Summary: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.

Top Publications

  1. Yue H, Pi Z, Song F, Liu Z, Cai Z, Liu S. Studies on the aconitine-type alkaloids in the roots of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx. by HPLC/ESIMS/MS(n). Talanta. 2009;77:1800-7 pubmed publisher
    Studies of aconitine-type alkaloids in the Chinese herb Aconitum Carmichaeli were performed by HPLC/ESIMS/MS(n) and FTICR/ESIMS in positive ion mode...
  2. Shu H, Yi Ming W, Xu L, Miao C, Su D. Increased susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmias to aconitine in anaesthetized rats is attributed to the inhibition of baroreflex. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;31:249-53 pubmed
    1. Aconitine is widely used to produce ventricular arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats...
  3. Tang L, Ye L, Lv C, Zheng Z, Gong Y, Liu Z. Involvement of CYP3A4/5 and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of aconitine using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP450 enzymes. Toxicol Lett. 2011;202:47-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Aconitine (AC), a famous major Aconitum alkaloid, has effective antirheumatic function with high toxicity. The aim of our study was to in-depth investigate cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYPs) involved in aconitine metabolism in vitro...
  4. Jung B, Lee S, Cho Y, Park H, Kim Y, Lee Y, et al. Role of the alternans of action potential duration and aconitine-induced arrhythmias in isolated rabbit hearts. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:1576-81 pubmed publisher
    Under conditions of Na(+) channel hyperactivation with aconitine, the changes in action potential duration (APD) and the restitution characteristics have not been well defined in the context of aconitine-induced arrhythmogenesis...
  5. Lin C, Chan T, Deng J. Clinical features and management of herb-induced aconitine poisoning. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:574-9 pubmed
    We define the potential sources, clinical manifestations, and treatment of aconitine poisoning.
  6. Wada K, Nihira M, Ohno Y. Effects of chronic administrations of aconitine on body weight and rectal temperature in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105:89-94 pubmed
    b>Aconitine, a major Aconitum alkaloid, is well known for its high toxicity that induces severe arrhythmias leading to death...
  7. Hazari M, Haykal Coates N, Winsett D, Krantz Q, King C, Costa D, et al. TRPA1 and sympathetic activation contribute to increased risk of triggered cardiac arrhythmias in hypertensive rats exposed to diesel exhaust. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:951-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrhythmogenesis was assessed 24 hr later by continuous intravenous infusion of aconitine, an arrhythmogenic drug, while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored...
  8. Li Y, Tu D, Xiao H, Du Y, Zou A, Liao Y, et al. Aconitine blocks HERG and Kv1.5 potassium channels. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;131:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, improper use of this drug results in severe intoxication. Aconitine (ACO), a diterpenoid alkaloid from aconitum, mainly contributes to cardio-toxic effects of aconitum and has also ..
  9. Hazari M, Haykal Coates N, Winsett D, Costa D, Farraj A. A single exposure to particulate or gaseous air pollution increases the risk of aconitine-induced cardiac arrhythmia in hypertensive rats. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112:532-42 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between arrhythmias and air pollution. Aconitine-induced cardiac arrhythmia is widely used experimentally to examine factors that alter the risk of arrhythmogenesis...

More Information


  1. Kaneko R, Hattori S, Furuta S, Hamajima M, Hirata Y, Watanabe K, et al. Sensitive analysis of aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine and jesaconitine in human body fluids and Aconitum tubers by LC/ESI-TOF-MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2006;41:810-4 pubmed
    ..We have developed a simple and sensitive method for measuring four kinds of Aconitum alkaloids (aconitine, hypaconitine, jesaconitine and mesaconitine) by LC/electrospray (ESI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS...
  2. Chen J, Lee C, Liau B, Lee M, Jong T, Chiang S. Determination of aconitine-type alkaloids as markers in fuzi (Aconitum carmichaeli) by LC/(+)ESI/MS(3). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;48:1105-11 pubmed publisher
    LC/(+)ESI/MS(3) was used to determine aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine as target markers in crude methanol extracts of (i) the raw lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli, (ii) roots treated by three different refining processes, ..
  3. Lin M, Wang Y, Liu S, Lin A, Lo Y, Wu S. Characterization of aconitine-induced block of delayed rectifier K+ current in differentiated NG108-15 neuronal cells. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:912-23 pubmed publisher
    The effects of aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic alkaloid, on ion currents in differentiated NG108-15 neuronal cells were investigated in this study. ACO (0...
  4. Tan P, Liu Y, Li F, Qiao Y. Reaction product analysis of aconitine in dilute ethanol using ESI-Q-ToF-MS. Pharmazie. 2012;67:274-6 pubmed
    The study was done to identify the reaction products of aconitine in dilute ethanol using electrospray ionization-triple quad time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS)...
  5. Ye L, Yang X, Yang Z, Gao S, Yin T, Liu W, et al. The role of efflux transporters on the transport of highly toxic aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and their hydrolysates, as determined in cultured Caco-2 and transfected MDCKII cells. Toxicol Lett. 2013;216:86-99 pubmed publisher
    Aconitum alkaloids including aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), are highly toxic...
  6. Wang Y, Chen B, Lin M, Lin A, Peng H, Sung R, et al. Time-dependent block of ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ currents by aconitine, a potent cardiotoxin, in heart-derived H9c2 myoblasts and in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Toxicol Sci. 2008;106:454-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channels. However, it remains unknown whether it has any effects on K(+) currents...
  7. Walters C, Brown S, Changeux J, Martin B, Damaj M. The beta2 but not alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is required for nicotine-conditioned place preference in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;184:339-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the beta2 subunit of the nAChR is critically involved in nicotine reward as measured by CPP. ..
  8. Wang Y, Su D, Wang R, Liu Y, Wang H. Antinociceptive effects of choline against acute and inflammatory pain. Neuroscience. 2005;132:49-56 pubmed
    ..Choline holds promise for development as a non-addictive analgesic drug and in reducing the regular dose of aspirin or morphine in inflammatory pain. ..
  9. He L, Di B, Du Y, Yan F, Su M, Liu H, et al. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the rapid simultaneous quantification of aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine in rat plasma after oral administration of Sini decoction. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33:588-94 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), and hypaconitine (HA), the three toxic constituents from Sini decoction (SND) in rat ..
  10. Rai P, Pathak A, Rajput S. Stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of aconitine and piperine in a polyherbal formulation. J AOAC Int. 2009;92:1044-54 pubmed
    Simple and rapid stability-indicating HPLC methods were developed for the individual analysis of aconitine (ACN) and piperine (PIN) in Mahamrutynjaya rasa, an herbal dosage form containing Aconitum ferox, Piper nigrum, and Piper longum ..
  11. Liu Y, Du J, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Cai B, Zhao H, et al. Role of M3 receptor in aconitine/barium-chloride-induced preconditioning against arrhythmias in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;379:511-5 pubmed publisher
    We demonstrated here that an initial treatment with aconitine- or barium-chloride-induced arrhythmias and resulted in reduced susceptibility of the heart to the induction of arrhythmias by a repeated drug treatment 24 h after the initial ..
  12. Zhang S, Liu Y, Huang G, Liu L. Aconitine alters connexin43 phosphorylation status and [Ca2+] oscillation patterns in cultured ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1476-85 pubmed
    b>Aconitine, a highly poisonous type of alkaloid, has a widespread effect in stimulating the membranes of cardiomyocyte. However, other effects of aconitine on cardiomyocyte are unknown...
  13. Kido K, Edakuni K, Morinaga O, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for aconitine-type alkaloids using an anti-aconitine monoclonal antibody. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;616:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..bovine serum albumin (BSA) for use as an immunogen for the preparation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against aconitine (Aco)...
  14. Peng C, Zheng T, Yang F, Li Y, Zhang D. Study of neurotoxic effects and underlying mechanisms of aconitine on cerebral cortex neuron cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:1533-43 pubmed publisher
    The study investigated the neurotoxiceffects and underlying mechanisms of aconitine on cerebral cortex neuron cells prepared from neonatal SD rats...
  15. Davis J, Gould T. The effects of DHBE and MLA on nicotine-induced enhancement of contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;184:345-52 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that non-alpha7 nAChRs (most likely alpha4beta2 nAChRs) underlie the enhancement of contextual fear conditioning by nicotine. ..
  16. Csupor D, Wenzig E, Zupko I, Wölkart K, Hohmann J, Bauer R. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of aconitine-type and lipo-alkaloids of Aconitum carmichaelii roots. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:2079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been developed for the identification and quantification of three major aconitine-type alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine) in the roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux...
  17. Hashimoto K, Iyo M, Freedman R, Stevens K. Tropisetron improves deficient inhibitory auditory processing in DBA/2 mice: role of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;183:13-9 pubmed
    ..Tropisetron may be useful for the treatment of deficient inhibitory processing in schizophrenia. ..
  18. Fan Y, Xie Y, Liu L, Ho H, Wong Y, Liu Z, et al. Paeoniflorin reduced acute toxicity of aconitine in rats is associated with the pharmacokinetic alteration of aconitine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..on the pharmacokinetic behavior of aconitine (major toxic and bioactive component of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx...
  19. Yin X, Cui W, Hu G, Wang H. Desensitization of alpha7 nicotinic receptors potentiated the inhibitory effect on M-current induced by stimulation of muscarinic receptors in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2005;112:1133-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that desensitization of alpha7-nAChRs could potentiate the inhibitory effect on M-current by stimulation of mAChRs with their agonist. ..
  20. Stegelmeier B, Hall J, Gardner D, Panter K. The toxicity and kinetics of larkspur alkaloid, methyllycaconitine, in mice. J Anim Sci. 2003;81:1237-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that animals exposed to larkspur should rapidly excrete MLA (within several hours) and that the residues in animal tissues are not likely to be a problem if animals are given several days to allow toxin clearance...
  21. Wang Y, Liu Z, Song F, Liu S. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of the aconitines in the roots of aconite. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:2075-82 pubmed
    Fragmentation pathways of aconitine-type alkaloids were investigated by electrospray ionization/ion trap multistage tandem mass spectrometry...
  22. Si M, Lee T. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves mediate choline-induced nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation. Circ Res. 2002;91:62-9 pubmed
    ..Endogenous choline may play an important role in regulating cerebral sympathetic activity and vascular tone. ..
  23. Mitamura M, Horie S, Sakaguchi M, Someya A, Tsuchiya S, Van de Voorde J, et al. Mesaconitine-induced relaxation in rat aorta: involvement of Ca2+ influx and nitric-oxide synthase in the endothelium. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;436:217-25 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that mesaconitine-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of nitric-oxide synthase in endothelial cells and, thus, induced vasorelaxation in rat aorta. ..
  24. Yamanaka H, Doi A, Ishibashi H, Akaike N. Aconitine facilitates spontaneous transmitter release at rat ventromedial hypothalamic neurons. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135:816-22 pubmed
    The effects of aconitine, an Aconitum alkaloid, on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and EPSCs respectively) were investigated in the mechanically dissociated rat ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons ..
  25. Wright S. Comparison of aconitine-modified human heart (hH1) and rat skeletal (mu1) muscle Na+ channels: an important role for external Na+ ions. J Physiol. 2002;538:759-71 pubmed
    Neurotoxins such as aconitine (AC) bind to receptor site 2 on voltage-gated sodium channels and modify channel kinetics...
  26. Wang H, Lee D, Davis C, Shank R. Amyloid peptide Abeta(1-42) binds selectively and with picomolar affinity to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurochem. 2000;75:1155-61 pubmed
  27. Friese J, Gleitz J, Gutser U, Heubach J, Matthiesen T, Wilffert B, et al. Aconitum sp. alkaloids: the modulation of voltage-dependent Na+ channels, toxicity and antinociceptive properties. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;337:165-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the alkaloids can be grouped in Na+ channel activating and blocking compounds, but none of the alkaloids seem to be suitable as analgesics because of the low LD50/ED50 values. ..
  28. Zhao L, Kuo Y, George A, Peng J, Purandare M, Schroeder K, et al. Functional properties of homomeric, human alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in the SH-EP1 human epithelial cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:1132-41 pubmed
  29. Kobayashi M, Takahashi H, Herndon D, Pollard R, Suzuki F. Therapeutic effects of IL-12 combined with benzoylmesaconine, a non-toxic aconitine-hydrolysate, against herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in mice following thermal injury. Burns. 2003;29:37-42 pubmed
    ..In our previous studies, benzoylmesaconine (BEN, an aconitine derivative extracted from heated-Aconiti tuber) induced the generation of CD4+ T cells antagonistic to type 2 T ..
  30. Chan T. Incidence of herb-induced aconitine poisoning in Hong Kong: impact of publicity measures to promote awareness among the herbalists and the public. Drug Saf. 2002;25:823-8 pubmed
    ..These aconite roots contain aconitine, mesaconitine and hypaconitine, which are neurotoxins and cardiotoxins...
    ..This work answers the question that whether the active components (Aconitine, Liquiritin and Glycyrrhetinic Acid) of Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli and Liquorice could result in ..
  32. Liu Y, Zhang S, Liang M, Liu Q, Liu L. Effects of aconitine on [Ca2+] oscillation in cultured myocytes of neonatal rats. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:499-503 pubmed publisher
    In order to investigate the effects of aconitine on [Ca2+] oscillation patterns in cultured myocytes of neonatal rats, fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 NW and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) were used to detect the real-time ..
  33. Ding X, Feng X, Dong Y, Zhao X, Chen Y, Wang M. [Studies on chemical constituents of the roots of Angelica pubescens]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:516-8 pubmed
    ..O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl -(R)-by-akangelicin (VI) and sec. -O-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(R) -byakangelicin (VII). Compound IV, VI and VII are isolated from Angelica pubescens for the first time. ..
  34. Tian M, Bailey C, De Biasi M, Picciotto M, Lambe E. Plasticity of prefrontal attention circuitry: upregulated muscarinic excitability in response to decreased nicotinic signaling following deletion of ?5 or ?2 subunits. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that disrupting nicotinic receptors fundamentally alters the mechanisms and timing of excitation in prefrontal attentional circuitry. ..
  35. Ruthel G, Burnett J, Nuss J, Wanner L, Tressler L, Torres Melendez E, et al. Post-intoxication inhibition of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A within neurons by small-molecule, non-peptidic inhibitors. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that competitive SMNPIs of BoNT/A light chain can be effective within neurons post-intoxication...
  36. Zhao Y, Cui X, Dai Y, Miao H. [Studies on HPLC fingerprint of Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1056-8 pubmed
    ..Under the selected chromatographic conditions, good HPLC fingerprints of Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii were obtained. The method was simple, accurate and repeatable. It can be used for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii. ..
  37. Zeng X, He L, Wang S, Wang K, Zhang Y, Tao L, et al. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-?B and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016;37:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-?B and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. ..
  38. Welch K, Pfister J, Lima F, Green B, Gardner D. Effect of ?? nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;266:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. ..
  39. Xin Y, Pi Z, Song F, Liu Z, Liu S. [Comparison of intracorporal absorption of hypaconitine in Heishunpian decoction and its compound recipe decoction by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2011;29:389-93 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetic property of hypaconitine was proposed to be non-linear dynamics on the basis of the drug elimination half life (T(1/2)) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). ..
  40. Wen Feng C, Guo Fen Q, Yan Jie L, Zhen Wei P, Xian Mei P, Yun Long B, et al. Flavonoids from Chinese Viscum coloratum: antiarrhythmic efficacy and ionic mechanisms. Phytother Res. 2006;20:1100-2 pubmed
    ..The antiarrhythmic effects of VCF were observed in a rat model of arrhythmia induced by aconitine. VCF significantly and dose-dependently increased the dosage of aconitine required to induce the arrhythmia ..
  41. Bencan Z, Levin E. The role of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in the nicotine-induced anxiolytic effect in zebrafish. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:408-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This nicotine-induced anxiolytic effect was reversed by both MLA and DHbetaE, indicating that both nicotinic alpha7 and alpha4beta2 receptors are involved in the nicotinic effect on anxiety in zebrafish. ..
  42. Zhou S, Yang J, Li Y, Zhao L, Xu M, Ding Y. Effect of Cl- channel blockers on aconitine-induced arrhythmias in rat heart. Exp Physiol. 2005;90:865-72 pubmed
    The effects of Cl- channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and niflumic acid (NFA) on aconitine-induced arrhythmias were investigated...
  43. Serres F, Carney S. Nicotine regulates SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell proliferation through the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain Res. 2006;1101:36-42 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that activation of nicotinic receptors has effects upon the BDNF-TrkB pathway, inducing cell proliferation by promoting the release of BDNF, which in turn activates TrkB receptors. ..
  44. Bai D, Chen W, Bo Y, Dong Y, Kang A, Sun W, et al. Discovery of N-(3,5-bis(1-pyrrolidylmethyl)-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulfamide (sulcardine) as a novel anti-arrhythmic agent. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:1176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-arrhythmic effects of compounds were studied against aconitine-induced arrhythmias in rats and ouabain-induced arrhythmias in guinea pigs...
  45. Salgado V, Saar R. Desensitizing and non-desensitizing subtypes of alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cockroach neurons. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:867-79 pubmed
    ..Spinosyn A weakly antagonizes nAChD receptors -23% at 10 microM. The roles of the two nAChR subtypes in insecticide poisoning are discussed. ..
  46. Pérez Alvarez A, Hernández Vivanco A, Alonso y Gregorio S, Tabernero A, McIntosh J, Albillos A. Pharmacological characterization of native ?7 nicotinic ACh receptors and their contribution to depolarization-elicited exocytosis in human chromaffin cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:908-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our electrophysiological recordings of pure ?7 nAChR currents elicited by rapid application of agonists demonstrated that functional ?7 nAChRs are expressed and contribute to depolarization-elicited exocytosis in human chromaffin cells. ..
  47. Dubey N, Dubey N, Mehta R, Saluja A. Selective determination of aconitine in polyherbal oils containing Aconitum chasmanthum using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2009;92:1617-21 pubmed
    ..and validation of a simple, rapid, and sensitive HPTLC method for identification and quantification of aconitine from polyherbal oil formulations...
  48. Chen W, Hung L, Hsueh C, Lai L, Su M. Piceatannol, a derivative of resveratrol, moderately slows I(Na) inactivation and exerts antiarrhythmic action in ischaemia-reperfused rat hearts. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..l(-1). ..
  49. Xie Y, Jiang Z, Zhou H, Cai X, Wong Y, Liu Z, et al. Combinative method using HPLC quantitative and qualitative analyses for quality consistency assessment of a herbal medicinal preparation. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:204-12 pubmed
    ..This well-developed method could be used for quality assessment of the complex preparations of herbal medicine. ..
  50. Bell K, Shim H, Chen C, McQuiston A. Nicotinic excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal CA1 interneurons are predominantly mediated by nicotinic receptors that contain ?4 and ?2 subunits. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:1379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that nicotinic EPSPs in hippocampal CA1 interneurons are predominantly mediated by ?4?2* nicotinic receptors and their activation may preferentially affect extrahippocampal inputs in SLM of hippocampal CA1. ..
  51. Stanchev D, Sargent P. ?7-Containing and non-?7-containing nicotinic receptors respond differently to spillover of acetylcholine. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14920-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further suggest that ?7-nAChRs may buffer ACh and regulate its bioavailability. ..
  52. Zyuz kov G, Zhdanov V, Udut E, Miroshnichenko L, Losev E, Simanina E, et al. Mechanisms of napelline action stimulating the regeneration of hemopoietic tissue in cytostatic myelosuppression. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013;155:439-42 pubmed
  53. Wu J, Hong B, Wang J, Wang X, Niu S, Zhao C. The comparative research on constituents of Radix Aconiti and its processing by HPLC quadrupole TOF-MS. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:1301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple approach was described for HPLC-Q-TOF-MS screening and identification of many of the aconitine alkaloids present in unprocessed Radix Aconiti and Radix Aconiti praeparata...
  54. Song M, Liu H, Jiang H, Yue J, Hu G, Chen H. Discovery of talatisamine as a novel specific blocker for the delayed rectifier K+ channels in rat hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience. 2008;155:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been argued that suppressing K+ efflux by blocking IK channel may be favorable for Alzheimer's disease therapy. Talatisamine can therefore be considered as a leading compound worthy of further investigations. ..
  55. Gong D, Shan H, Zhou Y, Dong D, Yang B. [The ion targets of arrhythmias induced by ouabain and aconitine in guinea pig and rat ventricular myocytes]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2004;39:328-32 pubmed
    To observe the effects of ouabain and aconitine on APD and ion channels in isolated guinea pig and rat ventricular myocytes; to elucidate the action mechanisms of these two drugs and set up new arrhythmic models on cellular level...
  56. Hartl D, Belohradsky B, Griese M, Nicolai T, Krauss Etschmann S, Roos D, et al. Celiac disease and pulmonary hemosiderosis in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004;38:344-8 pubmed
    ..Lung function improved markedly by immunosuppression with daily glucocorticosteroid and azathioprine treatment. ..
  57. Zhu H, Wang C, Qi Y, Song F, Liu Z, Liu S. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;752:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine...
  58. Zyuz kov G, Krapivin A, Nesterova Y, Povetieva T, Zhdanov V, Suslov N, et al. Mechanisms of regeneratory effects of baikal aconite diterpene alkaloids. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;153:846-50 pubmed
    ..Songorine exhibited the most pronounced specific activity due to more significant stimulation of progenitor cell differentiation associated with maximum activation of the secretory function of the microenvironment cells. ..
  59. Ammar E, Said S, El Damarawy S, Suddek G. Cardioprotective effect of grape-seed proanthocyanidins on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The parameters of study were serum biomarkers, cardiac tissue antioxidant status, ECG, and effect on aconitine-induced cardiotoxicity...
  60. Champtiaux N, Kalivas P, Bardo M. Contribution of dihydro-beta-erythroidine sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area to cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2006;168:120-6 pubmed
  61. Taslim N, Saeed Dar M. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ?7 subtype in the functional interaction between nicotine and ethanol in mouse cerebellum. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results demonstrate the role of cerebellar nAChR ?(7) subtype in nicotine-induced attenuation of ethanol-induced ataxia in cerebellar NO(x)-sensitive manner. ..
  62. Bartosova L, Novak F, Frydrych M, Parák T, Opatrilova R, Brunclik V, et al. Effect of a new ultrashort betalytic agent on aconitine-induced arrhythmia. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2005;149:339-43 pubmed
    The anti-arrhythmic effect was tested on the model of aconitine-induced arrhythmia. The experiment was performed in vivo with 31 male Wistar laboratory rats...
  63. Yang C, Zhang T, Li Z, Xu L, Liu F, Ruan J, et al. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: in vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;273:561-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years...
  64. Gao F, Chen Q, Wang F. C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum hemsleyanum var. circinatum. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:876-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the structures of hemsleyanisine and isohemsleyanisine were revised from 8 and 9 to 10 and 11, respectively. ..
  65. Plechev V, Zagidullin S, Iunusov V, Zubareva I, Nikolaeva I. [Prophylactic use of VFS in patients with coronary artery disease in the perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting]. Kardiologiia. 2013;53:34-9 pubmed
    ..and Wolf M. in the modification of Ryan M.). Shown that the VFS is more effective than amiodarone, both in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias when high gradation. ..
  66. Wang Y, Liu Z, Song F, Liu S. [Study on the combination principles about aconite roots by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2003;38:451-4 pubmed
    ..Acidity is a key factor to influence the hydrolysis of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids, and the hydrolysis of alkaloids are inhibited in high acidity, which lead to the high toxicity of the decoction containing aconite roots. ..
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    ..BLA inhibits Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ currents in a use-dependent manner. Co-injection of BLA at <or=0.125 mM with lidocaine and epinephrine elicits complete cutaneous analgesia that lasts for up to 24 h without adverse effects. ..