Summary: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.

Top Publications

  1. Chen F, Liu Y, Wang S, Guo X, Shi P, Wang W, et al. Triptolide, a Chinese herbal extract, enhances drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1? and Nrf2. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:1305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..TPL is able to enhance drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1? and Nrf2. ..
  2. Lee Y, Tai C, Hwang T, Sheu J. Krempfielins J-M, new eunicellin-based diterpenoids from the soft coral Cladiella krempfi. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:2741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-inflammatory activity of 1-6 to inhibit the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in FMLP/CB-induced human neutrophils was also evaluated, and 2 and 4 were shown to possess the ability to inhibit the elastase release. ..
  3. Liang C, Wang G, Chou T, Wang S, Lin R, Chan L, et al. 5-epi-Sinuleptolide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor/mitochondria-mediated caspase signaling pathway in human skin cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:1149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report suggesting that the apoptosis mediates the anti-tumor effect of 5-epi-sinuleptolide. The results of this study might provide useful suggestions for designing of anti-tumor drugs for skin cancer patients. ..
  4. Tan B, Tan B, Chiu G. Effect of triptolide on focal adhesion kinase and survival in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data present the first evidence of triptolide-mediated induction of FAK cleavage that correlates with cell detachment and loss of adhesion potential to the extracellular matrix. ..
  5. Ghosh S, Indukuri K, Bondalapati S, Saikia A, Rangan L. Unveiling the mode of action of antibacterial labdane diterpenes from Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) B. L. Burtt seeds. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;66:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..field emission scanning electron microscope imaging and cell leakage analysis confirmed that the labdane diterpenes were responsible for bacterial cell membrane damage and disintegration...
  6. Huang S, Chen N, Chen W, Hung H, Lee H, Lin Y, et al. Sinularin from indigenous soft coral attenuates nociceptive responses and spinal neuroinflammation in carrageenan-induced inflammatory rat model. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1899-919 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-?1. ..
  7. Brock N, Tudzynski B, Dickschat J. Biosynthesis of sesqui- and diterpenes by the gibberellin producer Fusarium fujikuroi. Chembiochem. 2011;12:2667-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Several structurally related diterpenes were identified as side products of the CPS/KS...
  8. Wang Y, Lu J, He L, Yu Q. Triptolide (TPL) inhibits global transcription by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23993 pubmed publisher
  9. Neoh C, Wang R, Din Z, Su J, Chen Y, Tsai F, et al. Induction of apoptosis by sinulariolide from soft coral through mitochondrial-related and p38MAPK pathways on human bladder carcinoma cells. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:2893-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that sinulariolide induces apoptosis against bladder cancer cells through mitochondrial-related and p38MAPK pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Wright A, Nielson J, Tapiolas D, Liptrot C, Motti C. A great barrier reef Sinularia sp. yields two new cytotoxic diterpenes. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1619-30 pubmed
    ..The lobanes and cembranes tested demonstrated 50% growth inhibition in the range 6.8-18.5 µM, with no selectivity, whilst 1 was less active (GI?? 70-175 µM). ..
  2. Li C, La M, Sun P, Kurtan T, Mándi A, Tang H, et al. Bioactive (3Z,5E)-11,20-epoxybriara-3,5-dien-7,18-olide diterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1403-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In preliminary in vitro bioassays, compounds 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against A549 and MG63, while compounds 1, 2, 4, 7-10 showed antimicrobial activity against the fungus Septoria tritici and the bacterium Escherichia coli. ..
  3. Novak R. Are pleuromutilin antibiotics finally fit for human use?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1241:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss key aspects of this antibacterial class and provide some insight into the question of why it took half a century to develop a systemic pleuromutilin for human use. ..
  4. Hsu F, Chen B, Wen Z, Huang C, Dai C, Su J, et al. Klymollins A-H, bioactive eunicellin-based diterpenoids from the formosan soft coral Klyxum molle. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:2467-71 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophage cells...
  5. Hamberger B, Ohnishi T, Hamberger B, Seguin A, Bohlmann J. Evolution of diterpene metabolism: Sitka spruce CYP720B4 catalyzes multiple oxidations in resin acid biosynthesis of conifer defense against insects. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1677-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism. ..
  6. Chen Y, Tai C, Su Y, Chang Y, Lu M, Weng C, et al. Discovery of new eunicellins from an Indonesian octocoral Cladiella sp. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:934-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The previously reported structures of two eunicellin-based compounds, cladielloides A and B, are corrected in this study. ..
  7. Berrue F, McCulloch M, Kerr R. Marine diterpene glycosides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:6702-19 pubmed publisher
    ..diterpene glycosides (MDGs) respresent a small but highly significant group of the much larger class of marine diterpenes. The three well-studied examples of MDGs are eleutherobins, pseudopterosins and fuscosides, all of which exhibit ..
  8. Cozzi S, Ogbourne S, James C, Rebel H, de Gruijl F, Ferguson B, et al. Ingenol mebutate field-directed treatment of UVB-damaged skin reduces lesion formation and removes mutant p53 patches. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Field-directed treatment may be particularly suitable for patients who have AKs surrounded by UV-damaged skin. ..
  9. Lee N, Su J. Tetrahydrofuran cembranoids from the cultured soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:2526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these metabolites, 2 is rarely found in cembranoids possessing an isopropyl moiety with an epoxide group. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against HL60 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines. ..
  10. Lin Y, Lee N, Lu M, Su J. Two new cembrane-based diterpenoids from the marine soft coral Sinularia crassa. Molecules. 2012;17:5422-9 pubmed publisher
    Two new cembrane diterpenes, sicrassarines A and B, were isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia crassa...
  11. Wu Y, Hillwig M, Wang Q, Peters R. Parsing a multifunctional biosynthetic gene cluster from rice: Biochemical characterization of CYP71Z6 & 7. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CYP71Z6 & 7 appear to have evolved distinct roles in rice diterpenoid metabolism, offering insight into plant biosynthetic gene cluster evolution. ..
  12. Ovenden S, Nielson J, Liptrot C, Willis R, Tapiolas D, Wright A, et al. Update of spectroscopic data for 4-hydroxydictyolactone and dictyol E isolated from a Halimeda stuposa - Dictyota sp. assemblage. Molecules. 2012;17:2929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..and one of Halimeda sp. These included the xenicane diterpene 4-hydroxydictyolactone (1), and the diterpenes dictyol E (2), 8a,11-dihydroxypachydictyol A (3) and indole-3-carboxaldehyde (4)...
  13. Li L, Sheng L, Wang C, Zhou Y, Huang H, Li X, et al. Diterpenes from the Hainan soft coral Lobophytum cristatum Tixier-Durivault. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:2089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work supports Faulkner's proposal of prenylgermacrene as the precursor of many diterpenes. In a bioassay, lobophytumins C and D (3 and 4) showed weak in vitro cytotoxicities against the tumor cell lines ..
  14. Liu C, Wang R, Lin J, Su J, Chiu C, Chen J, et al. Proteomic profiling of the 11-dehydrosinulariolide-treated oral carcinoma cells Ca9-22: effects on the cell apoptosis through mitochondrial-related and ER stress pathway. J Proteomics. 2012;75:5578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of these studies illustrates the potential development of anticancer drugs from the natural derivatives of soft coral. ..
  15. Zhou K, Gao Y, Hoy J, Mann F, Honzatko R, Peters R. Insights into diterpene cyclization from structure of bifunctional abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6840-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities...
  16. Su T, Tsai F, Lin J, Huang H, Chiu C, Su J, et al. Induction of apoptosis by 11-dehydrosinulariolide via mitochondrial dysregulation and ER stress pathways in human melanoma cells. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1883-98 pubmed
    ..The data in this study suggest that 11-dehydrosinulariolide potentially induces apoptosis against melanoma cells via mitochondrial dysregulation and ER stress pathways...
  17. Pratheeshkumar P, Kuttan G. Andrographolide inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell invasion and migration by regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 during angiogenesis. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2011;30:33-41 pubmed
    ..All these results demonstrate that andrographolide inhibits in vitro angiogenesis by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9, and also by regulating the nuclear translocation of transcription factors. ..
  18. Su C, Su J, Lin J, Chen C, Hwang W, Huang H, et al. An investigation into the cytotoxic effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide from the soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on bladder cancer cells. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:2622-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it suggests that PPT1 and hnRNP F could be new biomarkers for bladder cancer. The results of this study are also helpful for the diagnosis, progression monitoring and therapeutic strategies of transitional cell tumors. ..
  19. Burliński P, Gonkowski S, Całka J. Tetrodotoxin- and resiniferatoxin-induced changes in paracervical ganglion ChAT- and nNOS-IR neurons supplying the urinary bladder in female pigs. Acta Vet Hung. 2011;59:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these results shed light on the possible involvement of NO-ergic and cholinergic neurons in the mechanisms of therapeutic action exerted by RTX and TTX in curing the overactive bladder disorder. ..
  20. Ding X, Zhou X, Zhang H, Qing J, Qiang H, Zhou G. Triptolide augments the effects of 5-lipoxygenase RNA interference in suppressing pancreatic tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Synergistic effects of combined treatment in VEGF expression may contribute to the mechanisms of the strong antitumor effects. ..
  21. Sharifuddin Y, Parry E, Parry J. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessments of andrographolide in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:1393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that andrographolide was not genotoxic at the doses tested and it induces dose-dependent necrosis in vitro. ..
  22. Chen G, Leung J, Liang N, Li L, Wu K, Chan U, et al. Ent-11?-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic-acid inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo via stabilizing IkB?. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:2210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5F did not damage liver and renal functions. In conclusion, 5F is effective against HCC with minimal side effects. It induces apoptosis in HCC cells via inhibiting NF-kB, leading to the decrease of Bcl-2 but the increase of Bax and Bak. ..
  23. Li C, La M, Li L, Li X, Tang H, Liu B, et al. Bioactive 11,20-epoxy-3,5(16)-diene briarane diterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1658-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 4 and 7 also exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against the bacterium Bacillus megaterium and the fungus Septoria tritici, respectively. ..
  24. Zheng Y, Zhang W, Wang X. Triptolide with potential medicinal value for diseases of the central nervous system. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013;19:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the potential therapeutic role of triptolide on CNS diseases, and discusses the structural features, potential modifications, and the other pharmacological activities of triptolide. ..
  25. Hong J, Boo H, Kang J, Kim M, Yoo E, Hyun J, et al. (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-Cembratetraen-17,2-olide, a cembrenolide diterpene from soft coral Lobophytum sp., inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species generation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:1054-63 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal the novel anticancer efficacy of LS-1 mediated by the induction of apoptosis via ROS generation in human colon cancer cells. ..
  26. Paul M, Jauch J. Efficient preparation of incensole and incensole acetate, and quantification of these bioactive diterpenes in Boswellia papyrifera by a RP-DAD-HPLC method. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:283-8 pubmed
  27. Liu J, Shen M, Yue Z, Yang Z, Wang M, Li C, et al. Triptolide inhibits colon-rectal cancer cells proliferation by induction of G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggested that triptolide is a potential agent for treatment of colon cancer, and its anti-proliferation effect mainly occur through G1 phase arrest. ..
  28. Faiella L, Piaz F, Bisio A, Tosco A, De Tommasi N. A chemical proteomics approach reveals Hsp27 as a target for proapoptotic clerodane diterpenes. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:2637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that HAA could provide a potential tool to develop strategies for the discovery of Hsp27 chemical inhibitors. ..
  29. Wei W, Lin S, Chen Y, Wen C, Huang C, Palanisamy A, et al. Topical application of marine briarane-type diterpenes effectively inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and dermatitis in murine skin. J Biomed Sci. 2011;18:94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the inhibitory effect of briarane-type diterpenes (BrDs) from marine coral Briareum excavatum on TPA-induced dermatitis and dendritic cell (DC) function was ..
  30. Hegazy M, El Beih A, Moustafa A, Hamdy A, Alhammady M, Selim R, et al. Cytotoxic cembranoids from the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1809-12 pubmed
    ..7beta-Acetoxy-8alpha-hydroxydeepoxysarcophine (3) exhibits cytotoxic activity against HepG2, HCT-116, and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 3.6, 2.3, and 6.7 microg/mL, respectively...
  31. Xue X, Gong L, Qi X, Wu Y, Xing G, Yao J, et al. Knockout of hepatic P450 reductase aggravates triptolide-induced toxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2011;205:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that P450 inhibition/inactivation might pose a significant health risk in the clinic use of triptolide. ..
  32. Lee K, Chae J, Shim J. Natural diterpenes from coffee, cafestol and kahweol induce apoptosis through regulation of specificity protein 1 expression in human malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:60 pubmed publisher
    ..Sp1 can be a novel molecular target of cafestol and kahweol in human MPM. ..
  33. Toepfer N, Childress C, Parikh A, Rukstalis D, Yang W. Atorvastatin induces autophagy in prostate cancer PC3 cells through activation of LC3 transcription. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011;12:691-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, atorvastatin induces autophagy in prostate cancer PC3 cells through activation of LC3 transcription. ..
  34. Lin S, Wang S, Duh C. Cembranoids from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:2705-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotoxicity and anti-HCMV (Human cytomegalovirus) activities of 1-4 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against A-549 (human lung carcinoma) cell line with an ED(50) of 3.6 ?g/mL. ..
  35. Ikeda M, Kawai Y, Mori K, Yano M, Abe K, Nishimura G, et al. Anti-ulcer agent teprenone inhibits hepatitis C virus replication: potential treatment for hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2011;31:871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This newly discovered function of teprenone may improve the treatment of HCV-associated liver diseases as an adjuvant to statins. ..
  36. Tabata K, Kim M, Makino M, Satoh M, Satoh Y, Suzuki T. Phenolic diterpenes derived from Hyptis incana induce apoptosis and G(2)/M arrest of neuroblastoma cells. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:4781-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, the antitumor effects of five phenolic diterpenes derived from Hyptis incana (Lamiaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, were examined on neuroblastoma cells.
  37. Yen W, Hu L, Su J, Lu M, Twan W, Yang S, et al. Norcembranoidal diterpenes from a Formosan soft coral Sinularia sp. Molecules. 2012;17:14058-66 pubmed publisher
    Two norcembranoidal diterpenes, 5-episinuleptolide acetate (1) and scabrolide D (2), were isolated from a Formosan octocoral identified as Sinularia sp...
  38. Dong X, Zhong G, Hu M, Yi X, Zhao H, Wang H. Molecular cloning and functional identification of an insect odorant receptor gene in Spodoptera litura (F.) for the botanical insecticide rhodojaponin III. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Or83b is critical for insects to identify the nonvolatile the insecticide rhodojaponin III...
  39. Murthy Y, Mallika D, Rajack A, Reddy G. A new antifungal briarane diterpenoid from the gorgonian Junceella juncea Pallas. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:7522-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 1 exhibited significant activity against fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum) but the other compounds (2-5) did not exhibit the activity against fungi. ..
  40. Kao C, Su J, Lu M, Hwang T, Wang W, Chen J, et al. Lobocrassins A-E: new cembrane-type diterpenoids from the soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Lobocrassin B (2) exhibited modest cytotoxicity toward K562, CCRF-CEM, Molt4, and HepG2 tumor cells and displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. ..
  41. Chung H, Hong P, Su J, Hwang T, Lu M, Fang L, et al. Bioactive compounds from a gorgonian coral Echinomuricea sp. (Plexauridae). Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1169-79 pubmed publisher
  42. Hillwig M, Xu M, Toyomasu T, Tiernan M, Wei G, Cui G, et al. Domain loss has independently occurred multiple times in plant terpene synthase evolution. Plant J. 2011;68:1051-60 pubmed publisher
  43. Takeshita S, Ichikawa T, Taura N, Miyaaki H, Matsuzaki T, Otani M, et al. Geranylgeranylacetone has anti-hepatitis C virus activity via activation of mTOR in human hepatoma cells. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a possibility that the GGA anti-HCV activity can be complimented by IFN. It will be necessary to examine the clinical effectiveness of the combination of GGA and IFN for HCV patients in the future. ..
  44. Lu Y, Bao X, Sun T, Xu J, Zheng W, Shen P. Triptolide attenuate the oxidative stress induced by LPS/D-GalN in mice. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:1022-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that triptolide can effectively reduce the oxidative stress and partially rescue the damage in the liver induced by LPS/D-GalN. ..
  45. Yan P, Deng Z, van Ofwegen L, Proksch P, Lin W. Lobophytones U?-?Z?, biscembranoids from the Chinese soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum. Chem Biodivers. 2011;8:1724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Lobophytone Z (6) inhibited NO production with an IC(50) value of 2.6??M. Lobophytone H (1) showed inhibitory activities against the bacteria S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. ..
  46. Zhang Y, Dong X, Liu J, Hu M, Zhong G, Geng P, et al. Molecular cloning, expression and molecular modeling of chemosensory protein from Spodoptera litura and its binding properties with Rhodojaponin III. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47611 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescence emission spectra revealed that the CSPSlit protein had significant affinity to rhodojaponin III. These results mean that CSPSlit is critical for insects identify the Rhodojaponin III...
  47. Souza A, de Souza M, Moreira M, Moreira M, Furtado N, Martins C, et al. Antimicrobial evaluation of diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin against periodontal anaerobic bacteria. Molecules. 2011;16:9611-9 pubmed publisher
    The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of ..
  48. Huang M, Zhang H, Liu T, Tian D, Gu L, Zhou M. Triptolide inhibits MDM2 and induces apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through a p53-independent pathway. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013;12:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that increased inhibition of XIAP due to downregulation of MDM2 may play a critical role in triptolide-induced apoptosis in MDM2-overexpressing cancers. ..
  49. Li Y, Pattenden G. Perspectives on the structural and biosynthetic interrelationships between oxygenated furanocembranoids and their polycyclic congeners found in corals. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28:1269-310 pubmed publisher
    Macrocyclic and polycyclic ‘cembranoid’ diterpenes are one of the most widespread groups of natural products that are found in the marine milieu...
  50. Yang F, Zhuo L, Ananda S, Sun T, Li S, Liu L. Role of reactive oxygen species in triptolide-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells and renal injury in rats. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:335-341 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that ROS plays a critical role in triptolide-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells and renal injury. The protective administration of vitamin C may help alleviate triptolide-induced renal injury and nephrotoxicity. ..
  51. Liu X, Jian X, Cai X, Chao R, Chen Q, Chen D, et al. Cardioactive C??-diterpenoid alkaloids from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli "Fu Zi". Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60:144-9 pubmed
    ..However, mesaconine has almost no effect on heart rate...
  52. Chen Y, Hwang T, Su Y, Chang Y, Chen Y, Hong P, et al. New 6-hydroxyeunicellins from a soft coral Cladiella sp. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2012;60:160-3 pubmed
    ..Eunicellin 2 displayed inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. ..
  53. Lange B, Ahkami A. Metabolic engineering of plant monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes--current status and future opportunities. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:169-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review article, we will evaluate the state of the art of modulating the biosynthetic pathways for the production of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes in plants.
  54. Su J, Wen Z. Bioactive cembrane-based diterpenoids from the soft coral Sinularia triangular. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:944-51 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Metabolites 4 and 5 also effectively reduced the expression of the COX-2 protein in the macrophages. ..
  55. Fischedick J, Standiford M, Johnson D, Johnson J. Structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis as activators of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 pathway. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:2618-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to better understand the structure activity relationship of phenolic diterpenes from Salvia officinalis L...
  56. Zhao H, Yang Z, Wang X, Zhang X, Wang M, Wang Y, et al. Triptolide inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion by repression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 and 19 and upregulation of E-cadherin. Exp Mol Med. 2012;44:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that triptolide is a good candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer and reduction of metastasis. ..
  57. Gupta P, Sharma U, Schulz T, Sherrer E, McLean A, Robins A, et al. Bioactive diterpenoid containing a reversible "spring-loaded" (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor. Org Lett. 2011;13:3920-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Briareolate ester L (1) was found to contain a "spring-loaded" (E,Z)-dieneone Michael acceptor group that can form a reversible covalent bond to model sulfur-based nucleophiles. ..
  58. Sun H, Li X, Meng L, Cui C, Gao S, Li C, et al. Asperolides A-C, tetranorlabdane diterpenoids from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by application of the modified Mosher's method. An X-ray structure for wentilactone B (6) is also reported. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. ..
  59. Wu S, Su J, Huang C, Tai C, Sung P, Liaw C, et al. Simplexins P-S, eunicellin-based diterpenes from the soft coral Klyxum simplex. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1203-11 pubmed publisher
    Four new eunicellin-based diterpenes, simplexins P-S (1-4), and the known compound simplexin A (5), have been isolated from the soft coral Klyxum simplex...
  60. Li C, La M, Tang H, Pan W, Sun P, Krohn K, et al. Bioactive briarane diterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:4368-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds also exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against the bacterium Escherichia coli and the fungi Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici...
  61. Chen Y, Tai C, Hwang T, Sung P. Cladieunicellin H, a new hemiketal eunicellin-based diterpenoid from the octocoral Cladiella sp. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:481-4 pubmed
    ..The structure of 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods. This compound was found to display moderate inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anion and the release of elastase by human neutrophils...
  62. Zhou Z, Yang Y, Ding J, Li Y, Miao Z. Triptolide: structural modifications, structure-activity relationships, bioactivities, clinical development and mechanisms. Nat Prod Rep. 2012;29:457-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on the structural modifications, structure-activity relationships, pharmacology, and clinical development of triptolide in the last forty years...
  63. Tai C, Su J, Huang M, Wen Z, Dai C, Sheu J. Bioactive eunicellin-based diterpenoids from the soft coral Cladiella krempfi. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:2036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, compounds 2, 3, 5 and 6 were shown to exert significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells...
  64. McCulloch M, Berrue F, Haltli B, Kerr R. One-pot syntheses of pseudopteroxazoles from pseudopterosins: a rapid route to non-natural congeners with improved antimicrobial activity. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:2250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Several non-natural pseudopteroxazoles exhibited strong activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, thereby displaying a broader spectrum of antibiotic activity compared to pseudopteroxazole. ..
  65. Zaugg J, Khom S, Eigenmann D, Baburin I, Hamburger M, Hering S. Identification and characterization of GABA(A) receptor modulatory diterpenes from Biota orientalis that decrease locomotor activity in mice. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant anxiolytic-like activity was observed in doses between 1 and 30 mg/kg body weight in mice. ..
  66. Yokoe H, Mitsuhashi C, Matsuoka Y, Yoshimura T, Yoshida M, Shishido K. Enantiocontrolled total syntheses of breviones A, B, and C. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:8854-7 pubmed publisher
  67. Liaw C, Kuo Y, Lin Y, Hwang T, Shen Y. Frajunolides L-O, four new 8-Hydroxybriarane diterpenoids from the Gorgonian Junceella fragilis. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1 and 4 showed weak anti-inflammatory activity as tested by superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophil in response to fMLP/CB. Compound 3 showed selective inhibition on elastase release in vitro...
  68. Shao F, Bu R, Zhang C, Chen C, Huang J, Wang J. Two new casbane diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..97 and 50.00 ?M, respectively...
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    Four diterpenes, tritoniopsins A-D (1-4), have been isolated from the South China Sea nudibranch Tritoniopsis elegans and its prey, the soft coral Cladiella krempfi...
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    ..We conclude that 11-dehydrosinulariolide is a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease through its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory action via PI3K signaling. ..
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    ..Ingenol mebutate gel applied topically for 2 to 3 days is effective for field treatment of actinic keratoses. (Funded by LEO Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00742391, NCT00916006, NCT00915551, and NCT00942604.). ..
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    ..7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Compound 4 was also found to effectively reduce the level of COX-2 protein. ..
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    ..In this review we summarize the published knowledge regarding clinical use, pharmacokinetics and the possible mode of action of triptolide in the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a particular focus on psoriasis...
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    ..from stems of Caesalpinia echinata Lam (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenes along with known lambertianic acid. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods...
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    ..The scope of this review is lactones diterpenoids with labdane, halimane and clerodane frameworks. ..