Summary: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.

Top Publications

  1. Jones R, Benowitz N, Bachman J. Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976;282:221-39 pubmed
  2. Hoffman A, Lupica C. Synaptic targets of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the central nervous system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine the recent literature describing the effects of acute and repeated THC exposure on synaptic function in several brain regions and explore the importance of these neurobiological actions of THC in drug addiction. ..
  3. Jampel H. American glaucoma society position statement: marijuana and the treatment of glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2010;19:75-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Abboud R, Sanders H. Effect of oral administration of delta-tetrahydrocannabinol on airway mechanics in normal and asthmatic subjects. Chest. 1976;70:480-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, one asthmatic patient developed severe bronchoconstriction following oral administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. ..
  5. Tashkin D, Reiss S, Shapiro B, Calvarese B, Olsen J, Lodge J. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977;115:57-65 pubmed
  6. Chang A, Shiling D, Stillman R, Goldberg N, Seipp C, Barofsky I, et al. Delata-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. A prospective, randomized evaluation. Ann Intern Med. 1979;91:819-24 pubmed
    ..0 ng/mL, the incidences of nausea and vomiting were 44%, 21%, and 6%, respectively. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol appears to have significant antiemetic properties when compared with placebo in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. ..
  7. Mechoulam R, Carlini E. Toward drugs derived from cannabis. Naturwissenschaften. 1978;65:174-9 pubmed
    ..Cannabidiol is being tried in the clinic against epilepsy and as a hypnotic. Numerous synthetic cannabinoids are currently being investigated as analgetics and as sedative-relaxants. ..
  8. Frytak S, Moertel C, O Fallon J, Rubin J, Creagan E, O Connell M, et al. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo. Ann Intern Med. 1979;91:825-30 pubmed
    ..Although THC may have a role in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, this role must be more clearly defined before THC can be recommended for general use. ..
  9. Sallan S, Zinberg N, Frei E. Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 1975;293:795-7 pubmed
    ..001). No patient vomited while experiencing a subjective "high". Oral tetrahydrocannabinol has antiemetic properties and is significantly better than a placebo in reducting vomiting caused by chemotherapeutic agents. ..

More Information


  1. Henriquez J, Rizzo M, Schulz M, Crawford R, Gulick P, Kaminski N. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Suppresses Secretion of IFN? by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells From Healthy and HIV-Infected Individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:588-596 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that THC can suppress pDC function during the early host antiviral response by dampening pDC activation. ..
  2. Feinberg I, Jones R, Walker J, Cavness C, Floyd T. Effects of marijuana extract and tetrahydrocannabinol on electroencephalographic sleep patterns. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976;19:782-94 pubmed
    ..An adequate therapeutic trial of THC in bipolar depressed patients has not yet been carried out. ..
  3. Volkow N, Baler R, Compton W, Weiss S. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2219-27 pubmed publisher
  4. Messina S, Solaro C, Righini I, Bergamaschi R, Bonavita S, Bossio R, et al. Sativex in resistant multiple sclerosis spasticity: Discontinuation study in a large population of Italian patients (SA.FE. study). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180651 pubmed publisher
    ..46-0.56, p<0.001) were predictive of treatment discontinuation. These data show that the first 6 weeks are useful in identifying those patients in which Sativex could be effective, thus avoiding the cost of longer term evaluation. ..
  5. Orr L, McKernan J, Bloome B. Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis. Arch Intern Med. 1980;140:1431-3 pubmed
    ..Tetrahydrocannabinol appears to offer significant control of nausea in most patients and exceeding by far that provided by prochlorperazine. ..
  6. Curtis A, Clarke C, Rickards H. Cannabinoids for Tourette's Syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;:CD006565 pubmed publisher
    ..Not enough evidence to support the use of cannabinoids in treating tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour in people with Tourette's syndrome. ..
  7. Grim T, Morales A, Thomas B, Wiley J, Endres G, Negus S, et al. Apparent CB1 Receptor Rimonabant Affinity Estimates: Combination with THC and Synthetic Cannabinoids in the Mouse In Vivo Triad Model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;362:210-218 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, affinity estimation offers a powerful pharmacological approach to assess potential receptor heterogeneity subserving in vivo pharmacological effects of SCs. ..
  8. Walther S, Schupbach B, Seifritz E, Homan P, Strik W. Randomized, controlled crossover trial of dronabinol, 2.5 mg, for agitation in 2 patients with dementia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:256-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Friedman D, Devinsky O. Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1048-58 pubmed publisher
  10. Pain S. A potted history. Nature. 2015;525:S10-1 pubmed publisher
  11. Feinberg I, Jones R, Walker J, Cavness C, March J. Effects of high dosage delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on sleep patterns in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975;17:458-66 pubmed
    ..Since its pattern of effects on sleep appears unique to THC, this drug may prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of the pharmacology of sleep. Possible relations between effects on sleep pattern and on behavior are discussed. ..
  12. Bilkei Gorzo A, Albayram O, Draffehn A, Michel K, Piyanova A, Oppenheimer H, et al. A chronic low dose of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice. Nat Med. 2017;23:782-787 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments. ..
  13. Parloff R. How pot became legal. Fortune. 2009;160:140-2, 144, 146 passim pubmed
  14. Beal J, Olson R, Laubenstein L, Morales J, Bellman P, Yangco B, et al. Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1995;10:89-97 pubmed
    The effects of dronabinol on appetite and weight were evaluated in 139 patients with AIDS-related anorexia and > or = 2.3 kg weight loss in a multi-institutional study. Patients were randomized to receive 2...
  15. Chang S, Patel V, Giltner J, Lee R, Marco C. The relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse in emergency department patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1734-1737 pubmed publisher
    ..Most ocular trauma involved the external eye, the anterior chamber, the orbit, and the globe. The incidence of alcohol and illicit substance abuse is high among ED patients with ocular trauma. ..
  16. Ungerleider J, Andrysiak T, Fairbanks L, Goodnight J, Sarna G, Jamison K. Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy: a comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer. 1982;50:636-45 pubmed
    ..05). There were more drug-related effects associated with THC, but these did not reduce the patients' preference for the drug, and were associated with nausea reduction (P less than 0.05). ..
  17. Lane M, Vogel C, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers J, Hamm J, et al. Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1991;6:352-9 pubmed
    b>Dronabinol (Marinol, Roxane Laboratories, Columbus, OH) and prochlorperazine were tested alone and in combination in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study...
  18. Buys Y, Rafuse P. Canadian Ophthalmological Society policy statement on the medical use of marijuana for glaucoma. Can J Ophthalmol. 2010;45:324-6 pubmed publisher
  19. Hua T, Vemuri K, Nikas S, Laprairie R, Wu Y, Qu L, et al. Crystal structures of agonist-bound human cannabinoid receptor CB1. Nature. 2017;547:468-471 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should inspire the design of chemically diverse ligands with distinct pharmacological properties. ..
  20. Barratt E, Beaver W, White R. The effects of marijuana on human sleep patterns. Biol Psychiatry. 1974;8:47-54 pubmed
  21. Moeller M, Doerr G, Warth S. Simultaneous quantitation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in serum by GC/MS using deuterated internal standards and its application to a smoking study and forensic cases. J Forensic Sci. 1992;37:969-83 pubmed
    ..The procedure is applied to serum specimens collected from a smoking study with 24 volunteers and 212 forensic cases. Results are interpreted based upon the current knowledge about THC metabolism and pharmacokinetics. ..
  22. Cirovic N, Kecmanovic M, Keckarevic D, Keckarevic Markovic M. Differentiation of Cannabis subspecies by THCA synthase gene analysis using RFLP. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;51:81-84 pubmed publisher
    ..An algorithm for the fast and accurate forensic analysis of samples suspected to be marijuana was constructed, answering the question if an analyzed sample is capable of producing THC in concentrations higher than 0.3%. ..
  23. Chang X, Bian Y, He Q, Yao J, Zhu J, Wu J, et al. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:537-550 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction. ..
  24. Wakeford A, Wetzell B, Pomfrey R, Clasen M, Taylor W, Hempel B, et al. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in male and female Long-Evans rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017;25:242-248 pubmed publisher
    ..PsycINFO Database Record ..
  25. Chia C, Carlson O, Liu D, González Mariscal I, Santa Cruz Calvo S, Egan J. Incretin secretion in humans is under the influence of cannabinoid receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E359-E366 pubmed publisher
    ..CBRs exert tonic control over GIP secretion, which may have a homeostatic effect in suppressing GLP-1 secretion. This raises the possibility that gut hormones are influenced by endocannabinoids. ..
  26. Vella R, Jackson D, Fenning A. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Cardiovascular Dysfunction in STZ-Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7974149 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications from this study suggest that cannabinoid receptors may be a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease...
  27. Eldeeb K, Leone Kabler S, Howlett A. CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated increases in cyclic AMP accumulation are correlated with reduced Gi/o function. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;27:311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Cannabinoid agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation can be best explained as reduced activation of Gi, thereby attenuating the tonic inhibitory influence of Gi on the major isoforms of adenylyl cyclase. ..
  28. Freemon F. The effect of chronically administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol upon the polygraphically monitored sleep of normal volunteers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1982;10:345-53 pubmed
    ..The fact that prolonged, but not acute use, suppresses slow wave sleep indicates that this commonly used drug produces a poorly understood change in brain physiology. ..
  29. Chait L, Zacny J. Reinforcing and subjective effects of oral delta 9-THC and smoked marijuana in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;107:255-62 pubmed
    ..The experimental paradigm used here should prove useful for identifying factors that influence the self-administration of marijuana and other cannabinoids by humans. ..
  30. Metz T, Allshouse A, Hogue C, Goldenberg R, Dudley D, Varner M, et al. Maternal marijuana use, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:478.e1-478.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..91). Maternal marijuana use was not associated with a composite of small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth, or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, it was associated with an increased risk of neonatal morbidity. ..
  31. Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Martin Santos R, Crippa J, Kambeitz J, Prata D, et al. Preliminary report of biological basis of sensitivity to the effects of cannabis on psychosis: AKT1 and DAT1 genotype modulates the effects of ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on midbrain and striatal function. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:1152-5 pubmed publisher
  32. Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer B. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997;12:913-9 pubmed
    ..crossover design, with each treatment period lasting 6 weeks, was used to investigate effects of dronabinol in 15 patients with a diagnosis of probable Alzhemer's disease who were refusing food...
  33. Beal J, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997;14:7-14 pubmed
    We studied the effects of long-term (12 months) dronabinol in 94 late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (mean CD4 count of 45/mm3) who previously participated in a 6-week study (placebo versus dronabinol)...
  34. Cousens K, DiMascio A. (-) Delta 9 THC as an hypnotic. An experimental study of three dose levels. Psychopharmacologia. 1973;33:355-64 pubmed
  35. Adams P, Barratt E. Effect of chronic marijuana administration of stages of primate sleep-wakefulness. Biol Psychiatry. 1975;10:315-22 pubmed
    ..Changes observed in other stages of sleep-wakefulness were sensitive to repeated treatment with marijuana but were found to return to base line levels during recovery. ..