Summary: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.

Top Publications

  1. Andreyev AYu -, Bondareva T, Dedukhova V, Mokhova E, Skulachev V, Volkov N. Carboxyatractylate inhibits the uncoupling effect of free fatty acids. FEBS Lett. 1988;226:265-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the antiporter facilitates translocation of palmitate anion across the mitochondrial membrane. ..
  2. Halestrap A, Woodfield K, Connern C. Oxidative stress, thiol reagents, and membrane potential modulate the mitochondrial permeability transition by affecting nucleotide binding to the adenine nucleotide translocase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3346-54 pubmed
    ..Both mechanisms act to decrease the Ca2+ sensitivity of the pore. Thiol reagents and oxidative stress may modify two thiol groups on the ANT and thus stimulate pore opening by both means. ..
  3. Cadenas S, Buckingham J, St Pierre J, Dickinson K, Jones R, Brand M. AMP decreases the efficiency of skeletal-muscle mitochondria. Biochem J. 2000;351 Pt 2:307-11 pubmed
    ..AMP activation of ANT could be important for physiological regulation of metabolic rate. ..
  4. McKee E, Bentley A, Smith R, Kraas J, Ciaccio C. Guanine nucleotide transport by atractyloside-sensitive and -insensitive carriers in isolated heart mitochondria. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;279:C1870-9 pubmed
    ..Because transport on this carrier was also inhibited by atractyloside, this carrier was consistent with the well-characterized ATP/ADP translocase...
  5. Kunji E, Harding M. Projection structure of the atractyloside-inhibited mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36985-8 pubmed
    ..The yeast ADP/ATP carrier (AAC3) was overexpressed, inhibited by atractyloside, purified, and reconstituted into two-dimensional crystals...
  6. Echtay K, Esteves T, Pakay J, Jekabsons M, Lambert A, Portero Otin M, et al. A signalling role for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. EMBO J. 2003;22:4103-10 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that hydroxynonenal is not merely toxic, but may be a biological signal to induce uncoupling through UCPs and ANT and thus decrease mitochondrial ROS production. ..
  7. Khailova L, Prikhodko E, Dedukhova V, Mokhova E, Popov V, Skulachev V. Participation of ATP/ADP antiporter in oleate- and oleate hydroperoxide-induced uncoupling suppressed by GDP and carboxyatractylate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1324-9 pubmed
    ..As to GDP recoupling, it cannot be regarded as a specific probe for uncoupling by UCPs since it can be mediated by the ATP/ADP antiporter. ..
  8. Chávez E, Rodríguez J, Garcia G, García N, Correa F. Oligomycin strengthens the effect of cyclosporin A on mitochondrial permeability transition by inducing phosphate uptake. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:551-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the matrix phosphate concentration increased concurrently with a diminution in the matrix-free fraction of Ca2+. We concluded that oligomycin increases phosphate uptake by stimulating the phosphate-/OH- exchange reaction. ..
  9. Su T, Cheng B, Fu X, Li T, Guo H, Cao H, et al. Comparison of the toxicities, activities and chemical profiles of raw and processed Xanthii Fructus. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Eleven compounds including carboxyatractyloside, atractyloside and chlorogenic acid corresponding to eleven individual changed peaks were tentatively identified by matching ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Stockburger C, Miano D, Pallas T, Friedland K, Muller W. Enhanced Neuroplasticity by the Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam Associated with Improved Mitochondrial Dynamics and Altered Permeability Transition Pore Function. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:8075903 pubmed
    ..can also be induced by a reduction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) function as atractyloside which indicates the mPTP has similar effects on mitochondrial dynamics...
  2. Kimura S, Suzaki T, Kobayashi S, Abe K, Ogata E. Effects of glucagon on the redox states of cytochromes in mitochondria in situ in perfused rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984;119:212-9 pubmed
    ..b>Atractyloside (4 micrograms/ml) abolished the effects of glucagon on these parameters and gluconeogenesis from lactate...
  3. Barile M, Valenti D, Brizio C, Quagliariello E, Passarella S. Rat liver mitochondria can hydrolyse thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate which can cross the mitochondrial membrane in a carrier-mediated process. FEBS Lett. 1998;435:6-10 pubmed
    ..This can occur both via the TPP translocator and via a novel translocator, inhibited by CAT but different from the ADP/ATP carrier. ..
  4. Neuhof C, Götte O, Trumbeckaite S, Attenberger M, Kuzkaya N, Gellerich F, et al. A novel water-soluble and cell-permeable calpain inhibitor protects myocardial and mitochondrial function in postischemic reperfusion. Biol Chem. 2003;384:1597-603 pubmed
    ..The excellent properties of A-705239 should make this compound a valuable tool for further pharmacological studies. ..
  5. Faustin B, Rossignol R, Rocher C, Benard G, Malgat M, Letellier T. Mobilization of adenine nucleotide translocators as molecular bases of the biochemical threshold effect observed in mitochondrial diseases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20411-21 pubmed
    ..We discuss how these transitions are sensitive to the steady state of oxidative phosphorylation functioning or tissue and analyze their consequences on the threshold effect. ..
  6. Satoh T, Saotome M, Katoh H, Nonaka D, Hasan P, Hayashi H, et al. Intracellular Renin Inhibits Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore via Activated Mitochondrial Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2 during Ischemia in Diabetic Hearts. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;19: pubmed publisher
    ..R-renin also attenuated atractyloside (Atr, an mPTP opener)-induced ??m depolarization and Atr-induced mitochondrial swelling in an U0126-..
  7. Haouzi D, Cohen I, Vieira H, Poncet D, Boya P, Castedo M, et al. Mitochondrial permeability transition as a novel principle of hepatorenal toxicity in vivo. Apoptosis. 2002;7:395-405 pubmed
    b>Atractyloside (Atr) binds to the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and inhibits ANT-mediated ATP/ADP exchange on the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  8. Patel H, Tsutsumi Y, Roth D. Mito-controversies: mitochondrial permeability transition pore and myocardial reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:182-4 pubmed publisher
  9. García N, Zazueta C, El Hafidi M, Pavón N, Martínez Abundis E, Hernández Esquivel L, et al. Cyclosporin A inhibits UV-radiation-induced membrane damage but is unable to inhibit carboxyatractyloside-induced permeability transition. Radiat Res. 2009;172:575-83 pubmed publisher
  10. Hausenloy D, Maddock H, Baxter G, Yellon D. Inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening: a new paradigm for myocardial preconditioning?. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;55:534-43 pubmed
    ..FK506 (which inhibits the phosphatase calcineurin without inhibiting MPTP opening), or 20 micromol/l atractyloside (Atr, a MPTP opener) given at reperfusion; (6,7) pre-treatment with 30 micromol/l diazoxide (Diaz, a ..
  11. Postis V, De Marcos Lousa C, Arnou B, Lauquin G, Trezeguet V. Subunits of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier: cooperation within the dimer. Biochemistry. 2005;44:14732-40 pubmed
    ..However, full inhibition of phosphate uptake by CATR, a very specific inhibitor of Ancp, strongly suggests that the native functional unit of Ancp, and thus of Picp, is a dimer. ..
  12. Hernández Esquivel L, Natalia Pavón -, Zazueta C, García N, Correa F, Chávez E. Protective action of tamoxifen on carboxyatractyloside-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. Life Sci. 2011;88:681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Plausibly, the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on nonspecific membrane permeability, as induced by carboxyatractyloside, should be ascribed to a diminution, of membrane fluidity by this drug. ..
  13. Boireau A, Maréchal P, Meunier M, Dubedat P, Moussaoui S. The anti-oxidant ebselen antagonizes the release of the apoptogenic factor cytochrome c induced by Fe2+/citrate in rat liver mitochondria. Neurosci Lett. 2000;289:95-8 pubmed
    ..1) Fe(2+)/citrate, known to induce lipid peroxidation consecutively to an oxidative stress; and (2) atractyloside, a ligand of the adenine nucleotide translocator...
  14. Samartsev V, Chezganova S, Polishchuk L, Paydyganov A, Vidyakina O, Zeldi I. Temperature dependence of rat liver mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by fatty acids. Influence of inorganic phosphate. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2003;68:618-26 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of involvement of the phosphate carrier in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids are discussed. ..
  15. Dahout Gonzalez C, Nury H, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Pebay Peyroula E, Brandolin G. Molecular, functional, and pathological aspects of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. Physiology (Bethesda). 2006;21:242-9 pubmed
    ..Combining biochemical, genetic, and structural approaches contributes to understanding the molecular mechanism of this essential transport system, the dysfunction of which is implicated in neuromuscular diseases. ..
  16. Obatomi D, Bach P. Atractyloside nephrotoxicity: in vitro studies with suspensions of rat renal fragments and precision-cut cortical slices. In Vitr Mol Toxicol. 2000;13:25-36 pubmed
    The consumption of plants containing atractyloside, a diterpenoid glycoside, causes selective proximal tubule injury leading to renal failure and death in humans...
  17. Chavez E, Pena A, Zazueta C, Ramirez J, Garcia N, Carrillo R. Inactivation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore by octylguanidine and octylamine. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2000;32:193-8 pubmed
  18. Schonfeld P, Bohnensack R. Fatty acid-promoted mitochondrial permeability transition by membrane depolarization and binding to the ADP/ATP carrier. FEBS Lett. 1997;420:167-70 pubmed
    ..thioester derivatives in a structure-dependent manner with the ADP/ATP carrier (measured as inhibition of [3H]atractyloside binding to the AAC protein)...
  19. Joshi A, Bondada V, Geddes J. Mitochondrial micro-calpain is not involved in the processing of apoptosis-inducing factor. Exp Neurol. 2009;218:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, AIF was released from rat liver mitochondria following mPTP induction by atractyloside. This release was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitor MDL28170, but not by more specific calpain ..
  20. Lahnsteiner F, Berger B, Weismann T. Sperm metabolism of the telost fishes Chalcalburnus chalcoides and Oncorhynchus mykiss and its relation to motility and viability. J Exp Zool. 1999;284:454-65 pubmed
    ..4-dinitrophenol, atractyloside)...
  21. Rottenberg H, Marbach M. Regulation of Ca2+ transport in brain mitochondria. II. The mechanism of the adenine nucleotides enhancement of Ca2+ uptake and retention. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1016:87-98 pubmed
    ADP greatly enhances the rate of Ca2+ uptake and retention in Ca2+ loaded mitochondria. Atractyloside, a specific inhibitor of the ADP/ATP translocator, completely inhibits the ADP effect, while bongkrekate, another specific inhibitor of ..
  22. García N, Martínez Abundis E, Pavón N, Chávez E. Sodium inhibits permeability transition by decreasing potassium matrix content in rat kidney mitochondria. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;144:442-50 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the protection provided by Na+ was accomplished by inducing matrix K+ depletion, which, in turn, diminished the free fraction of matrix Ca2+. ..
  23. Klingenberg M. The ADP and ATP transport in mitochondria and its carrier. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1978-2021 pubmed publisher
    ..Being a snapshot of an extreme abortive "c-state" the actual mechanism still remains a conjecture. ..
  24. Wang Y, Han T, Xue L, Han P, Zhang Q, Huang B, et al. Hepatotoxicity of kaurene glycosides from Xanthium strumarium L. fruits in mice. Pharmazie. 2011;66:445-9 pubmed
    ..was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects on acute liver injury in mice of the two kaurene glycosides (atractyloside and carbxyatractyloside), which are main toxic constituents isolated from Fructus Xanthii on acute liver ..
  25. Wang G, Huang H, Zheng H, He Y, Zhang Y, Xu Z, et al. Zn2+ and mPTP Mediate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Inhibition-Induced Cardioprotection Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;174:189-197 pubmed
    ..TUDCA reduced infarct size and this was reversed by the mPTP opener atractyloside, indicating that ER stress inhibition may induce cardioprotection by modulating the mPTP opening...
  26. Brustovetsky T, Shalbuyeva N, Brustovetsky N. Lack of manifestations of diazoxide/5-hydroxydecanoate-sensitive KATP channel in rat brain nonsynaptosomal mitochondria. J Physiol. 2005;568:47-59 pubmed
    ..Moreover, bongkrekic acid, another inhibitor of the ANT, inhibited K+ efflux similarly to ATP. These observations implicate the ANT in ATP-sensitive K+ transport in brain mitochondria. ..
  27. Toleikis A, Trumbeckaite S, Majiene D. Cytochrome C effect on respiration of heart mitochondria: influence of various factors. Biosci Rep. 2005;25:387-97 pubmed
  28. Brandolin G, Le Saux A, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Vignais P. Chemical, immunological, enzymatic, and genetic approaches to studying the arrangement of the peptide chain of the ADP/ATP carrier in the mitochondrial membrane. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1993;25:459-72 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis in yeast is currently being used to detect strategic amino acids in ADP/ATP transport. ..
  29. Ahid S, El Cadi M, Meddah B, Cherrah Y. [Atractylis gummifera: from poisoning to the analytic methods]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2012;70:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The solution of those problems is to detect atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside in the biologic liquids...
  30. Zhang L, Zhang D, Zhao X, Sun W, Jiang X. Sevoflurane pre-conditioning increases phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and HO-1 expression via inhibition of mPTP in primary rat cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R. J Neurol Sci. 2017;372:171-177 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitor of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation (PD98059), a mPTP opener (atractyloside), or a mPTP opening inhibitor (cyclosporine A) before sevoflurane pre-conditioning...
  31. Ramachandran V, Perez A, Chen J, Senthil D, Schenker S, Henderson G. In utero ethanol exposure causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which can result in apoptotic cell death in fetal brain: a potential role for 4-hydroxynonenal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25:862-71 pubmed
  32. Baines C, Song C, Zheng Y, Wang G, Zhang J, Wang O, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with and inhibits the permeability transition pore in cardiac mitochondria. Circ Res. 2003;92:873-80 pubmed
    ..Finally, administration of the pore opener atractyloside significantly attenuated the infarct-sparing effect of PKCepsilon transgenesis...
  33. Colell A, Garcia Ruiz C, Lluis J, Coll O, Mari M, Fernandez Checa J. Cholesterol impairs the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition through altered membrane fluidity. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33928-35 pubmed
    ..Mitochondria enriched in cholesterol displayed increased microviscosity resulting in impaired MPT induced by atractyloside, a c-conformation stabilizing ligand of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT)...
  34. Gizatullina Z, Chen Y, Zierz S, Gellerich F. Effects of extramitochondrial ADP on permeability transition of mouse liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1706:98-104 pubmed
    ..The pathophysiological importance of this process could be an endogenous prevention of PT at conditions of energetic depression. ..
  35. Valenti D, Barile M, Quagliariello E, Passarella S. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase in rat liver mitochondria by added 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. FEBS Lett. 1999;444:291-5 pubmed
    ..It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase. ..
  36. Iossa S, Mollica M, Lionetti L, Crescenzo R, Botta M, Liverini G. Metabolic efficiency of liver mitochondria in rats with decreased thermogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:133-7 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that mitochondrial efficiency in the liver is not related to a physiological decrease in whole body thermogenesis. ..
  37. Malekova L, Kominkova V, Ferko M, Stefanik P, Krizanova O, Ziegelhoffer A, et al. Bongkrekic acid and atractyloside inhibits chloride channels from mitochondrial membranes of rat heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:31-44 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of bongkrekic acid (BKA), atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CAT) on single channel properties of chloride channels from mitochondria...
  38. Yang S, Li H, Tang L, Ge G, Ma J, Qiao Z, et al. Apelin-13 protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through the RISK-GSK-3β-mPTP pathway. Arch Med Sci. 2015;11:1065-73 pubmed publisher
    ..05), which could be abolished by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) and atractyloside (mPTP accelerator)...
  39. Varsányi M, Szarka A, Papp E, Makai D, Nardai G, Fulceri R, et al. FAD transport and FAD-dependent protein thiol oxidation in rat liver microsomes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3370-4 pubmed
    ..filtration experiments also demonstrated the uptake and efflux of the compound, which could be inhibited by atractyloside and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid...
  40. Vergun O, Reynolds I. Distinct characteristics of Ca(2+)-induced depolarization of isolated brain and liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1709:127-37 pubmed
  41. Steenkamp P, Harding N, van Heerden F, van Wyk B. Identification of atractyloside by LC-ESI-MS in alleged herbal poisonings. Forensic Sci Int. 2006;163:81-92 pubmed
    An LC-MS screening method was developed to detect the presence of atractyloside (ATR), the toxic principle of a commonly used medicinal plant in South Africa, Callilepis laureola, in biological matrices such as body fluids and human ..
  42. Carbonera D, Azzone G. Permeability of inner mitochondrial membrane and oxidative stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;943:245-55 pubmed
    ..1) The permeability increase is antagonized by oligomycin and favoured by atractyloside. The promoting effect of atractyloside is strongly reduced if the mitochondria are simultaneously treated with ..
  43. Bravo C, Chavez E, Rodriguez J, Moreno Sanchez R. The mitochondrial membrane permeability transition induced by inorganic phosphate or inorganic arsenate. A comparative study. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;117:93-9 pubmed
    ..The diminution of external pH did not inhibit the MPT induced by Pi or Asi. The results of this study suggest that the adenine nucleotide translocase does not have an essential role in the MPT induced by Asi+Ca2+...
  44. Camarda L, Di Stefano V, Schillaci D. Atractyligenine chemistry, Part VI: Synthesis and biological activities of atractyligenine derivatives. Pharmazie. 2002;57:374-6 pubmed
    Derivatives of atractyligenine, the aglycone of atractyloside, were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity against K-562 (human chronic myelogeneous leukemia), HL-60 (human leukemia) and MCF-7 (human ..
  45. Hagen T, Lagace C, Modica Napolitano J, Aprille J. Permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria is modulated by the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G274-81 pubmed
    ..via the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier show highly increased susceptibility to swelling induced by high Ca2+ concentration, atractyloside, and the prooxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide...
  46. Alberici L, Oliveira H, Bighetti E, de Faria E, Degaspari G, Souza C, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia increases mitochondrial resting respiration and susceptibility to permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2003;35:451-7 pubmed
    ..UCP2 content was similar in both control and transgenic mitochondria. We propose that faster resting respiration represents a regulated adaptation to oxidize excess free fatty acid in the transgenic mice. ..
  47. Gao Q, Pan H, Qiu S, Lu Y, Bruce I, Luo J, et al. Atractyloside and 5-hydroxydecanoate block the protective effect of puerarin in isolated rat heart. Life Sci. 2006;79:217-24 pubmed
    ..Administration of atractyloside (20 micromol/l), an opener of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, for the first 20 min of ..
  48. Samartsev V, Kozhina O. Oxidative stress as regulatory factor for fatty-acid-induced uncoupling involving liver mitochondrial ADP/ATP and aspartate/glutamate antiporters of old rats. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:783-90 pubmed
  49. Cotugno R, Gallotta D, Piaz F, Apicella I, De Falco S, Rosselli S, et al. Powerful tumor cell growth-inhibiting activity of a synthetic derivative of atractyligenin: involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway and thioredoxin system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..SC2017 has, indeed, shown to possess tumor growth inhibiting activity and be able to counteract PI3K/Akt and Trx system survival signaling. ..
  50. Gerber L, Aronow B, Matlib M. Activation of a novel long-chain free fatty acid generation and export system in mitochondria of diabetic rat hearts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C1198-207 pubmed
    ..We suggest that its activation may facilitate, and inhibition may limit, enhancement of FAO. ..
  51. Trono D, Soccio M, Mastrangelo A, De Simone V, Di Fonzo N, Pastore D. The transcript levels of two plant mitochondrial uncoupling protein (pUCP)-related genes are not affected by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat seedlings showing an increased level of pUCP activity. Biosci Rep. 2006;26:251-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, a properly developed method, based on a single membrane potential measurement, to evaluate both pUCP maximal activity and functioning, is reported. ..
  52. Arnou B, Dahout Gonzalez C, Pelosi L, Lauquin G, Brandolin G, Trezeguet V. Native membrane proteins vs. yeast recombinant: an example: the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;654:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that, as expected, length and position of the tag are important criteria for qualitative purification. We also discuss the advantages and drawbacks of purifying Ancp either from a natural source or from engineered yeast cells. ..
  53. Rey M, Man P, Clémençon B, Trezeguet V, Brandolin G, Forest E, et al. Conformational dynamics of the bovine mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier isoform 1 revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the structural and biochemical data available on Ancp. ..
  54. Wang C, Almsherqi Z, McLachlan C, Matthews S, Ramachandran M, Tay S, et al. Acute starvation in C57BL/6J mice increases myocardial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression levels and decreases mitochondrial bio-energetic function. Stress. 2011;14:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased UCP2 and UCP3 levels may contribute to decreased myocardial mitochondrial bio-energetic function due to starvation. ..
  55. Tepp K, Shevchuk I, Chekulayev V, Timohhina N, Kuznetsov A, Guzun R, et al. High efficiency of energy flux controls within mitochondrial interactosome in cardiac intracellular energetic units. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:1549-61 pubmed publisher
  56. Chien L, Brand M. The effect of chloroform on mitochondrial energy transduction. Biochem J. 1996;320 ( Pt 3):837-45 pubmed
    ..Assays of mitochondrial breakage (ATP hydrolysis in the presence of atractyloside and oxidation of exogenous NADH) showed that chloroform broke mitochondria but TMPD did not...
  57. Colell A, Garcia Ruiz C, Mari M, Fernandez Checa J. Mitochondrial permeability transition induced by reactive oxygen species is independent of cholesterol-regulated membrane fluidity. FEBS Lett. 2004;560:63-8 pubmed
    Cholesterol enrichment of rat liver mitochondria (CHM) impairs atractyloside-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) due to decreased membrane fluidity...
  58. Turgut M, Alhan C, Gurgoze M, Kurt A, Dogan Y, Tekatli M, et al. Carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2005;25:125-34 pubmed
    ..We describe nine cases of carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. The clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings and our therapeutic approach are also discussed...
  59. Dahout Gonzalez C, Ramus C, Dassa E, Dianoux A, Brandolin G. Conformation-dependent swinging of the matrix loop m2 of the mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADP/ATP carrier. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16310-20 pubmed
    ..Its participation in the translocation of ADP/ATP is strongly suggested, based on the finding that its accessibility to reagents added outside mitochondria is modified according to the conformational state of the carrier. ..
  60. Clémençon B, Rey M, Trezeguet V, Forest E, Pelosi L. Yeast ADP/ATP carrier isoform 2: conformational dynamics and role of the RRRMMM signature sequence methionines. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..All our results indicate that the methionine cluster is involved in the ADP/ATP transport mechanism and confirm that the Ancp cavity is a highly dynamic structure. ..
  61. Dorsch M, Behmenburg F, Raible M, Blase D, Grievink H, Hollmann M, et al. Morphine-Induced Preconditioning: Involvement of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151025 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the effect of mPTP opening with atractyloside (5 mg/kg) with and without morphine (Atr+M-PC, Atr)...
  62. Koya R, Fujita H, Shimizu S, Ohtsu M, Takimoto M, Tsujimoto Y, et al. Gelsolin inhibits apoptosis by blocking mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cytochrome c release. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15343-9 pubmed
    ..corroborated in vitro using recombinant gelsolin protein on isolated rat mitochondria stimulated with Ca(2+), atractyloside, or Bax...
  63. Obatomi D, Blackburn R, Bach P. Effects of the calcium channel blocker verapamil and sulphydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol on atractyloside toxicity in precision-cut rat renal cortical and liver slices. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001;39:1013-21 pubmed
    ..agent and verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker as possible cytoprotectants against the atractyloside-induced toxicity were characterized in rat kidney and liver slices in vitro using multiple markers of toxicity...
  64. Rajesh K, Sasaguri S, Suzuki R, Maeda H. Antioxidant MCI-186 inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pore and upregulates Bcl-2 expression. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H2171-8 pubmed
    ..were inhibited on opening PTP before MCI-186 treatment with the PTP activators lonidamine (10 mg/kg iv) or atractyloside (5 mg/kg iv) but failed to inhibit the protective effects exerted by another antioxidant, allopurinol, ..
  65. Remenyi G, Szasz R, Friese P, Dale G. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in coated-platelet formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:467-71 pubmed
    ..Phenylarsine oxide and diamide, both potentiators of MPTP formation, stimulate coated-platelet synthesis. Atractyloside, another inducer of MPTP formation, does not affect the percentage of coated-platelets synthesized; however, ..
  66. Sanchez J, Kauffmann B, Grelard A, Sanchez C, Trezeguet V, Huc I, et al. Unambiguous structure of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:2973-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Atractyloside (ATR) was characterized in 1868 and until now structural studies on diterpenic moiety had been done through the characterization of ATR derivatives; while the glycosidic moiety seemed to be a ?-D-glucopyranose a recent ..
  67. Brucoli F, Borrello M, Stapleton P, Parkinson G, Gibbons S. Structural characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of atractyloside, atractyligenin, and 15-didehydroatractyligenin methyl ester. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:1070-5 pubmed publisher
    We report the first complete structure elucidation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside (1) by means of NMR and X-ray diffractometry techniques...
  68. Hou Y, Mattson M, Cheng A. Permeability transition pore-mediated mitochondrial superoxide flashes regulate cortical neural progenitor differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76721 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, manipulations that increase superoxide flash frequency accelerate neuronal differentiation. Our findings reveal a regulatory role for mitochondrial superoxide flashes, mediated by mPTP opening, in neuronal differentiation. ..
  69. Hagen T, Joyal J, Henke W, Aprille J. Net adenine nucleotide transport in rat kidney mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;303:195-207 pubmed
  70. Simonyan R, Skulachev V. Thermoregulatory uncoupling in heart muscle mitochondria: involvement of the ATP/ADP antiporter and uncoupling protein. FEBS Lett. 1998;436:81-4 pubmed
  71. Nemeti B, Gregus Z. Mitochondria work as reactors in reducing arsenate to arsenite. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:208-18 pubmed
    ..ADP increased, whereas AMP and ATP decreased, AsIII formation. These effects could be prevented by atractyloside. Electron transport inhibitors and uncouplers abolished AsIII formation, whereas ATP-synthase inhibitors ..
  72. Pebay Peyroula E, Dahout Gonzalez C, Kahn R, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Brandolin G. Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with carboxyatractyloside. Nature. 2003;426:39-44 pubmed
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    ..2) A low concentration of NONOate (5 ?M) prevented atractyloside (an mPTP opener)-induced mPTP opening...
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