Summary: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.

Top Publications

  1. Halme A, Cheng M, Hariharan I. Retinoids regulate a developmental checkpoint for tissue regeneration in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2010;20:458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that retinoid biosynthesis in Drosophila is important for the maintenance of a condition that is permissive for regenerative growth. ..
  2. Zhong M, Molday R. Binding of retinoids to ABCA4, the photoreceptor ABC transporter associated with Stargardt macular degeneration. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a solid-phase binding assay has been developed to identify retinoids that likely serve as substrates for this transporter...
  3. Gudas L, Wagner J. Retinoids regulate stem cell differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:322-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids are ubiquitous signaling molecules that influence nearly every cell type, exert profound effects on development, and complement cancer chemotherapeutic regimens...
  4. Brtko J, Dvorak Z. Role of retinoids, rexinoids and thyroid hormone in the expression of cytochrome p450 enzymes. Curr Drug Metab. 2011;12:71-88 pubmed
    ..Additionally, several drug-metabolizing enzymes are involved in metabolism of retinoids, rexinoids and thyroid hormones...
  5. Soye K, Trottier C, Richardson C, Ward B, Miller W. RIG-I is required for the inhibition of measles virus by retinoids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22323 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinoid-induced gene I (RIG-I) expression is induced by retinoids, activated by MeV RNA and is important for IFN signaling...
  6. Mihály J, Gamlieli A, Worm M, Ruhl R. Decreased retinoid concentration and retinoid signalling pathways in human atopic dermatitis. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..epidermal differentiation and hyperproliferation as well as permeability dysfunction are also regulated by retinoids. The aim of our study is to identify the retinoid signalling pathways and retinoid concentration profiles in AD ..
  7. Ebstein R, Mankuta D, Yirmiya N, Malavasi F. Are retinoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognition including autism?. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..rescue low CD38 expressing LBC lines derived from ASD subjects and restore normal levels of transcription of this ectoenzyme providing 'proof of principle' in a peripheral model that retinoids are potential therapeutic agents in ASD.
  8. Adams J. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:895-905 pubmed publisher
    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most ..
  9. Grey A, Crouch R, Koutalos Y, Schey K, Ablonczy Z. Spatial localization of A2E in the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The best-characterized components of lipofuscin are A2E and its oxides, but a direct spatial correlation with lipofuscin has not previously been possible...

More Information


  1. Blok J, van Hattem S, Jonkman M, Horvath B. Systemic therapy with immunosuppressive agents and retinoids in hidradenitis suppurativa: a systematic review. Br J Dermatol. 2013;168:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..prescribing systemic treatments with immunosuppressive agents, but the more traditionally used systemic retinoids, especially isotretinoin, also remain relatively common therapies...
  2. Berbis P. [Retinoids: mechanisms of action]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2010;137 Suppl 3:S97-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids, vitamin A derivatives, are natural or synthetic molecules with pleiotropic effects, which regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis...
  3. Nassif P, Nakandakari S, Fogagnolo L, Contin L, Alves C. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis: a follow-up of 23 years of use of systemic retinoids. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:S72-5 pubmed
    ..In 1986, with the development of oral retinoids, etretinate was introduced. In 1998 this was replaced by acitretin...
  4. Pestka A, Toth B, Kuhn C, Hofmann S, Wiest I, Wypior G, et al. Retinoid X receptor ? and retinoids are key regulators in apoptosis of trophoblasts of patients with recurrent miscarriages. J Mol Endocrinol. 2011;47:145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..a reduced expression of RXR? in choriocarcinoma cell lines and in human VTs after stimulation with the retinoids 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2)...
  5. Sun C, Southard C, Witonsky D, Kittler R, Di Rienzo A. Allele-specific down-regulation of RPTOR expression induced by retinoids contributes to climate adaptations. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001178 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that POU2F1 and RARA do bind upstream of the RPTOR gene to regulate its expression in response to retinoids; this regulation is affected by the allele status at rs11868112 with the derived allele resulting in lower ..
  6. Amann P, Eichmüller S, Schmidt J, Bazhin A. Regulation of gene expression by retinoids. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:1405-12 pubmed
    Vitamin A serves as substrate for the biosynthesis of several derivates (retinoids) which are important for cell growth and cell differentiation as well as for vision...
  7. García Serrano L, Gomez Ferreria M, Contreras Jurado C, Segrelles C, Paramio J, Aranda A. The thyroid hormone receptors modulate the skin response to retinoids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23825 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids play an important role in skin homeostasis and when administered topically cause skin hyperplasia, abnormal epidermal differentiation and inflammation...
  8. Obulesu M, Dowlathabad M, Bramhachari P. Carotenoids and Alzheimer's disease: an insight into therapeutic role of retinoids in animal models. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of retinoids in physiology, AD pathology and their therapeutic role in vitro and in vivo has been extensively studied...
  9. Zhang Y, Li R, Chen W, Li Y, Chen G. Retinoids induced Pck1 expression and attenuated insulin-mediated suppression of its expression via activation of retinoic acid receptor in primary rat hepatocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;355:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of retinol and retinal as the active molecules, the present study was aimed to determine the effects of retinoids on insulin-mediated suppression of Pck1 expression in primary rat hepatocytes...
  10. Fleshman M, Riedl K, Novotny J, Schwartz S, Harrison E. An LC/MS method for d8-?-carotene and d4-retinyl esters: ?-carotene absorption and its conversion to vitamin A in humans. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both retinoids and ?-carotene were recovered in a single simple extraction that did not involve saponification, thus allowing ..
  11. Matsushita H, Hijioka M, Hisatsune A, Isohama Y, Shudo K, Katsuki H. Natural and synthetic retinoids afford therapeutic effects on intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we further addressed the effects of retinoids as potential therapeutic drugs, using a collagenase-induced model of intracerebral hemorrhage...
  12. Li R, Chen W, Li Y, Zhang Y, Chen G. Retinoids synergized with insulin to induce Srebp-1c expression and activated its promoter via the two liver X receptor binding sites that mediate insulin action. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that retinoids regulate hepatic Srebp-1c expression through activation of retinoid X receptor...
  13. Louisse J, Gönen S, Rietjens I, Verwei M. Relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem cell test compared with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2011;203:1-8 pubmed publisher
    The present study determines the relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cell differentiation assay of the embryonic stem cell test, and compares the outcomes with their relative potencies in ..
  14. Hsu P, Litman G, Brodell R. Overview of the treatment of acne vulgaris with topical retinoids. Postgrad Med. 2011;123:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the superior comedolytic effects of topical retinoids, most patients with acne should be treated with a retinoid unless there is a specific contraindication...
  15. Gutierrez D, Blakeley L, Goletz P, Schey K, Hanneken A, Koutalos Y, et al. Mass spectrometry provides accurate and sensitive quantitation of A2E. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010;9:1513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and its oxidized metabolites with greater accuracy than traditional methods, thereby facilitating a more exact analysis of bis-retinoids in animal models of inherited retinal degeneration as well as in normal and diseased human eyes.
  16. Shirakami Y, Lee S, Clugston R, Blaner W. Hepatic metabolism of retinoids and disease associations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:124-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. ..
  17. Luvizotto R, Nascimento A, Veeramachaneni S, Liu C, Wang X. Chronic alcohol intake upregulates hepatic expression of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and PPAR in rats. J Nutr. 2010;140:1808-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This process may be due to alcohol-induced PPAR? expression and lower vitamin A status in the liver. ..
  18. Reijntjes S, Zile M, Maden M. The expression of Stra6 and Rdh10 in the avian embryo and their contribution to the generation of retinoid signatures. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in certain regions of the embryo, there are new Rdhs and Raldhs yet to be discovered and that RA is not a major regulator of its synthetic enzymes. ..
  19. Imanishi Y, Palczewski K. Visualization of retinoid storage and trafficking by two-photon microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:247-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-photon microscopy offers substantial potential for early detection of age- and disease-related changes in the eye, long before clinical or pathological manifestations become apparent. ..
  20. Lobo G, Amengual J, Li H, Golczak M, Bonet M, Palczewski K, et al. Beta,beta-carotene decreases peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma activity and reduces lipid storage capacity of adipocytes in a beta,beta-carotene oxygenase 1-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27891-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two different precursors for retinoids exist in the diet as preformed vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) and provitamin A (beta,beta-carotene)...
  21. Gesto M, Castro L, Reis Henriques M, Santos M. Tissue-specific distribution patterns of retinoids and didehydroretinoids in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;161:69-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids (vitamin A) are known to be involved in many key biological functions in mammals, such as embryonic development, reproduction or vision...
  22. Garabuczi E, Kiss B, Felszeghy S, Tsay G, Fesus L, Szondy Z. Retinoids produced by macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells contribute to the appearance of transglutaminase 2 in apoptotic thymocytes. Amino Acids. 2013;44:235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly attenuates the in vivo induction of TG2 following apoptosis induction indicating that retinoids indeed might contribute in vivo to the apoptosis-related TG2 expression...
  23. Yin S, Luo J, Qian A, Du J, Yang Q, Zhou S, et al. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3941-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers...
  24. Sima A, Manolescu D, Bhat P. Retinoids and retinoid-metabolic gene expression in mouse adipose tissues. Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;89:578-84 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin A and its analogs (retinoids) regulate adipocyte differentiation...
  25. Whitworth J, Londoño Joshi A, Sellers J, Oliver P, Muccio D, Atigadda V, et al. The impact of novel retinoids in combination with platinum chemotherapy on ovarian cancer stem cells. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:226-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids are important modulators of cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. 9cUAB30, 9cUAB124, and 9cUAB130 are three novel retinoid compounds that show cytotoxic effects in other malignancies...
  26. Kelsey L, Katoch P, Johnson K, Batra S, Mehta P. Retinoids regulate the formation and degradation of gap junctions in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32846 pubmed publisher
    The retinoids, the natural or synthetic derivatives of Vitamin A (retinol), are essential for the normal development of prostate and have been shown to modulate prostate cancer progression in vivo as well as to modulate growth of several ..
  27. Lilley J, Linton M, Fazio S. Oral retinoids and plasma lipids. Dermatol Ther. 2013;26:404-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids and rexinoids are prescribed for conditions ranging from acne vulgaris to hyperkeratosis to cutaneous T cell lymphoma...
  28. Gudas L. Retinoids induce stem cell differentiation via epigenetic changes. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2013;24:701-5 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) and its active metabolites, collectively called retinoids, exert potent effects on stem cell differentiation and thus, the formation of the entire organism, in part via the modulation of the epigenome...
  29. Hoecker J, Liffert R, Burch P, Wehlauch R, Gademann K. Caged retinoids as photoinducible activators: implications for cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:3314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..axonal growth by an extrinsic guidance, we report on the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of caged retinoids. Agonists of RAR? have been temporarily blocked either by the [(?-methyl-2-nitropiperonyl)oxy]carbonyl (MeNPOC) ..
  30. Arnold S, Amory J, Walsh T, Isoherranen N. A sensitive and specific method for measurement of multiple retinoids in human serum with UHPLC-MS/MS. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:587-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was used to measure retinoids in serum samples from 20 healthy men. In the fed state, the measured concentrations were 3.1 ± 0...
  31. von Lintig J. Metabolism of carotenoids and retinoids related to vision. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The scheme that emerges reveals a common origin of key components for chromophore metabolism that have been adapted to the specific requirements of retinoid biology in different animal classes. ..
  32. Bhutani T, Koo J. A review of the chemopreventative effects of oral retinoids for internal neoplasms. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10:1292-8 pubmed
    ..b>Retinoids as a class of medication have been widely studied as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention...
  33. Yamamoto K, Yoon K, Ueda K, Hashimoto M, Sparrow J. A novel bisretinoid of retina is an adduct on glycerophosphoethanolamine. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9084-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of bisretinoid is accentuated in some forms of retinal degeneration. The detection of a novel bisretinoid fluorophore that is a conjugate of all-trans-retinal and glycerophosphoethanolamine is reported...
  34. Magoulas G, Bariamis S, Athanassopoulos C, Haskopoulos A, Dedes P, Krokidis M, et al. Syntheses, antiproliferative activity and theoretical characterization of acitretin-type retinoids with changes in the lipophilic part. Eur J Med Chem. 2011;46:721-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The most active analogs were planar and were characterized by larger dipole moments than the other synthesized molecules. Another factor of importance to the analysis of the activity of these molecules is the dipole polarizability. ..
  35. Jaensson Gyllenbäck E, Kotarsky K, Zapata F, Persson E, Gundersen T, Blomhoff R, et al. Bile retinoids imprint intestinal CD103+ dendritic cells with the ability to generate gut-tropic T cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4:438-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a novel and unexpected role for bile in SI-LP CD103(+) DC imprinting. ..
  36. D Ambrosio D, Clugston R, Blaner W. Vitamin A metabolism: an update. Nutrients. 2011;3:63-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions...
  37. Ratnam K, Feng X, Chuang P, Verma V, Lu T, Wang J, et al. Role of the retinoic acid receptor-? in HIV-associated nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2011;79:624-634 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a defect in the endogenous synthesis of retinoic acid contributes to loss of the protection by retinoic acid in HIVAN. Hence, RAR? agonists may be potential agents for the treatment of HIVAN. ..
  38. Bourguet W, de Lera A, Gronemeyer H. Inverse agonists and antagonists of retinoid receptors. Methods Enzymol. 2010;485:161-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we describe the chemical features and guidelines for the synthesis of retinoids/rexinoids that exert specific functions and we provide protocols for a number of experimental approaches that ..
  39. Quan T, Qin Z, Shao Y, Xu Y, Voorhees J, Fisher G. Retinoids suppress cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), a negative regulator of collagen homeostasis, in skin equivalent cultures and aged human skin in vivo. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated regulation of CCN1 expression by retinoids in skin equivalent cultures and chronologically aged and photoaged human skin in vivo...
  40. Tang X, Gudas L. Retinoids, retinoic acid receptors, and cancer. Annu Rev Pathol. 2011;6:345-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids (i.e., vitamin A, all-trans retinoic acid, and related signaling molecules) induce the differentiation of various types of stem cells. Nuclear retinoic acid receptors mediate most but not all of the effects of retinoids...
  41. Toth K, Sarang Z, Scholtz B, Brazda P, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, et al. Retinoids enhance glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of T cells by facilitating glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of PI-PLC was not affected. Besides thymocytes, retinoids also promoted glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of various T-cell lines, suggesting that they could be used in ..
  42. van Eijl S, Mortaz E, Versluis C, Nijkamp F, Folkerts G, Bloksma N. A low vitamin A status increases the susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in C57BL/6J mice. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:175-82 pubmed
    ..Lung levels of acid retinoids were similar in all mice, irrespective of diet or smoke exposure...
  43. Gao S, Maeda T, Okano K, Palczewski K. A microparticle/hydrogel combination drug-delivery system for sustained release of retinoids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6314-23 pubmed
    ..of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles and alginate hydrogel for sustained release of retinoids to treat retinal blinding diseases that result from an inadequate supply of retinol and generation of 11-cis-..
  44. Dmetrichuk J, Carlone R, Jones T, Vesprini N, Spencer G. Detection of endogenous retinoids in the molluscan CNS and characterization of the trophic and tropic actions of 9-cis retinoic acid on isolated neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13014-24 pubmed publisher
  45. Malaspina A, Turkheimer F. A review of the functional role and of the expression profile of retinoid signaling and of nuclear receptors in human spinal cord. Brain Res Bull. 2007;71:437-46 pubmed
  46. Lens M, Medenica L. Systemic retinoids in chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:1363-74 pubmed
    The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is increasing worldwide. Systemic retinoids are useful for the chemoprophylaxis of non-melanoma skin cancers...
  47. Trottier C, Chabot S, Mann K, Colombo M, Chatterjee A, Miller W, et al. Retinoids inhibit measles virus in vitro via nuclear retinoid receptor signaling pathways. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether or not retinoids can act directly to limit MV output from infected cells...
  48. Sharma N, Jadhav S, Bapat S. CREBBP re-arrangements affect protein function and lead to aberrant neuronal differentiation. Differentiation. 2010;79:218-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, differentiation defects are manifested early at the genomic level leading to aberrant transcription of the genes involved in differentiation along the neuronal lineage. ..
  49. Fields A, Soprano D, Soprano K. Retinoids in biological control and cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:886-98 pubmed
    ..and physiological effects of the biologically-active natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, known as retinoids. Collectively, this body of research supports the concept of retinoids as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic ..
  50. Theodosiou M, Laudet V, Schubert M. From carrot to clinic: an overview of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1423-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This review presents an overview of how dietary retinoids are converted to RA, hence presenting the major players in RA metabolism and signaling, and highlights examples ..
  51. Todisco M. Relapse of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation: a case successfully treated with cyclophosphamide plus somatostatin, bromocriptine, melatonin, retinoids, and ACTH. Am J Ther. 2006;13:556-7 pubmed
    ..With a combination of cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptine, retinoids, melatonin, and ACTH, we already reported 100% global response in 8 patients with relapse of low-grade NHL after ..
  52. Jiang T, Soprano D, Soprano K. GADD45A is a mediator of CD437 induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:771-9 pubmed
    ..A number of studies have suggested that synthetic retinoids may play an important role as an ovarian cancer chemotherapeutic agent...
  53. Lee K, Nawrot M, Garwin G, Saari J, Hurley J. Relationships among visual cycle retinoids, rhodopsin phosphorylation, and phototransduction in mouse eyes during light and dark adaptation. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate their relative contributions, we quantified rhodopsin, retinoids, phosphorylation, and photosensitivity in mice during a 90 min illumination followed by dark adaptation...
  54. Garattini E, Gianni M, Terao M. Retinoids as differentiating agents in oncology: a network of interactions with intracellular pathways as the basis for rational therapeutic combinations. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:1375-400 pubmed
    Retinoic acid and natural as well as synthetic derivatives (retinoids) are promising anti-neoplastic agents endowed with both therapeutic and chemopreventive potential...
  55. Maeda A, Maeda T, Sun W, Zhang H, Baehr W, Palczewski K. Redundant and unique roles of retinol dehydrogenases in the mouse retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19565-70 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that RDH8 and RDH12 are dispensable in support of the visual cycle but appear to be key components in clearance of free all-trans-retinal, thereby preventing A2E accumulation and photoreceptor cell death. ..
  56. Chen X, Esplin B, Garrett K, Welner R, Webb C, Kincade P. Retinoids accelerate B lineage lymphoid differentiation. J Immunol. 2008;180:138-45 pubmed
    b>Retinoids are known to have potent effects on hemopoietic stem cell integrity, and our objective was to learn whether they influence cells destined to replenish the immune system...
  57. Touma S, Perner S, Rubin M, Nanus D, Gudas L. Retinoid metabolism and ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) expression are altered in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:1127-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoids, which include vitamin A (retinol) and metabolites such as retinoic acid, can inhibit tumor growth and reverse carcinogenesis in animal models of prostate cancer...
  58. Ruiz F, Gallego O, Ardèvol A, Moro A, Dominguez M, Alvarez S, et al. Aldo-keto reductases from the AKR1B subfamily: retinoid specificity and control of cellular retinoic acid levels. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;178:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..reductases (AKRs) have been added to the group of enzymes which contribute to oxidoreductive conversions of retinoids. Recently, we found that two members from the AKR1B subfamily (AKR1B1 and AKRB10) were active in the reduction ..
  59. Charton J, Deprez Poulain R, Hennuyer N, Tailleux A, Staels B, Deprez B. Novel non-carboxylic acid retinoids: 1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-one derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:489-92 pubmed publisher
    We have successfully obtained 1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-one bioisoteres of Am580 or Tazarotene-like retinoids. In particular compound 4 displays an EC(50) of 26nM on RAR-beta.
  60. Wang J, Fong C, Tzang C, Xiao P, Han R, Yang M. Gene expression analysis of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and cytotoxicity induced by natural and synthetic retinoids. Life Sci. 2009;84:576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..analyzed gene expression profiles of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells treated with natural and synthetic retinoids (ATRA, RII and R9158), in an attempt to investigate the structure-function relationship of the retinoids in ..
  61. Trottier C, Colombo M, Mann K, Miller W, Ward B. Retinoids inhibit measles virus through a type I IFN-dependent bystander effect. FASEB J. 2009;23:3203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to understand the mechanism by which vitamin A and other retinoids reduce measles virus (MeV) replication in vitro...
  62. Kang H, Valerio L, Bahadoran P, Ortonne J. The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of pigmentary disorders: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009;10:251-60 pubmed publisher
    Topical retinoids have been used in the treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma, actinic lentigines, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation...
  63. Mfopou J, Chen B, Mateizel I, Sermon K, Bouwens L. Noggin, retinoids, and fibroblast growth factor regulate hepatic or pancreatic fate of human embryonic stem cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:2233-45, 2245.e1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells were incubated with a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, retinoids, a Hedgehog antagonist, or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and phenotypes were analyzed...
  64. Lindshield B, King J, Wyss A, Goralczyk R, Lu C, Ford N, et al. Lycopene biodistribution is altered in 15,15'-carotenoid monooxygenase knockout mice. J Nutr. 2008;138:2367-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CMO I KO mice fed low levels of vitamin A have altered lycopene biodistribution and isomer patterns and do not cleave beta-carotene to vitamin A at appreciable levels. ..