cannabidiol

Summary

Summary: Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.

Top Publications

  1. Parker L, Kwiatkowska M, Mechoulam R. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, but not ondansetron, interfere with conditioned retching reactions elicited by a lithium-paired context in Suncus murinus: An animal model of anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Physiol Behav. 2006;87:66-71 pubmed
    ..by pretreatment with each of the principal cannabinoids found in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol, at a dose that did not suppress general activity...
  2. Castillo A, Tolón M, Fernandez Ruiz J, Romero J, Martinez Orgado J. The neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol in an in vitro model of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in mice is mediated by CB(2) and adenosine receptors. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37:434-40 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the mechanisms involved in cannabidiol (CBD)-induced neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) immature brain, forebrain slices from newborn mice underwent oxygen and glucose deprivation in the presence of vehicle, or CBD ..
  3. Resstel L, Joca S, Moreira F, Correa F, Guimarães F. Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2006;172:294-8 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that induces anxiolytic-like effects similar to diazepam in animal models of innate aversive behavior...
  4. Long L, Chesworth R, Huang X, Wong A, Spiro A, McGregor I, et al. Distinct neurobehavioural effects of cannabidiol in transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34129 pubmed publisher
    The cannabis constituent cannabidiol (CBD) possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties...
  5. Liou G, Auchampach J, Hillard C, Zhu G, Yousufzai B, Mian S, et al. Mediation of cannabidiol anti-inflammation in the retina by equilibrative nucleoside transporter and A2A adenosine receptor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5526-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic, nontoxic compound has been shown to block diabetes- and endotoxin-induced retinal damage. However, the protective mechanism of this anti-inflammatory cannabinoid is not completely understood...
  6. Scuderi C, Filippis D, Iuvone T, Blasio A, Steardo A, Esposito G. Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. Phytother Res. 2009;23:597-602 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa...
  7. Esposito G, Scuderi C, Valenza M, Togna G, Latina V, De Filippis D, et al. Cannabidiol reduces A?-induced neuroinflammation and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis through PPAR? involvement. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28668 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis derivative devoid of psychomimetic effects, has attracted much attention because of its ..
  8. Winton Brown T, Allen P, Bhattacharyya S, Bhattacharrya S, Borgwardt S, Fusar Poli P, et al. Modulation of auditory and visual processing by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: an FMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during visual and auditory processing in healthy volunteers...
  9. Ligresti A, Moriello A, Starowicz K, Matias I, Pisanti S, De Petrocellis L, et al. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;318:1375-87 pubmed
    ..We investigated the antitumor activities of other plant cannabinoids, i.e., cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, cannabidiol acid and THC acid, and assessed whether there is any advantage in ..

More Information

Publications97

  1. El Remessy A, Al Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, Tsai N, Caldwell R, Liou G. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:235-44 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the protective effects of a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 1, 2, or 4 weeks...
  2. Massi P, Vaccani A, Bianchessi S, Costa B, Macchi P, Parolaro D. The non-psychoactive cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2057-66 pubmed
    Recently, we have shown that the non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) induces apoptosis of glioma cells in vitro and tumor regression in vivo...
  3. Rock E, Bolognini D, Limebeer C, Cascio M, Anavi Goffer S, Fletcher P, et al. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2620-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the hypothesis that activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) produces the anti-emetic/anti-nausea effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a primary non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.
  4. Hernán Pérez de la Ossa D, Ligresti A, Gil Alegre M, Aberturas M, Molpeceres J, Di Marzo V, et al. Poly-?-caprolactone microspheres as a drug delivery system for cannabinoid administration: development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of their antitumoral efficacy. J Control Release. 2012;161:927-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabidiol (CBD) dissolved in the polymeric matrix of the microspheres was slowly released in vitro within 10 days...
  5. McQueen D, Bond S, Smith P, Balali Mood K, Smart D. Cannabidiol lacks the vanilloid VR1-mediated vasorespiratory effects of capsaicin and anandamide in anaesthetised rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;491:181-9 pubmed
    The results of vasorespiratory studies in rats anaesthetised with pentobarbital show that (+/-) cannabidiol, a cannabinoid that lacks psychotropic actions and is inactive at cannabinoid (CB) receptors, does not affect respiration or ..
  6. McKallip R, Jia W, Schlomer J, Warren J, Nagarkatti P, Nagarkatti M. Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:897-908 pubmed
    In the current study, we examined the effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, on the induction of apoptosis in leukemia cells...
  7. Ross H, Napier I, Connor M. Inhibition of recombinant human T-type calcium channels by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16124-34 pubmed publisher
    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most prevalent biologically active constituents of Cannabis sativa. THC is the prototypic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and is psychoactive and analgesic...
  8. Kozela E, Pietr M, Juknat A, Rimmerman N, Levy R, Vogel Z. Cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol differentially inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappaB and interferon-beta/STAT proinflammatory pathways in BV-2 microglial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1616-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the two major cannabinoids present in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), decrease the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1beta, ..
  9. Borrelli F, Aviello G, Romano B, Orlando P, Capasso R, Maiello F, et al. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:1111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g...
  10. Ramer R, Bublitz K, Freimuth N, Merkord J, Rohde H, Haustein M, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. FASEB J. 2012;26:1535-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In the lung cancer cell lines A549, H358, and H460, cannabidiol (CBD; 0...
  11. Rog D, Nurmikko T, Young C. Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Clin Ther. 2007;29:2068-79 pubmed
    ..Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, has demonstrated efficacy for up to 4 weeks in randomized ..
  12. Tsumura Y, Aoki R, Tokieda Y, Akutsu M, Kawase Y, Kataoka T, et al. A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;221:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Seedless buds were supposed to be 'sinsemilla', a potent class of marijuana. THC, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana seizures exceeding 1g were quantified. The number of samples analyzed was 1115...
  13. Fouad A, Albuali W, Al Mulhim A, Jresat I. Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:347-57 pubmed publisher
    The potential protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats. Cardiotoxicity was induced by six equal doses of doxorubicin (2.5mgkg(-1) i.p...
  14. Mechoulam R, Hanus L. Cannabidiol: an overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: chemical aspects. Chem Phys Lipids. 2002;121:35-43 pubmed
    Over the last few years considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis...
  15. Nadulski T, Sporkert F, Schnelle M, Stadelmann A, Roser P, Schefter T, et al. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBD, and CBN by GC-MS in plasma after oral application of small doses of THC and cannabis extract. J Anal Toxicol. 2005;29:782-9 pubmed
    ..THC), hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis-based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) and of the degradation product cannabinol (CBN)...
  16. Yamaori S, Ebisawa J, Okushima Y, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sci. 2011;88:730-6 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN), the three major cannabinoids, on the activity of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes...
  17. Sacerdote P, Martucci C, Vaccani A, Bariselli F, Panerai A, Colombo A, et al. The nonpsychoactive component of marijuana cannabidiol modulates chemotaxis and IL-10 and IL-12 production of murine macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;159:97-105 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol is the main nonpsychoactive component of marijuana...
  18. Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjogren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson N, Leonova J, et al. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:1092-101 pubmed
    ..Ligands such as cannabidiol and abnormal cannabidiol which exhibit no CB1 or CB2 activity and are believed to function at a novel ..
  19. Fernandez Ruiz J, Sagredo O, Pazos M, Garcia C, Pertwee R, Mechoulam R, et al. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75:323-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with therapeutic properties for numerous disorders exerted through molecular mechanisms that are yet to be completely identified...
  20. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Slavin S, Raz I, Mechoulam R, et al. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:244-9 pubmed
    We have previously reported that cannabidiol (CBD) lowers the incidence of diabetes in young non-obese diabetes-prone (NOD) female mice...
  21. Massi P, Vaccani A, Ceruti S, Colombo A, Abbracchio M, Parolaro D. Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;308:838-45 pubmed
    ..their medicinal usage, we undertook the present study to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative ability of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid compound, on U87 and U373 human glioma cell lines...
  22. McAllister S, Christian R, Horowitz M, Garcia A, Desprez P. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2921-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid with a low-toxicity profile, could down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive human ..
  23. Marcu J, Christian R, Lau D, Zielinski A, Horowitz M, Lee J, et al. Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:180-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore tested cannabidiol, the second most abundant plant-derived cannabinoid, in combination with Delta(9)-THC...
  24. Durst R, Danenberg H, Gallily R, Mechoulam R, Meir K, Grad E, et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H3602-7 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling...
  25. Carrier E, Auchampach J, Hillard C. Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7895-900 pubmed
    The plant-derived cannabinoids delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) both have immunosuppressive effects; although some effects of THC are mediated by the CB2 receptor, CB2 binds CBD weakly...
  26. Zuardi A. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30:271-80 pubmed
    The aim of this review is to describe the historical development of research on cannabidiol. This review was carried out on reports drawn from Medline, Web of Science and SciELO...
  27. Gururajan A, Taylor D, Malone D. Effect of cannabidiol in a MK-801-rodent model of aspects of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2011;222:299-308 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid which, based on several previous preclinical and clinical reports, is purported to have antipsychotic potential...
  28. Kaplan B, Springs A, Kaminski N. The profile of immune modulation by cannabidiol (CBD) involves deregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:726-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid compound derived from Cannabis Sativa that does not possess high affinity for either the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
  29. Bhattacharyya S, Crippa J, Allen P, Martin Santos R, Borgwardt S, Fusar Poli P, et al. Induction of psychosis by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on regional brain function during salience processing...
  30. Feinshtein V, Erez O, Ben Zvi Z, Eshkoli T, Sheizaf B, Sheiner E, et al. Cannabidiol enhances xenobiotic permeability through the human placental barrier by direct inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein: an ex vivo study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;209:573.e1-573.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the influence of short-term (1-2 hours) exposure to cannabidiol, a major phytocannabinoid, on human placental breast cancer resistance protein function...
  31. De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, Cipriano M, De Winter B, Scuderi C, et al. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28159 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is an interesting compound because of its ability to control reactive gliosis in the CNS, without any ..
  32. Cortesi M, Fusar Poli P. Potential therapeutical effects of cannabidiol in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68:920-1 pubmed
  33. Drysdale A, Ryan D, Pertwee R, Platt B. Cannabidiol-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevations in hippocampal cells. Neuropharmacology. 2006;50:621-31 pubmed
    The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is at the forefront of therapeutic cannabinoid research due to its non-psychotropic properties...
  34. Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk E, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:799-810 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to modify the effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by decreasing anxiety and antagonizing other THC-effects. As a reason, pharmacodynamic as well as pharmacokinetic mechanisms were suggested...
  35. Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo A, Cattaneo M, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:1218-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates ..
  36. Pazos M, Cinquina V, Gomez A, Layunta R, Santos M, Fernandez Ruiz J, et al. Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function. Neuropharmacology. 2012;63:776-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We examined whether CBD neuroprotection is sustained over a prolonged period...
  37. Avraham Y, Grigoriadis N, Poutahidis T, Vorobiev L, Magen I, Ilan Y, et al. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-..
  38. Morgan C, Freeman T, Schafer G, Curran H. Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing...
  39. Ryan D, Drysdale A, Pertwee R, Platt B. Interactions of cannabidiol with endocannabinoid signalling in hippocampal tissue. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:2093-102 pubmed
    The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) possesses no psychotropic activity amid potentially beneficial therapeutic applications...
  40. Burgdorf J, Kilmer B, Pacula R. Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;117:59-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Research suggests that another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), may offset some of these effects...
  41. Juknat A, Pietr M, Kozela E, Rimmerman N, Levy R, Coppola G, et al. Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2512-28 pubmed publisher
    ..previously showed that the psychoactive cannabinoid ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signalling pathways...
  42. Bitencourt R, Pamplona F, Takahashi R. Facilitation of contextual fear memory extinction and anti-anxiogenic effects of AM404 and cannabidiol in conditioned rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..study investigated the central effects of the eCB uptake/metabolism inhibitor AM404 and the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) on the extinction of contextual fear memories in rats...
  43. Moreira F, Guimarães F. Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychotomimetic drugs in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;512:199-205 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa. It is proposed as a possible antipsychotic drug, since it can prevent some psychotomimetic-like effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol or apomorphine...
  44. Leweke F, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth C, Hoyer C, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e94 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide...
  45. Ahrens J, Demir R, Leuwer M, de la Roche J, Krampfl K, Foadi N, et al. The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function. Pharmacology. 2009;83:217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Cannabidiol is a nonpsychotropic plant constituent of Cannabis sativa...
  46. Rimmerman N, Bradshaw H, Kozela E, Levy R, Juknat A, Vogel Z. Compartmentalization of endocannabinoids into lipid rafts in a microglial cell line devoid of caveolin-1. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2436-49 pubmed publisher
    ..into lipid raft fractions isolated from the caveolin-1-lacking microglial cell line BV-2, following vehicle or cannabidiol (CBD) treatment. Results were compared with those from the caveolin-1-positive F-11 cell line...
  47. Bornheim L, Everhart E, Li J, Correia M. Induction and genetic regulation of mouse hepatic cytochrome P450 by cannabidiol. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994;48:161-71 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to be a selective inactivator of cytochromes P450 (P450s) 2C and 3A in the mouse and, like many P450 inactivators, it can also induce P450s after repeated administration...
  48. Lemos J, Resstel L, Guimarães F. Involvement of the prelimbic prefrontal cortex on cannabidiol-induced attenuation of contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2010;207:105-11 pubmed publisher
    Systemic administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa, is able to attenuate cardiovascular and behavioral (freezing) changes induced by re-exposure to a context that had been previously paired ..
  49. Esposito G, De Filippis D, Maiuri M, De Stefano D, Carnuccio R, Iuvone T. Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement. Neurosci Lett. 2006;399:91-5 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotropic component from Cannabis sativa, possess a variegate combination of anti-oxidant and ..
  50. Iuvone T, Esposito G, Esposito R, Santamaria R, Di Rosa M, Izzo A. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2004;89:134-41 pubmed
    ..Here, we studied the effect of cannabidiol, a major non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) on beta-amyloid peptide-induced ..
  51. Zuardi A, Crippa J, Hallak J, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Martin Santos R, et al. A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:5131-40 pubmed
    ..Another major constituent is cannabidiol (CBD), formerly regarded to be devoid of pharmacological activity...
  52. Mato S, Victoria Sánchez Gómez M, Matute C. Cannabidiol induces intracellular calcium elevation and cytotoxicity in oligodendrocytes. Glia. 2010;58:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of cannabidiol, the main nonpsychoactive marijuana component, on oligodendrocytes...
  53. Fusar Poli P, Crippa J, Bhattacharyya S, Borgwardt S, Allen P, Martin Santos R, et al. Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of 2 main psychoactive constituents of Cannabis sativa (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Delta9-THC] and cannabidiol [CBD]) on regional brain function during emotional processing...
  54. Weiss L, Zeira M, Reich S, Har Noy M, Mechoulam R, Slavin S, et al. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity. 2006;39:143-51 pubmed
    ..b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabidinoid has been previously shown by us to suppress cell-mediated autoimmune ..
  55. Bhattacharyya S, Morrison P, Fusar Poli P, Martin Santos R, Borgwardt S, Winton Brown T, et al. Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:764-74 pubmed publisher
    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the two main ingredients of the Cannabis sativa plant have distinct symptomatic and behavioral effects...
  56. Nicholson A, Turner C, Stone B, Robson P. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24:305-13 pubmed
    ..The 4 treatments were placebo, 15 mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 5 mg THC combined with 5 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and 15 mg THC combined with 15 mg CBD...
  57. Long L, Chesworth R, Huang X, McGregor I, Arnold J, Karl T. A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13:861-76 pubmed publisher
    ..cannabis constituent Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and the non-psychotomimetic constituent cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated with a battery of behavioural tests relevant to anxiety and positive, negative and ..
  58. Vaccani A, Massi P, Colombo A, Rubino T, Parolaro D. Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144:1032-6 pubmed
    We evaluated the ability of cannabidiol (CBD) to impair the migration of tumor cells stimulated by conditioned medium. CBD caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the migration of U87 glioma cells, quantified in a Boyden chamber...
  59. Pan H, Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, Patel V, Mukhopadhyay B, Gao B, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;328:708-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have investigated the effects of a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol, which was reported to exert antioxidant effects and has recently been approved for the treatment of ..
  60. Deiana S. Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..cannabis plant alongside the main constituent ??-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)...
  61. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Bátkai S, Haskó G, Liaudet L, Drel V, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H610-9 pubmed
    A nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has recently been reported to lower the incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and to preserve the ..
  62. De Filippis D, Iuvone T, D Amico A, Esposito G, Steardo L, Herman A, et al. Effect of cannabidiol on sepsis-induced motility disturbances in mice: involvement of CB receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:919-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests that anti-oxidants improve sepsis-induced ileus. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, exerts strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects ..
  63. Esposito G, De Filippis D, Carnuccio R, Izzo A, Iuvone T. The marijuana component cannabidiol inhibits beta-amyloid-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation through Wnt/beta-catenin pathway rescue in PC12 cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:253-8 pubmed
    ..b>Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive marijuana component, has been recently proposed as an antioxidant neuroprotective agent in ..
  64. Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, et al. Cannabidiol potentiates ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:443-57 pubmed publisher
    The interactions between ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during chronic treatment, and at equivalent doses, are not well characterised in animal models...
  65. Shrivastava A, Kuzontkoski P, Groopman J, Prasad A. Cannabidiol induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:1161-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, is considered an antineoplastic agent on the basis of its in vitro and in vivo activity against tumor cells...
  66. Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Abe K, Hasebe N, Takamatsu F, Yasuda H, et al. Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2381-5 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported as a neuroprotectant...
  67. Whyte L, Ryberg E, Sims N, Ridge S, Mackie K, Greasley P, et al. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..function were attenuated in osteoclasts generated from GPR55(-/-) macrophages and by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD)...
  68. Wade D, Makela P, Robson P, House H, Bateman C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult Scler. 2004;10:434-41 pubmed
    ..of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses...
  69. Costa B, Giagnoni G, Franke C, Trovato A, Colleoni M. Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;143:247-50 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive marijuana constituent, was recently shown as an oral antihyperalgesic compound in a rat model of acute inflammation...
  70. Martin Santos R, Crippa J, Batalla A, Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Borgwardt S, et al. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:4966-79 pubmed
    ..studies suggest that the two main constituents of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have quite different acute effects...
  71. Costa B, Colleoni M, Conti S, Parolaro D, Franke C, Trovato A, et al. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;369:294-9 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis...
  72. Leweke F, Schneider U, Radwan M, Schmidt E, Emrich H. Different effects of nabilone and cannabidiol on binocular depth inversion in Man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;66:175-81 pubmed
    ..Using this model the effects of nabilone, a psychoactive synthetic 9-trans-ketocannabinoid, and of cannabidiol, the main natural component of herbal cannabis, and a combined application of both substances on binocular ..
  73. Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo Rodriguez E, Hanus L. Cannabidiol--recent advances. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:1678-92 pubmed
    The aim of this review is to present some of the recent publications on cannabidiol (CBD; 2), a major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis, and to give a general overview...
  74. Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, Scuderi C, Steardo L. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009;15:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, among Cannabis compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks any unwanted psychotropic effect, may represent a very promising agent with the highest ..
  75. Maione S, Piscitelli F, Gatta L, Vita D, De Petrocellis L, Palazzo E, et al. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids modulate the descending pathway of antinociception in anaesthetized rats through several mechanisms of action. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:584-96 pubmed publisher
    Two non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), are known to modulate in vitro the activity of proteins involved in nociceptive mechanisms, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of ..
  76. McAllister S, Murase R, Christian R, Lau D, Zielinski A, Allison J, et al. Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;129:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid with a low toxicity profile, down-regulated Id-1 gene expression in aggressive human ..
  77. Casarotto P, Gomes F, Resstel L, Guimarães F. Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behaviour: involvement of CB1 receptors. Behav Pharmacol. 2010;21:353-8 pubmed
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa that has been shown to have an anxiolytic effect in human and animal models...
  78. Kwiatkoski M, Guimarães F, Del Bel E. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury. Neurotox Res. 2012;21:271-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in several experimental models of brain injury...
  79. Massi P, Solinas M, Cinquina V, Parolaro D. Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..this reason interest in non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds with structural affinity for ?(9)-THC, such as cannabidiol (CBD), has substantially increased in recent years...
  80. Lee C, Wey S, Liao M, Hsu W, Wu H, Jan T. A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:732-40 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown that leukemia and glioma cells are sensitive to cannabidiol (CBD)-induced apoptosis, whereas primary monocytes and glia cells are relatively insensitive...
  81. Lim M, Devi L, Rozenfeld R. Cannabidiol causes activated hepatic stellate cell death through a mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e170 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa, induces apoptosis in activated HSCs ..
  82. Napimoga M, Benatti B, Lima F, Alves P, Campos A, Pena Dos Santos D, et al. Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:216-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid component from Cannabis sativa that does not induce psychotomimetic effects and possess anti-inflammatory properties...
  83. Kozela E, Lev N, Kaushansky N, Eilam R, Rimmerman N, Levy R, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits pathogenic T cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiple sclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical use of many cannabinoids is limited by their psychotropic effects. However, phytocannabinoids like cannabidiol (CBD), devoid of psychoactive activity, are, potentially, safe and effective alternatives for alleviating ..
  84. Jones N, Hill A, Smith I, Bevan S, Williams C, Whalley B, et al. Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Early studies suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) has anticonvulsant properties in animal models and reduced seizure frequency in limited human trials...
  85. El Remessy A, Khalil I, Matragoon S, Abou Mohamed G, Tsai N, Roon P, et al. Neuroprotective effect of (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced retinal neurotoxicity: involvement of peroxynitrite. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:1997-2008 pubmed
    ..and that the neuroprotective effect of the psychotropic Delta9-tetrahydroxycannabinol (THC) or nonpsychotropic cannabidiol (CBD) is via the attenuation of this formation...
  86. Soares V, Campos A, Bortoli V, Zangrossi H, Guimarães F, Zuardi A. Intra-dorsal periaqueductal gray administration of cannabidiol blocks panic-like response by activating 5-HT1A receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound present in Cannabis sativa, causes anxiolytic-like effects after ..
  87. Li K, Feng J, Li Y, Yuece B, Lin X, Yu L, et al. Anti-inflammatory role of cannabidiol and O-1602 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Pancreas. 2013;42:123-9 pubmed publisher
    The anti-inflammatory effects of O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), the ligands of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) were investigated...
  88. Pertwee R, Ross R, Craib S, Thomas A. (-)-Cannabidiol antagonizes cannabinoid receptor agonists and noradrenaline in the mouse vas deferens. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;456:99-106 pubmed
    The nonpsychoactive plant cannabinoid, (-)-cannabidiol, modulates in vivo responses to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...