paraffin

Summary

Summary: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.

Top Publications

  1. Han B, Su T, Wu H, Gou Z, Xing X, Jiang H, et al. Paraffin oil as a "methane vector" for rapid and high cell density cultivation of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;83:669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Paraffin oil was the most effective at enhancing cell growth and final cell density...
  2. Bismar T, Bianco F, Zhang H, Li X, Sarkar F, Sakr W, et al. Quantification of G250 mRNA expression in renal epithelial neoplasms by real-time reverse transcription-PCR of dissected tissue from paraffin sections. Pathology. 2003;35:513-7 pubmed
    ..the feasibility of using real-time RT-PCR in quantifying G250 mRNA expression using tissue dissected from paraffin sections of renal epithelial neoplasms...
  3. Becker K, Taylor C. "Liquid morphology": Immunochemical analysis of proteins extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: Combining proteomics with immunohistochemistry. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2011;19:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tests, and further may serve as a basis for precise quantification of analytes (proteins) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues...
  4. Cabaret O, Toussain G, Abermil N, Alsamad I, Botterel F, Costa J, et al. Degradation of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sinus fungal balls hampers reliable sequence-based identification of fungi. Med Mycol. 2011;49:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether paraffin-embedded (PE) tissues, the only materials often available, were suitable for the correct identification of the ..
  5. Fowler C, Chesnick I, Moore C, O Leary T, Mason J. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14253 pubmed publisher
    Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry...
  6. Conway C, Mitra A, Jewell R, Randerson Moor J, Lobo S, Nsengimana J, et al. Gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded primary melanoma using the DASL assay identifies increased osteopontin expression as predictive of reduced relapse-free survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:6939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that predictive biomarker studies may be possible using stored blocks from mature clinical trials. ..
  7. Chansela P, Goto Inoue N, Zaima N, Sroyraya M, Sobhon P, Setou M. Visualization of neuropeptides in paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the central nervous system in the decapod crustacean, Penaeus monodon, by imaging mass spectrometry. Peptides. 2012;34:10-8 pubmed publisher
    The distributions of neuropeptides in paraffin-embedded tissue sections (PETS) of the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia of the shrimp Penaeus monodon were visualized by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)...
  8. Qi H, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Zhang C. Homogenous electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunoassay for human immunoglobulin G using N-(aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol as luminescence label at gold nanoparticles modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode. Talanta. 2008;75:684-90 pubmed publisher
    ..developed using a N-(aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI) as luminescence label at gold nanoparticles modified paraffin-impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE)...
  9. Wang J, Chen R, Ma M, Li L. MALDI MS sample preparation by using paraffin wax film: systematic study and application for peptide analysis. Anal Chem. 2008;80:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we employed the use of paraffin wax film (Parafilm M) for improved MALDI MS analysis of low-abundance peptide mixtures, including neuronal tissue ..

More Information

Publications63

  1. Vogel U. Inexpensive and precise paraffin tissue microarrays constructed with a computer numerical control (CNC) drilling machine. Histopathology. 2007;51:136-7 pubmed
  2. Thompson S, Craven R, Nirmalan N, Harnden P, Selby P, Banks R. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7:241-51 pubmed publisher
    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information...
  3. Wisniewski J, Duś K, Mann M. Proteomic workflow for analysis of archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical samples to a depth of 10?000 proteins. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7:225-33 pubmed publisher
    Archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical samples represent a very diverse source of material for proteomic investigation of diseases, often with follow-up patient information...
  4. Kaneko T, Okiji T, Kaneko R, Suda H, Nor J. Gene expression analysis of immunostained endothelial cells isolated from formaldehyde-fixated paraffin embedded tumors using laser capture microdissection--a technical report. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:908-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies suggested that it is possible to carry out gene expression analysis of formaldehyde-fixated paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues that were stained with hematoxylin...
  5. Lohsiriwat V, Chuangsuwanich A. Comparison of the ionic silver-containing hydrofiber and paraffin gauze dressing on split-thickness skin graft donor sites. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;62:421-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study compared the ionic silver-containing Hydrofiber dressing and paraffin gauze dressing...
  6. Dambaki C, Kogia C, Kampa M, Darivianaki K, Nomikos M, Anezinis P, et al. Membrane testosterone binding sites in prostate carcinoma as a potential new marker and therapeutic target: study in paraffin tissue sections. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:148 pubmed
    ..We conclude that membrane androgen receptors may represent an index of tumor aggressiveness and possibly specific targets for new therapeutic regimens. ..
  7. Ly E, Piot O, Wolthuis R, Durlach A, Bernard P, Manfait M. Combination of FTIR spectral imaging and chemometrics for tumour detection from paraffin-embedded biopsies. Analyst. 2008;133:197-205 pubmed publisher
    FTIR spectral imaging was applied on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from colon and skin cancerous lesions...
  8. Haque T, Faury D, Albrecht S, Lopez Aguilar E, Hauser P, Garami M, et al. Gene expression profiling from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors of pediatric glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6284-92 pubmed
    ..and to validate results we obtained on FF pGBM, we did microarray analysis on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival samples from pGBM and control brains, wherein we had no control on the fixation process...
  9. Abi Samra K, Hanson R, Madou M, Gorkin R. Infrared controlled waxes for liquid handling and storage on a CD-microfluidic platform. Lab Chip. 2011;11:723-6 pubmed publisher
    A novel active valving technique, whereby paraffin wax plugs in microchannels on a centrifugal microfluidic platform are actuated using focused infrared (IR) radiation is demonstrated in this report...
  10. Schmidts T, Dobler D, Schlupp P, Nissing C, Garn H, Runkel F. Development of multiple W/O/W emulsions as dermal carrier system for oligonucleotides: effect of additives on emulsion stability. Int J Pharm. 2010;398:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The most promising emulsions were chosen and further evaluated for their suitability and compatibility to incorporate a DNAzyme oligonucleotide as active pharmaceutical ingredient. ..
  11. Atkins D, Reiffen K, Tegtmeier C, Winther H, Bonato M, Störkel S. Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues: variation in staining intensity due to choice of fixative and storage time of tissue sections. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:893-901 pubmed
    ..the EGFR, there is an increasing interest in immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based EGFR screening methods using paraffin-embedded tumor specimens to select cancer patients eligible for treatment with Cetuximab...
  12. Glaeser R, McMullan G, Faruqi A, Henderson R. Images of paraffin monolayer crystals with perfect contrast: minimization of beam-induced specimen motion. Ultramicroscopy. 2011;111:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..paper, we used three different approaches to try to overcome this image-blurring problem in monolayer crystals of paraffin. Our first approach was to use an extreme form of spotscan imaging, in which a single image was assembled on film ..
  13. Sahm F, Capper D, Pusch S, Balss J, Koch A, Langhans C, et al. Detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded glioma specimens by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Brain Pathol. 2012;22:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We here describe a method to detect 2HG levels in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens by stable isotope dilution using gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS)..
  14. Hyun J, Chen J, Setton L, Chilkoti A. Patterning cells in highly deformable microstructures: effect of plastic deformation of substrate on cellular phenotype and gene expression. Biomaterials. 2006;27:1444-51 pubmed
    ..The use of parafilm as a substrate and muSEmb as a fabrication method provides a simple and widely accessible methodology to investigate cellular behavior under well-defined conditions of plastic deformation and surface ligand density. ..
  15. Sakuraoka Y, Sawada T, Shiraki T, Park K, Sakurai Y, Tomosugi N, et al. Analysis of hepcidin expression: in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction from paraffin sections. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:3727-31 pubmed publisher
    To establish methods for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for hepcidin using RNAs isolated from paraffin-embedded sections and in situ hybridization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  16. Vogel U. One-step complete melting of paraffin tissue microarrays using stabilization bodies. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2008;16:382-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) are constructed by putting paraffin tissue core biopsies (PTCBs) from donor blocks into the preformed holes of a recipient block...
  17. Balaskas E, Szepietowski J, Bessis D, Ioannides D, Ponticelli C, Ghienne C, et al. Randomized, double-blind study with glycerol and paraffin in uremic xerosis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..uremic xerosis for 7 days, during which the patients applied twice daily an emulsion combining glycerol and paraffin (test product) on one allocated lower leg, and the emulsion alone (comparator) on the other lower leg...
  18. Chen S, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, Luo Q, Liu F, et al. Immunohistochemical detection and localization of new type gosling viral enteritis virus in paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;130:226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the distribution and localization of new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) in paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally infected goslings, for the first time, an immunohistochemical (IHC) staining ..
  19. Fu Z, Yan K, Rosenberg A, Jin Z, Crain B, Athas G, et al. Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formalin-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at room temperature (RT)...
  20. Tramm T, Sørensen B, Overgaard J, Alsner J. Optimal reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors controlling for tumor cell content and decay of mRNA. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2013;22:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene-expression analysis is increasingly performed on degraded mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE), giving the option of examining retrospective cohorts...
  21. Shimizu Kohno K, Satou Y, Arakawa F, Kiyasu J, Kimura Y, Niino D, et al. Detection of HTLV-1 by means of HBZ gene in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1432-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used HBZ gene in situ hybridization (HBZ-ISH) for detection of the HBZ gene in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues...
  22. Bibikova M, Yeakley J, Chudin E, Chen J, Wickham E, Wang Rodriguez J, et al. Gene expression profiles in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained with a novel assay for microarray analysis. Clin Chem. 2004;50:2384-6 pubmed
  23. Gloghini A, Canal B, Klein U, Dal Maso L, Perin T, Dalla Favera R, et al. RT-PCR analysis of RNA extracted from Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues. J Mol Diagn. 2004;6:290-6 pubmed
    ..present study, we have investigated whether RNA can be efficiently isolated from Bouin-fixed or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissue specimens...
  24. Nonogaki S, Wakamatsu A, Filho A, Roteli Martins C, Di Loreto C, Maeda M, et al. Molecular strategies for identifying human papillomavirus infection in routinely processed samples: focus on paraffin sections. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2005;9:219-24 pubmed
    ..papillomavirus (HPV) detection in clinical samples, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in paraffin-embedded tissue sections and compared the results with those obtained with PCR and Hybrid Capture II (HC2) ..
  25. van Essen H, Ylstra B. High-resolution copy number profiling by array CGH using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;838:329-41 pubmed publisher
    We describe protocols to acquire high-quality DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for the use in array comparative genome hybridization (CGH)...
  26. Vogel U, Bueltmann B. Simple, inexpensive, and precise paraffin tissue microarrays constructed with a conventional microcompound table and a drill grinder. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:342-8 pubmed
    In 1998, paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) as paraffin blocks containing up to 1,000 cylindrical paraffin tissue core biopsy specimens (PTCBs) for high-throughput molecular profiling of tumor specimens were introduced...
  27. Glicenstein J. [The first "fillers", vaseline and paraffin. From miracle to disaster]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2007;52:157-61 pubmed
    ..It remains stable and inert in the human body. Eckstein used paraffin instead because the melting temperature is too high (65 degrees ) to soften after the injection...
  28. Henke R, Eun Kim S, Maitra A, Paik S, Wellstein A. Expression analysis of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues by mRNA in situ hybridization. Methods. 2006;38:253-62 pubmed
    ..Such archival tissues are commonly formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, restricting the methods available for gene expression analysis...
  29. Erguvan Dogan B, Yang W. Direct injection of paraffin into the breast: mammographic, sonographic, and MRI features of early complications. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:888-94 pubmed
    ..sonographic, and MRI features of the early complications of breast augmentation by direct injection of liquid paraffin. We also examined the imaging features in patients with paraffinoma, a later complication of these injections...
  30. Dilek B, Gözüm M, Sahin E, Baydar M, Ergor G, El O, et al. Efficacy of paraffin bath therapy in hand osteoarthritis: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94:642-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy of paraffin bath therapy on pain, function, and muscle strength in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Prospective single-blinded randomized controlled trial...
  31. Rodríguez Rigueiro T, Valladares Ayerbes M, Haz Conde M, Blanco M, Aparicio G, Fernández Puente P, et al. A novel procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Proteomics. 2011;11:2555-9 pubmed publisher
    Most of the archived pathological specimens in hospitals are kept as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) for long-term preservation...
  32. Cooper M, Li S, Bhardwaj T, Rohan T, Kandel R. Evaluation of oligonucleotide arrays for sequencing of the p53 gene in DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens. Clin Chem. 2004;50:500-8 pubmed
    Routine tissue processing has generated banks of paraffin-embedded tissue that could be used in retrospective cohort studies to study the molecular changes that occur during cancer development...
  33. Gu D, Yoon D, Chang S, Lim K, Cha J, Seo Y, et al. CT features of foreign body granulomas after cosmetic paraffin injection into the cervicofacial area. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2010;16:125-8 pubmed publisher
    Cosmetic injection of paraffin into cervicofacial tissues has been practiced in the past, especially in Asia, resulting in foreign body granuloma (paraffinoma)...
  34. Ryan J, Fan H, Glaser S, Schichman S, Raab Traub N, Gulley M. Epstein-Barr virus quantitation by real-time PCR targeting multiple gene segments: a novel approach to screen for the virus in paraffin-embedded tissue and plasma. J Mol Diagn. 2004;6:378-85 pubmed
    ..When applied to paraffin-embedded tissues in concert with EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization, the BamH1W and EBNA1 assays were ..
  35. Tae J, Kim E, Lee W, Park S, Lim J. Sterile filtered paraffin oil supports in vitro developmental competence in bovine embryos comparable to co-culture. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2006;23:121-7 pubmed
    To investigate whether sterile filtered light paraffin oil (SPO) overlaying is superior to washed light mineral oil (WMO) in supporting the in vitro developmental competence of bovine follicular oocytes...
  36. Matsuyama A, Hisaoka M, Shimajiri S, Hayashi T, Imamura T, Ishida T, et al. Molecular detection of FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1077-84 pubmed
    ..However, such assays have only rarely been used to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples...
  37. Rimsza L, LeBlanc M, Unger J, Miller T, Grogan T, Persky D, et al. Gene expression predicts overall survival in paraffin-embedded tissues of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Blood. 2008;112:3425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks for 36 previously identified genes (N = 209, 93 chemotherapy; 116 rituximab + chemotherapy)..
  38. Teixeira L, Wise J, Gut L, Isaacs R. Paraffin wax emulsion for increased rainfastness of insecticidal bait to control Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:1108-15 pubmed
    ..We studied increasing the rainfastness of GF-120 fruit fly bait by adding paraffin wax emulsion. First, we verified that adding 10% wax to a mixture containing 16...
  39. Griffis L, Twerdok L, Francke Carroll S, Biles R, Schroeder R, Bolte H, et al. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:363-72 pubmed publisher
    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat...
  40. Kawamura T, Nomura M, Tojo H, Fujii K, Hamasaki H, Mikami S, et al. Proteomic analysis of laser-microdissected paraffin-embedded tissues: (1) Stage-related protein candidates upon non-metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. J Proteomics. 2010;73:1089-99 pubmed publisher
    We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials for biomarker discovery in cases of lung cancer using proteomic analysis...
  41. Wiener H. Structural determination of paraffin boiling points. J Am Chem Soc. 1947;69:17-20 pubmed
  42. Liu J, Huang X, Lu L, Xu J, Wen Y, Yang D, et al. Comparison between waste frying oil and paraffin as carbon source in the production of biodemulsifier by Dietzia sp. S-JS-1. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:6481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..78 g/L, which was 2.4 times the concentration of paraffin culture...
  43. Youk J, Son E, Kim E, Kim J, Kim M, Kwak J, et al. Diagnosis of breast cancer at dynamic MRI in patients with breast augmentation by paraffin or silicone injection. Clin Radiol. 2009;64:1175-80 pubmed publisher
    To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in breasts augmented with liquid paraffin or silicone injection.
  44. Tanca A, Addis M, Pagnozzi D, Cossu Rocca P, Tonelli R, Falchi G, et al. Proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung neuroendocrine tumor samples from hospital archives. J Proteomics. 2011;74:359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, a recently optimized method for extracting full-length proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was evaluated on lung neuroendocrine tumor (LNET) samples collected from hospital ..
  45. Paik S, Kim C, Song Y, Kim W. Technology insight: Application of molecular techniques to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2005;2:246-54 pubmed
    ..prognostic and predictive markers for breast cancer, it would be useful to be able to analyze formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FPET) collected and banked from completed clinical trials...
  46. Abate E, Aseffa A, El Tayeb M, El Hassan I, Yamuah L, Mihret W, et al. Genotyping of human papillomavirus in paraffin embedded cervical tissue samples from women in Ethiopia and the Sudan. J Med Virol. 2013;85:282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A molecular characterization of HPV was done on 245 paraffin embedded cervical biopsy samples collected from the two countries...
  47. Paydas S, Ergin M, Tanriverdi K, Yavuz S, Disel U, Kilic N, et al. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:252-7 pubmed
    ..Detection of anti-HCV antibody in only three cases may be associated with undetectable levels of antibodies due to the immune deficiency in cases with NHL. ..
  48. Shi S, Taylor C, Fowler C, Mason J. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections...
  49. Tannu N, Wu J, Rao V, Gadgil H, Pabst M, Gerling I, et al. Paraffin-wax-coated plates as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization sample support for high-throughput identification of proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting. Anal Biochem. 2004;327:222-32 pubmed
    ..samples desalted by ZipTip(C18) reverse-phase microcolumns with on-plate washing of peptides deposited either on paraffin-coated plates (PCP), Teflon-based AnchorChip plates, or stainless steel plates, before analysis by matrix-..
  50. De Siati M, Selvaggio O, Di Fino G, Liuzzi G, Massenio P, Sanguedolce F, et al. An unusual delayed complication of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation. BMC Urol. 2013;13:66 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, we describe the first case of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation presenting with acute urinary retention...
  51. Uchida Y, Yoshii N, Kubo H, Kanzaki T, Kanekura T. Facial paraffinoma after cosmetic paraffin injection. J Dermatol. 2007;34:798-800 pubmed
  52. Palmer Toy D, Krastins B, Sarracino D, Nadol J, Merchant S. Efficient method for the proteomic analysis of fixed and embedded tissues. J Proteome Res. 2005;4:2404-11 pubmed
    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues present a particular challenge for proteomic analysis. Yet, most of the archived tissues in hospitals and tissue banks worldwide are only available in this form...
  53. Salawu A, Ul Hassan A, Hammond D, Fernando M, Reed M, Sisley K. High quality genomic copy number data from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma: optimisation of universal linkage system labelling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50415 pubmed publisher
    ..Although large archives of Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples are available for research, the degradative effects of formalin on DNA from these ..
  54. Staff S, Kujala P, Karhu R, Rökman A, Ilvesaro J, Kares S, et al. Preservation of nucleic acids and tissue morphology in paraffin-embedded clinical samples: comparison of five molecular fixatives. J Clin Pathol. 2013;66:807-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed the preservation of nucleic acids, immunohistochemical staining properties and tissue morphology in paraffin-embedded clinical tissue samples fixed with Z7, RCL2, PAXgene, Allprotect and RNAlater...