Summary: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.

Top Publications

  1. Niesor E, Gauthamadasa K, Silva R, Suchankova G, Kallend D, Gylling H, et al. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study. Lipids. 2013;48:1185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma ..
  2. Muthuirulappan S, Francis S. Anti-cancer mechanism and possibility of nano-suspension formulations for a marine algae product fucoxanthin. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2213-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude from our literature review that the marine algae product fucoxanthin has significant antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activity with established mechanisms of action. ..
  3. Hammond C, Liew S, Van Kuijk F, Beatty S, Nolan J, Spector T, et al. The heritability of macular response to supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: a classic twin study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4963-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7% and 3.7%, measured using HFP and AF, respectively), and was moderately heritable. Further study is indicated to investigate the functional and clinical impact of supplementation with the macular carotenoids. ..
  4. Tafuku S, Ishikawa C, Yasumoto T, Mori N. Anti-neoplastic effects of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxanthinol, on Burkitt's and Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:1512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that FX and FXOH are potentially useful therapeutic agents in B-cell malignancies characterized by aberrant regulation of NF-?B. ..
  5. Magyar A, Bowman M, Molnar P, Kispert L. Neutral carotenoid radicals in photoprotection of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:2239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana (>300 ?E m(-2)s(-1)) showed H/D exchange. This result suggests that #Zea(•) can form by the deprotonation of the weak acid Zea(•+) during qE, and its possible impact on qE must be considered. ..
  6. Takashima M, Shichiri M, Hagihara Y, Yoshida Y, Niki E. Capacity of fucoxanthin for scavenging peroxyl radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in model systems. Free Radic Res. 2012;46:1406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In SDS micelles, the relative reactivity of fucoxanthin and ?-tocopherol depended on the site of peroxyl radical formation. The efficacy of lipid peroxidation inhibition by fucoxanthin was much less than that of ?-tocopherol. ..
  7. Ma L, Yan S, Huang Y, Lu X, Qian F, Pang H, et al. Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:2290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improves macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
  8. Xu X, Zou Z, Huang Y, Xiao X, Ma L, Lin X. Serum carotenoids in relation to risk factors for development of atherosclerosis. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:1357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum carotenoids were associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis. The associations between serum carotenoids and inflammatory cytokines may help to explain the possible protective effects of carotenoids on atherosclerosis. ..
  9. Vishwanathan R, Neuringer M, Snodderly D, Schalch W, Johnson E. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates. Nutr Neurosci. 2013;16:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between retinal and brain levels of these xanthophylls in non-human primates...

More Information


  1. Nolan J, Akkali M, Loughman J, Howard A, Beatty S. Macular carotenoid supplementation in subjects with atypical spatial profiles of macular pigment. Exp Eye Res. 2012;101:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of our findings, in terms of visual performance and/or a (photo)-protective effect, warrant additional study. ..
  2. Kosumi D, Maruta S, Horibe T, Nagaoka Y, Fujii R, Sugisaki M, et al. Ultrafast excited state dynamics of spirilloxanthin in solution and bound to core antenna complexes: identification of the S? and T1 states. J Chem Phys. 2012;137:064505 pubmed publisher
    ..The anomalous reaction of the ultrafast triplet formation is discussed in terms of ultrafast energy transfer between spirilloxanthin and bacteriochlorophyll-a. ..
  3. Hammond B, Fletcher L. Influence of the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on visual performance: application to baseball. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1207S-13S pubmed publisher
    ..Lutein and zeaxanthin within the brain might also increase temporal processing speeds. This article reviews the influences of MP on visual function by exploring the implications of these visual improvements for baseball players. ..
  4. Blesso C, Andersen C, Bolling B, Fernandez M. Egg intake improves carotenoid status by increasing plasma HDL cholesterol in adults with metabolic syndrome. Food Funct. 2013;4:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Egg yolk may represent an important food source to improve plasma carotenoid status in a population at high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. ..
  5. Gassel S, Schewe H, Schmidt I, Schrader J, Sandmann G. Multiple improvement of astaxanthin biosynthesis in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by a combination of conventional mutagenesis and metabolic pathway engineering. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;35:565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..dendrorhous. In a fermenter culture, its maximum content was 9.7 mg/g dry weight...
  6. Meagher K, Thurnham D, Beatty S, Howard A, Connolly E, Cummins W, et al. Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:289-300 pubmed publisher
  7. SanGiovanni J, Neuringer M. The putative role of lutein and zeaxanthin as protective agents against age-related macular degeneration: promise of molecular genetics for guiding mechanistic and translational research in the field. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1223S-33S pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic, dietary, and environmental factors affect tissue concentrations of macular xanthophylls (MXs) within retinal cell types manifesting AMD pathology...
  8. Piovan A, Seraglia R, Bresin B, Caniato R, Filippini R. Fucoxanthin from Undaria pinnatifida: photostability and coextractive effects. Molecules. 2013;18:6298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the QuEChERS method could be used and further improved to obtain more purified and stable extracts for fucoxanthin from U. pinnatifida...
  9. García Plazaola J, Esteban R, Fernández Marín B, Kranner I, Porcar Castell A. Thermal energy dissipation and xanthophyll cycles beyond the Arabidopsis model. Photosynth Res. 2012;113:89-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Expanding the list of model species beyond Arabidopsis will enhance our knowledge of these mechanisms and increase the synergy of the current studies now dispersed over a wide number of species. ..
  10. Hendrickson S, Hazra A, Chen C, Eliassen A, Kraft P, Rosner B, et al. ?-Carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations in women of European descent. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs in BCMO1 are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Given adequate sample size, the gene scores may be useful surrogates for carotenoid exposure in future studies. ..
  11. Xiao X, Si X, Yuan Z, Xu X, Li G. Isolation of fucoxanthin from edible brown algae by microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2012;35:2313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g dry Undaria pinnatifida (Harv) Sur, and 15.0 g dry Sargassum fusiforme (Harv) Setch, respectively. The purity of fucoxanthin determined by HPLC was over 90% and its structure was further identified by LC-ESI-MS and (1) H-NMR. ..
  12. Ma L, Dou H, Huang Y, Lu X, Xu X, Qian F, et al. Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154:625-634.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Early functional abnormalities of the central retina in the early AMD patients could be improved by lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. These improvements may be potentially attributed to the elevations in MPOD. ..
  13. Beatty S, Chakravarthy U, Nolan J, Muldrew K, Woodside J, Denny F, et al. Secondary outcomes in a clinical trial of carotenoids with coantioxidants versus placebo in early age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:600-606 pubmed publisher
    ..014) was observed. Functional and morphologic benefits were observed in key secondary outcomes after supplementation with L, Z, and coantioxidants in persons with early AMD. ..
  14. Fiore A, Dall Osto L, Cazzaniga S, Diretto G, Giuliano G, Bassi R. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a ?-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:50 pubmed publisher
    b>Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus...
  15. Wisniewska Becker A, Nawrocki G, Duda M, Subczynski W. Structural aspects of the antioxidant activity of lutein in a model of photoreceptor membranes. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59:119-24 pubmed
    It was shown that in membranes containing raft domains, the macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are not distributed uniformly, but are excluded from saturated raft domains and about ten times more concentrated in unsaturated bulk ..
  16. Heo S, Yoon W, Kim K, Oh C, Choi Y, Yoon K, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of fucoxanthin derivatives isolated from Sargassum siliquastrum in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:3336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus FXA may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation related diseases...
  17. Inoue M, Tanabe H, Matsumoto A, Takagi M, Umegaki K, Amagaya S, et al. Astaxanthin functions differently as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? modulator in adipocytes and macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present findings indicate that ASX is a novel selective PPAR? modulator that acts as an antagonist or agonist depending on the cell context. ..
  18. Res P, Cermak N, Stinkens R, Tollakson T, Haenen G, Bast A, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:1158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..63). Prolonged astaxanthin supplementation does not augment antioxidant capacity, increase fat oxidative capacity, or improve time trial performance in trained cyclists. ..
  19. Ganesan P, Matsubara K, Sugawara T, Hirata T. Marine algal carotenoids inhibit angiogenesis by down-regulating FGF-2-mediated intracellular signals in vascular endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings imply a new insight into the novel bio-functional property of marine algal carotenoids which should improve current anti-angiogenic therapies in the treatment of cancer and other pro-angiogenic diseases. ..
  20. Demmig Adams B, Cohu C, Amiard V, Zadelhoff G, Veldink G, Muller O, et al. Emerging trade-offs - impact of photoprotectants (PsbS, xanthophylls, and vitamin E) on oxylipins as regulators of development and defense. New Phytol. 2013;197:720-9 pubmed
  21. Johnson E. A possible role for lutein and zeaxanthin in cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1161S-5S pubmed publisher
    ..When all of these observations are taken into consideration, the idea that lutein and zeaxanthin can influence cognitive function in older adults warrants further study. ..
  22. D Orazio N, Gemello E, Gammone M, de Girolamo M, Ficoneri C, Riccioni G. Fucoxantin: a treasure from the sea. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:604-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond this important role, in recent studies FX has shown a great antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-photoaging properties. The aim of this review is to highlight the main effects of FX on human health...
  23. Wang J, Chen S, Xu S, Yu X, Ma D, Hu X, et al. In vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in sarcoma 180 (S180) xenografts-bearing mice. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:2055-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice...
  24. Chew E, Clemons T, SanGiovanni J, Danis R, Domalpally A, McBee W, et al. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): study design and baseline characteristics (AREDS2 report number 1). Ophthalmology. 2012;119:2282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This report presents the AREDS2 study design and the participants' baseline demographic and ocular characteristics. ..
  25. Chung T, Choi H, Lee J, Jeong H, Kim C, Joo M, et al. Marine algal fucoxanthin inhibits the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, that fucoxanthin suppresses metastasis of highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. ..
  26. Ye Q, Huang B, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Chen X. Astaxanthin protects against MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via the HO-1/NOX2 axis. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:156 pubmed publisher
    ..ATX suppresses MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via the HO-1/NOX2 axis. ATX should be strongly considered as a potential neuroprotectant and adjuvant therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  27. Liu C, Lim Y, Hu M. Fucoxanthin enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity via NF?B-mediated pathway and downregulates DNA repair gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:50-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a combined treatment with fucoxanthin and cisplatin could lead to a potentially important new therapeutic strategy against human hepatoma cells. ..
  28. Kim K, Ahn G, Heo S, Kang S, Kang M, Yang H, et al. Inhibition of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by fucoxanthin against melanoma B16F10 cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;35:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the anti-tumor effect of fucoxanthin was assessed in vivo in Balb/c mice. Intraperitoneal administration of fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of tumor mass in B16F10 cells implanted mice. ..
  29. Yonekura L, Kobayashi M, Terasaki M, Nagao A. Keto-carotenoids are the major metabolites of dietary lutein and fucoxanthin in mouse tissues. J Nutr. 2010;140:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that mice actively convert lutein and fucoxanthin to keto-carotenoids by oxidizing the secondary hydroxyl groups and accumulate them in tissues. ..
  30. Renzi L, Hammond B. The relation between the macular carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and temporal vision. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2010;30:351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..29, p < 0.01) but not at the parafoveal location (p < 0.07). MP was also positively related to critical flicker fusion thresholds (n = 354, r = 0.21, p < 0.0001). ..
  31. Connolly E, Beatty S, Loughman J, Howard A, Louw M, Nolan J. Supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: response, stability, and safety. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathology analysis suggested no adverse clinical implications of consuming these carotenoids. (http://isrctn.org number, ISRCTN60816411). ..
  32. Kim K, Heo S, Kang S, Ahn G, Jeon Y. Fucoxanthin induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells through a ROS-mediated Bcl-xL pathway. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1648-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, it was demonstrated for the first time that fucoxanthin generated ROS and that the accumulation of ROS performed a crucial role in the fucoxanthin-induced Bcl-xL signaling pathway. ..
  33. Kim S, Jung Y, Kwon O, Cha K, Um B, Chung D, et al. A potential commercial source of fucoxanthin extracted from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;166:1843-55 pubmed publisher
    ..tricornutum is a rich source of fucoxanthin (at least ten times more abundant than that in macroalgae) that is easily extracted with ethanol, suggesting potential applications in human and animal food, health, and cosmetics. ..
  34. Karwowska M, Stadnik J, Dolatowski Z, Grela E. Effect of protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa supplementation on physico-chemical properties of turkey breast and thigh muscles during ageing. Meat Sci. 2010;86:486-90 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to evaluate the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets (at 15 and 30 g kg(-1) feed) on the physico-chemical properties of breast and thigh muscles during ageing...
  35. Tripathi D, Jena G. Astaxanthin intervention ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and early hepatocarcinogenesis in rat: role of Nrf2, p53, p38 and phase-II enzymes. Mutat Res. 2010;696:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the evidence that one of the mechanism of chemoprotection offered by astaxanthin is mediated through Nrf2-ARE pathway. ..
  36. Tsuboi M, Etoh H, Kato K, Nakatugawa H, Kato H, Maejima Y, et al. Nitrocapsanthin and nitrofucoxanthin, respective products of capsanthin and fucoxanthin reaction with peroxynitrite. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10572-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, nitrocapsanthins (3 and 4) inhibited carcinogensis of mouse skin tumors initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBN)...
  37. Richer S, Stiles W, Graham Hoffman K, Levin M, Ruskin D, Wrobel J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zeaxanthin and visual function in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function Study (ZVF) FDA IND #78, 973. Optometry. 2011;82:667-680.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results make biological sense based on retinal distribution and Zx foveal predominance. ..
  38. Johnson M, Zia A, Ruban A. Elevated ?pH restores rapidly reversible photoprotective energy dissipation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts deficient in lutein and xanthophyll cycle activity. Planta. 2012;235:193-204 pubmed publisher
    The xanthophylls of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII), zeaxanthin, and lutein are thought to be essential for non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)...
  39. Burri B, Chang J, Neidlinger T. ?-Cryptoxanthin- and ?-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than ?-carotene-rich foods in Western diets. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the apparent bioavailability of CX from typical diets is greater than that of BC. Thus, CX-rich foods might be better sources of vitamin A than expected. ..
  40. Khan S, Malinski T, Mason R, Kubant R, Jacob R, Fujioka K, et al. Novel astaxanthin prodrug (CDX-085) attenuates thrombosis in a mouse model. Thromb Res. 2010;126:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies support the potential of CDX-085 and its metabolite astaxanthin in the treatment or prevention of thrombotic cardiovascular complications. ..
  41. Ravindran R, Vashist P, Gupta S, Young I, Maraini G, Camparini M, et al. Inverse association of vitamin C with cataract in older people in India. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1958-1965.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a strong association with vitamin C and cataract in a vitamin C-depleted population. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  42. Jahns P, Holzwarth A. The role of the xanthophyll cycle and of lutein in photoprotection of photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Xanthophylls are further assumed to be involved either directly or indirectly in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of ..
  43. Nolan J, Kenny R, O Regan C, Cronin H, Loughman J, Connolly E, et al. Macular pigment optical density in an ageing Irish population: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;44:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This pilot study represents a first step in this endeavour. ..
  44. Renzi L, Hammond B, Dengler M, Roberts R. The relation between serum lipids and lutein and zeaxanthin in the serum and retina: results from cross-sectional, case-control and case study designs. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..05) but not with rosuvastatin. Serum xanthophylls, retinal xanthophylls and lipoprotein concentrations are significantly related, and changing lipoprotein levels ..
  45. Dall Osto L, Cazzaniga S, Havaux M, Bassi R. Enhanced photoprotection by protein-bound vs free xanthophyll pools: a comparative analysis of chlorophyll b and xanthophyll biosynthesis mutants. Mol Plant. 2010;3:576-93 pubmed publisher
    ..the absence of Lhcb proteins; (2) strong reduction of the feedback de-excitation (qE); and (3) accumulation of xanthophylls as free pigments into thylakoids...
  46. Kim Y, Kim Y, Yokozawa T. Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8793-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Betterle N, Ballottari M, Hienerwadel R, Dall Osto L, Bassi R. Dynamics of zeaxanthin binding to the photosystem II monomeric antenna protein Lhcb6 (CP24) and modulation of its photoprotection properties. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;504:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..On these bases we propose that Lhcb6, the most recent addition to the Lhcb protein family which evolved concomitantly to the adaptation of photosynthesis to land environment, has a crucial role in zeaxanthin-dependent photoprotection. ..
  48. Lu Y, Liu S, Sun H, Wu X, Li J, Zhu L. Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin on H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and on focal cerebral ischemia in vivo. Brain Res. 2010;1360:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with AST exhibits noticeable neuroprotection against brain damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion and the antioxidant activity of AST maybe partly responsible for it. ..
  49. Collins A, Jones H, Han D, Hu Q, Beechem T, Timlin J. Carotenoid distribution in living cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates the broad utility of confocal Raman microscopy to resolve spectral signatures of highly similar chromophores in living cells. ..
  50. Peng J, Yuan J, Wu C, Wang J. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: metabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1806-28 pubmed publisher
  51. Shimoda H, Tanaka J, Shan S, Maoka T. Anti-pigmentary activity of fucoxanthin and its influence on skin mRNA expression of melanogenic molecules. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:1137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of fucoxanthin may be due to suppression of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) synthesis and melanogenic stimulant receptors (neurotrophin, PGE(2) and melanocyte stimulating hormone expression). ..
  52. Woo M, Jeon S, Shin Y, Lee M, Kang M, Choi M. Anti-obese property of fucoxanthin is partly mediated by altering lipid-regulating enzymes and uncoupling proteins of visceral adipose tissue in mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:1603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the anti-obesity effect of fucoxanthin could be mediated by altering lipid-regulating enzymes and UCPs in the visceral fat tissues and plasma adipokine levels. ..
  53. Johnson M, Ruban A. Arabidopsis plants lacking PsbS protein possess photoprotective energy dissipation. Plant J. 2010;61:283-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Fuciman M, Enriquez M, Polivka T, Dall Osto L, Bassi R, Frank H. Role of xanthophylls in light harvesting in green plants: a spectroscopic investigation of mutant LHCII and Lhcb pigment-protein complexes. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:3834-49 pubmed publisher
    The spectroscopic properties and energy transfer dynamics of the protein-bound chlorophylls and xanthophylls in monomeric, major LHCII complexes, and minor Lhcb complexes from genetically altered Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been ..
  55. Jeon S, Kim H, Woo M, Lee M, Shin Y, Park Y, et al. Fucoxanthin-rich seaweed extract suppresses body weight gain and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice. Biotechnol J. 2010;5:961-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that Fx-SEE affects the plasma and hepatic lipid profile, fecal lipids and body fat mass, and alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism, FA synthesis and lipid absorption. ..
  56. Du H, Wang N, Cui F, Li X, Xiao J, Xiong L. Characterization of the beta-carotene hydroxylase gene DSM2 conferring drought and oxidative stress resistance by increasing xanthophylls and abscisic acid synthesis in rice. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1304-18 pubmed publisher
    ..in rice resulted in significantly increased resistance to drought and oxidative stresses and increases of the xanthophylls and nonphotochemical quenching...
  57. Yamamoto K, Ishikawa C, Katano H, Yasumoto T, Mori N. Fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxanthinol, induce apoptosis of primary effusion lymphomas. Cancer Lett. 2011;300:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In animal studies, treatment with FX reduced the growth of PEL-cell tumors. The results provide the rationale for future clinical use of FX and FXOH for the treatment of PEL. ..
  58. Johnson M, Ruban A. Restoration of rapidly reversible photoprotective energy dissipation in the absence of PsbS protein by enhanced DeltapH. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19973-81 pubmed publisher
  59. Demmig Adams B, Adams W. Overview of diet-gene interactions and the example of xanthophylls. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;698:17-26 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a case study is presented on xanthophylls, a group of carotenoids with multiple health benefits in the protection against eye disease and other chronic ..
  60. Pasquet V, Morisset P, Ihammouine S, Chepied A, Aumailley L, Bérard J, et al. Antiproliferative activity of violaxanthin isolated from bioguided fractionation of Dunaliella tertiolecta extracts. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:819-31 pubmed publisher
  61. Grouneva I, Rokka A, Aro E. The thylakoid membrane proteome of two marine diatoms outlines both diatom-specific and species-specific features of the photosynthetic machinery. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:5338-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteomics approach of this study further served as a tool to confirm and improve genome-derived protein models. ..
  62. Stringham J, Garcia P, Smith P, McLin L, Foutch B. Macular pigment and visual performance in glare: benefits for photostress recovery, disability glare, and visual discomfort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7406-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater iris constriction resulted (paradoxically) in greater visual discomfort. This finding may be attributable to the neurobiologic mechanism that mediates the pain elicited by light. ..
  63. Ganesan P, Noda K, Manabe Y, Ohkubo T, Tanaka Y, Maoka T, et al. Siphonaxanthin, a marine carotenoid from green algae, effectively induces apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time the novel functional property of siphonaxanthin as a potent inducer of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. ..
  64. Johnson E, Maras J, Rasmussen H, Tucker K. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:1357-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the relative intake of lutein and zeaxanthin may be important to age-related macular degeneration risk. Future studies are needed to assess the individual associations of lutein and zeaxanthin in eye health. ..
  65. Bertrand M. Carotenoid biosynthesis in diatoms. Photosynth Res. 2010;106:89-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the enzymes of the pathway have not been so far isolated from diatoms, but candidate genes for each of them were identified using protein similarity searches of genomic data. ..
  66. Chang C, Chen C, Chiou J, Peng R, Peng C. Astaxanthine secured apoptotic death of PC12 cells induced by beta-amyloid peptide 25-35: its molecular action targets. J Med Food. 2010;13:548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, ASTx may have merit to be used as a very potential neuron protectant and an anti-early-stage Alzheimer's disease adjuvant therapy. ..
  67. Saga G, Giorgetti A, Fufezan C, Giacometti G, Bassi R, Morosinotto T. Mutation analysis of violaxanthin de-epoxidase identifies substrate-binding sites and residues involved in catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23763-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of other residues and the mechanistic similarity to aspartic proteases and epoxide hydrolases are discussed. ..
  68. Haferkamp S, Haase W, Pascal A, van Amerongen H, Kirchhoff H. Efficient light harvesting by photosystem II requires an optimized protein packing density in Grana thylakoids. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17020-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation supports a hierarchy of LHCII-binding sites on PSII...
  69. Moukarzel A, Bejjani R, Fares F. Xanthophylls and eye health of infants and adults. J Med Liban. 2009;57:261-7 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of intake of xanthophylls has been shown to augment macular pigment, therefore it is thought that carotenoid dietary supplements could ..
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