imbibed grains as compared with IS9530...
  19. Kerchev P, Pellny T, Vivancos P, Kiddle G, Hedden P, Driscoll S, et al. The transcription factor ABI4 Is required for the ascorbic acid-dependent regulation of growth and regulation of jasmonate-dependent defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3319-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. ..
  20. Khan A, Hamayun M, Kim Y, Kang S, Lee I. Ameliorative symbiosis of endophyte (Penicillium funiculosum LHL06) under salt stress elevated plant growth of Glycine max L. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:852-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, P. funiculosum LHL06 has significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of salinity induced abiotic stress, and re-programmed soybean to higher growth and isoflavone biosynthesis. ..
  21. Josse E, Gan Y, Bou Torrent J, Stewart K, Gilday A, Jeffree C, et al. A DELLA in disguise: SPATULA restrains the growth of the developing Arabidopsis seedling. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that SPT and DELLAs regulate common gene targets and illustrate that the balance of SPT and DELLA action depends on light quality signals in the natural environment. ..
  22. Piotrowska A, Bajguz A. Conjugates of abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, ethylene, gibberellins, and jasmonates. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:2097-112 pubmed publisher
    Phytohormones, including auxins, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, and jasmonates, are involved in all aspects of plant growth, and developmental processes as well as environmental responses...
  23. Qi W, Sun F, Wang Q, Chen M, Huang Y, Feng Y, et al. Rice ethylene-response AP2/ERF factor OsEATB restricts internode elongation by down-regulating a gibberellin biosynthetic gene. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops. ..
  24. Gao X, Xiao S, Yao Q, Wang Y, Fu X. An updated GA signaling 'relief of repression' regulatory model. Mol Plant. 2011;4:601-6 pubmed publisher
  25. An Y, Lin L. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:105 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth...
  26. Gallego Bartolome J, Kami C, Fankhauser C, Alabadi D, Blázquez M. A hormonal regulatory module that provides flexibility to tropic responses. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1819-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that gibberellins (GAs) attenuate the gravitropic reorientation of stimulated hypocotyls of dark-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis ..
  27. Ye N, Zhang J. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:563-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice. ..
  28. Yang D, Yao J, Mei C, Tong X, Zeng L, Li Q, et al. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E1192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated. ..
  29. Middleton A, Ubeda Tomas S, Griffiths J, Holman T, Hedden P, Thomas S, et al. Mathematical modeling elucidates the role of transcriptional feedback in gibberellin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, although the contribution of other individual feedback loops seems relatively small, GID1 and DELLA transcriptional regulation acts synergistically with GA20ox feedback. ..
  30. Porri A, Torti S, Romera Branchat M, Coupland G. Spatially distinct regulatory roles for gibberellins in the promotion of flowering of Arabidopsis under long photoperiods. Development. 2012;139:2198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GA has important roles in promoting transcription of FT, TSF and SPL genes during floral induction in response to LDs, and these functions are spatially separated between the leaves and shoot meristem. ..
  31. Bai M, Shang J, Oh E, Fan M, Bai Y, Zentella R, et al. Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals. ..
  32. Li Q, Wang C, Jiang L, Li S, Sun S, He J. An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra72 pubmed publisher
    ..development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs)...
  33. Li J, Sima W, Ouyang B, Wang T, Ziaf K, Luo Z, et al. Tomato SlDREB gene restricts leaf expansion and internode elongation by downregulating key genes for gibberellin biosynthesis. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:6407-20 pubmed publisher
  34. Nadeau C, Ozga J, Kurepin L, Jin A, Pharis R, Reinecke D. Tissue-specific regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in developing pea seeds. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:897-912 pubmed publisher
    Previous work suggests that gibberellins (GAs) play an important role in early seed development...
  35. Shu K, Zhang H, Wang S, Chen M, Wu Y, Tang S, et al. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003577 pubmed publisher
    Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellins (GA) are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process ..
  36. Pearce S, Vanzetti L, Dubcovsky J. Exogenous gibberellins induce wheat spike development under short days only in the presence of VERNALIZATION1. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:1433-45 pubmed publisher
  37. Voegele A, Linkies A, Muller K, Leubner Metzger G. Members of the gibberellin receptor gene family GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1) play distinct roles during Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:5131-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The GID1ac and GID1b pathways seem to fulfil distinct regulatory roles during Brassicaceae seed germination and seem to control their downstream targets distinctly...
  38. Linkies A, Leubner Metzger G. Beyond gibberellins and abscisic acid: how ethylene and jasmonates control seed germination. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:253-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling and metabolism mediate environmental cues and in turn ..
  39. Pfleger A, Hofäcker J, Scherer Pongratz W, Lothaller H, Reich C, Endler P. The effect of extremely diluted agitated gibberellic acid (10e-30) on wheat stalk growth--a two researcher pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2011;19:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that there was an influence of gibberellic acid 30× on wheat seedling development, i.e. the wheat growth bio assay can be a useful tool for further experiments on homeopathic dilutions of gibberellic acid. ..
  40. Dayan J, Voronin N, Gong F, Sun T, Hedden P, Fromm H, et al. Leaf-induced gibberellin signaling is essential for internode elongation, cambial activity, and fiber differentiation in tobacco stems. Plant Cell. 2012;24:66-79 pubmed publisher
    The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes...
  41. Gou J, Ma C, Kadmiel M, Gai Y, Strauss S, Jiang X, et al. Tissue-specific expression of Populus C19 GA 2-oxidases differentially regulate above- and below-ground biomass growth through control of bioactive GA concentrations. New Phytol. 2011;192:626-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression and transgenic modifications reported here show that shoot- and leaf-expressed PtGA2ox4 and PtGA2ox5 specifically restrain aerial shoot growth, while root-expressed PtGA2ox2 and PtGA2ox7 promote root development...
  42. Plackett A, Powers S, Fernandez Garcia N, Urbanová T, Takebayashi Y, Seo M, et al. Analysis of the developmental roles of the Arabidopsis gibberellin 20-oxidases demonstrates that GA20ox1, -2, and -3 are the dominant paralogs. Plant Cell. 2012;24:941-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Some phenotypic recovery of late flowers in GA-deficient mutants, including ga1-3, indicated the involvement of non-GA pathways in floral development. ..
  43. Bou Torrent J, Martinez Garcia J, García Martínez J, Prat S. Gibberellin A1 metabolism contributes to the control of photoperiod-mediated tuberization in potato. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24458 pubmed publisher
    ..potato species require a short-day (SD) photoperiod for tuberization, a process that is negatively affected by gibberellins (GAs)...
  44. Zawaski C, Kadmiel M, Pickens J, Ma C, Strauss S, Busov V. Repression of gibberellin biosynthesis or signaling produces striking alterations in poplar growth, morphology, and flowering. Planta. 2011;234:1285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transgenic modification of GA action may be useful for producing semi-dwarf trees with modified growth and morphology for horticulture and other uses. ..
  45. Urbanová T, Tarkowska D, Novak O, Hedden P, Strnad M. Analysis of gibberellins as free acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;112:85-94 pubmed publisher
    A robust, reliable and high-throughput method for extraction and purification of gibberellins (GAs), a group of tetracyclic diterpenoid carboxylic acids that include endogenous growth hormones, from plant material was developed...
  46. Frey A, Effroy D, Lefebvre V, Seo M, Perreau F, Berger A, et al. Epoxycarotenoid cleavage by NCED5 fine-tunes ABA accumulation and affects seed dormancy and drought tolerance with other NCED family members. Plant J. 2012;70:501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..NCED5 thus contributes, together with NCED3, to ABA production affecting plant growth and water stress tolerance. ..
  47. Depuydt S, Hardtke C. Hormone signalling crosstalk in plant growth regulation. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R365-73 pubmed publisher
  48. Ribeiro D, Araujo W, Fernie A, Schippers J, Mueller Roeber B. Action of gibberellins on growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis plants associated with high concentration of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1781-94 pubmed publisher
    ..on plant biomass and metabolism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in relation to the availability of gibberellins (GAs)...
  49. Mauriat M, Sandberg L, Moritz T. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to control auxin-dependent leaf development and bud outgrowth in hybrid aspen. Plant J. 2011;67:805-16 pubmed publisher
    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects in the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones...
  50. Bassel G, Lan H, Glaab E, Gibbs D, Gerjets T, Krasnogor N, et al. Genome-wide network model capturing seed germination reveals coordinated regulation of plant cellular phase transitions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..SeedNet is available as a community resource ( to aid dissection of this complex trait and gene function in diverse processes. ..
  51. Waqas M, Khan A, Kamran M, Hamayun M, Kang S, Kim Y, et al. Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress. Molecules. 2012;17:10754-73 pubmed publisher
    We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought...
  52. Gallego Bartolome J, Minguet E, Grau Enguix F, Abbas M, Locascio A, Thomas S, et al. Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Because DELLA proteins mediate the response to multiple environmental signals, our results provide an initial molecular framework for the integration with BRs of additional pathways that control plant development. ..
  53. Gasperini D, Greenland A, Hedden P, Dreos R, Harwood W, Griffiths S. Genetic and physiological analysis of Rht8 in bread wheat: an alternative source of semi-dwarfism with a reduced sensitivity to brassinosteroids. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:4419-36 pubmed publisher
    ..3 Mb of the short arm of rice chromosome 4, and to 2 Mb of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 5. The very high resolution potential of the plant material generated is crucial for the eventual cloning of Rht8. ..
  54. Hong G, Xue X, Mao Y, Wang L, Chen X. Arabidopsis MYC2 interacts with DELLA proteins in regulating sesquiterpene synthase gene expression. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. ..
  55. Ribeiro D, Araujo W, Fernie A, Schippers J, Mueller Roeber B. Translatome and metabolome effects triggered by gibberellins during rosette growth in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:2769-86 pubmed publisher
    Although gibberellins (GAs) are well known for their growth control function, little is known about their effects on primary metabolism...
  56. Kovi M, Zhang Y, Yu S, Yang G, Yan W, Xing Y. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1. Theor Appl Genet. 2011;123:705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties. ..
  57. Zhang Y, Liu Z, Liu R, Hao H, Bi Y. Gibberellins negatively regulate low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in a HY5/HYH-dependent manner. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:632-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we found that the gibberellins (GAs) could decrease but PAC (endogenous GAs biosynthesis inhibitor) increase the low temperature-induced ..
  58. De Vleesschauwer D, Van Buyten E, Satoh K, Balidion J, Mauleon R, Choi I, et al. Brassinosteroids antagonize gibberellin- and salicylate-mediated root immunity in rice. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1833-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy. ..
  59. Jiang X, Li H, Wang T, Peng C, Wang H, Wu H, et al. Gibberellin indirectly promotes chloroplast biogenesis as a means to maintain the chloroplast population of expanded cells. Plant J. 2012;72:768-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed that gibberellins (GAs) regulate many important plant developmental processes, including cell division and cell expansion...
  60. Song J, Guo B, Song F, Peng H, Yao Y, Zhang Y, et al. Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize. Gene. 2011;482:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination...