Summary: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.

Top Publications

  1. Aggazzotti G, Righi E, Fantuzzi G, Biasotti B, Ravera G, Kanitz S, et al. Chlorination by-products (CBPs) in drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Italy. J Water Health. 2004;2:233-47 pubmed
    ..Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) were low (median: 1...
  2. Villanueva C, Gagniere B, Monfort C, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Cordier S. Sources of variability in levels and exposure to trihalomethanes. Environ Res. 2007;103:211-20 pubmed
    ..the framework of a cohort study of pregnant women conducted in Brittany (France), we assessed the exposure to trihalomethanes (THM) during pregnancy in a subset by evaluating (1) potential sources of variability in household THM levels;..
  3. Cantor K, Villanueva C, Silverman D, Figueroa J, Real F, Garcia Closas M, et al. Polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTZ1, and CYP2E1, disinfection by-products, and risk of bladder cancer in Spain. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Average exposures to trihalomethanes (THMs; a surrogate for DBPs) from 15 years of age were estimated for each subject based on residential ..
  4. Zeng Q, Li M, Xie S, Gu L, Yue J, Cao W, et al. Baseline blood trihalomethanes, semen parameters and serum total testosterone: a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Int. 2013;54:134-40 pubmed publisher
    Toxicological studies showed that trihalomethanes (THMs), the most abundant classes of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, impaired male reproductive health, but epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent...
  5. Dion Fortier A, Rodriguez M, Serodes J, Proulx F. Impact of water stagnation in residential cold and hot water plumbing on concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Water Res. 2009;43:3057-66 pubmed publisher
    This study demonstrates that levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) increase considerably when cold water stagnates in residential pipes and, more significantly, when water remains in the hot water tank...
  6. Hansen K, Willach S, Antoniou M, Mosbæk H, Albrechtsen H, Andersen H. Effect of pH on the formation of disinfection byproducts in swimming pool water--is less THM better?. Water Res. 2012;46:6399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the formation of the DBP groups trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)), resulting from the ..
  7. Narotsky M, Best D, McDonald A, Godin E, Hunter E, Simmons J. Pregnancy loss and eye malformations in offspring of F344 rats following gestational exposure to mixtures of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:59-65 pubmed publisher
    Chlorination of drinking water yields hundreds of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Among the DBPs, four trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform) and five haloacetic acids (HAAs; ..
  8. Kanan A, Karanfil T. Formation of disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool water: the contribution from filling water natural organic matter and swimmer body fluids. Water Res. 2011;45:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..and role of different precursors in the formation of three class of disinfection by-products (DBPs) [trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and halonitromethanes (HNMs)] in swimming pool waters were examined using ..
  9. Tan Y, Liao K, Clewell H. Reverse dosimetry: interpreting trihalomethanes biomonitoring data using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007;17:591-603 pubmed used an existing PBPK model for chloroform as a generic framework to develop PBPK models for other trihalomethanes (THMs)...

More Information


  1. Patelarou E, Kargaki S, Stephanou E, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Sourtzi P, Gracia E, et al. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in drinking water and reproductive outcomes. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68:438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..mother homes on the basis of detailed water distribution patterns, and were analysed for major DBPs including trihalomethanes (THMs). Logistic and linear regression models were applied...
  2. Iszatt N, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Nelson P, Elliott P, Toledano M. Water consumption and use, trihalomethane exposure, and the risk of hypospadias. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Ingestion of drinking-water-disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethanes (THMs) has been associated with hypospadias in a small sample...
  3. Backer L, Lan Q, Blount B, Nuckols J, Branch R, Lyu C, et al. Exogenous and endogenous determinants of blood trihalomethane levels after showering. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..a study to assess whether household exposures to tap water increased an individual's internal dose of trihalomethanes (THMs)...
  4. Weinberg H, Pereira V, Singer P, Savitz D. Considerations for improving the accuracy of exposure to disinfection by-products by ingestion in epidemiologic studies. Sci Total Environ. 2006;354:35-42 pubmed
    ..the sample collection procedures for integrating over temporal variations in DBPs measured in terms of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and total organic halogen (TOX)...
  5. Yang C, Xiao Z, Ho S, Wu T, Tsai S. Association between trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcome in Taiwan. Environ Res. 2007;104:390-5 pubmed
    ..We performed a study to examine the effects of exposure to total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) on the risk of term low birth weight (TLBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm delivery in ..
  6. Gordon S, Brinkman M, Ashley D, Blount B, Lyu C, Masters J, et al. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:514-21 pubmed
    ..drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine...
  7. Uyak V, Ozdemir K, Toroz I. Multiple linear regression modeling of disinfection by-products formation in Istanbul drinking water reservoirs. Sci Total Environ. 2007;378:269-80 pubmed
    Oxidation of raw water with chlorine results in formation of trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HAA)...
  8. Ashley D, Blount B, Singer P, Depaz E, Wilkes C, Gordon S, et al. Changes in blood trihalomethane concentrations resulting from differences in water quality and water use activities. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2005;60:7-15 pubmed extremely important for the protection of public health; however, it also forms by-products, including trihalomethanes (THMs)...
  9. Bielmeier S, Murr A, Best D, Harrison R, Pegram R, Goldman J, et al. Effects of bromodichloromethane on ex vivo and in vitro luteal function and bromodichloromethane tissue dosimetry in the pregnant F344 rat. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:919-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data suggest that BDCM disrupts pregnancy in F344 rats via two modes: disruption of LH secretion, and disruption of the CL's ability to respond to LH. ..
  10. Lewis C, Suffet I, Hoggatt K, Ritz B. Estimated effects of disinfection by-products on preterm birth in a population served by a single water utility. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:290-5 pubmed
    ..This water system was monitored weekly for total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and it maintained geographically stable total TTHM levels system-wide during the study period...
  11. Leavens T, Blount B, DeMarini D, Madden M, Valentine J, Case M, et al. Disposition of bromodichloromethane in humans following oral and dermal exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2007;99:432-45 pubmed
    ..These data will facilitate development and validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for BDCM in humans. ..
  12. Lee J, Ha K, Zoh K. Characteristics of trihalomethane (THM) production and associated health risk assessment in swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:1990-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentrations of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in indoor swimming pools adopting these disinfection methods, and to examine the correlations between ..
  13. Nieuwenhuijsen M, Grellier J, Smith R, Iszatt N, Bennett J, Best N, et al. The epidemiology and possible mechanisms of disinfection by-products in drinking water. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2009;367:4043-76 pubmed publisher
    ..There appears to be good epidemiological evidence for a relationship between exposure to DBPs, as measured by trihalomethanes (THMs), in drinking water and bladder cancer, but the evidence for other cancers including colorectal cancer ..
  14. Haddad S, Tardif G, Tardif R. Development of physiologically based toxicokinetic models for improving the human indoor exposure assessment to water contaminants: trichloroethylene and trihalomethanes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:2095-136 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to develop physiologically based human toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for trihalomethanes (THM) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that will facilitate (1) the estimation of internal exposure to these ..
  15. Toledano M, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Best N, Whitaker H, Hambly P, de Hoogh C, et al. Relation of trihalomethane concentrations in public water supplies to stillbirth and birth weight in three water regions in England. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:225-32 pubmed
    We investigated the association between total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and risk of stillbirth and low and very low birth weight in three water regions in England, 1992-1998; associations with individual trihalomethanes (THMs) were also ..
  16. Lu C, Chung Y, Chang K. Adsorption of trihalomethanes from water with carbon nanotubes. Water Res. 2005;39:1183-9 pubmed
    ..carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were purified by acid solution and were employed as adsorbents to study adsorption of trihalomethanes (THMs) from water...
  17. Bonin M, Silva L, Smith M, Ashley D, Blount B. Measurement of trihalomethanes and methyl tert-butyl ether in whole blood using gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol. 2005;29:81-9 pubmed
    ..To support studies exploring the relation between exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and adverse health effects, an automated analytical method was developed using capillary gas ..
  18. Summerhayes R, Morgan G, Lincoln D, Edwards H, Earnest A, Rahman M, et al. Spatio-temporal variation in trihalomethanes in New South Wales. Water Res. 2011;45:5715-26 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes the spatio-temporal variation of trihalomethanes in drinking water in New South Wales, Australia from 1997 to 2007 We obtained data on trihalomethanes (THMs) from two metropolitan and 13 rural water utilities and ..
  19. Dyck R, Sadiq R, Rodriguez M, Simard S, Tardif R. Trihalomethane exposures in indoor swimming pools: a level III fugacity model. Water Res. 2011;45:5084-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Health Canada set guidelines for trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water; however, no such guideline exists for swimming pool waters...
  20. Villanueva C, Cantor K, Grimalt J, Castano Vinyals G, Malats N, Silverman D, et al. Assessment of lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes through different routes. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:273-7 pubmed
    To evaluate lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THM) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption in a hospital based case-control study of bladder cancer conducted between 1998 and 2001 in five areas of Spain...
  21. Savitz D, Singer P, Herring A, Hartmann K, Weinberg H, Makarushka C. Exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy loss. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:1043-51 pubmed
    ..The authors considered DBP concentration and ingested amount and, for trihalomethanes only, bathing/showering and integrated exposure that included ingestion...
  22. Rodriguez M, Sérodes J, Levallois P. Behavior of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in a drinking water distribution system. Water Res. 2004;38:4367-82 pubmed
    ..collected samples showed that the seasonal and geographical variations of both groups of CDBPs under study--trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)--were particularly important in this region...
  23. Santa Marina L, Ayerdi M, Lertxundi A, Basterretxea M, Goni F, Iñaki Alvare J, et al. [Trihalomethane and haloacetic acid concentrations in drinking water and their estimated intake during pregnancy in the INMA cohort (Guipúzcoa, Spain)]. Gac Sanit. 2010;24:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean intake of these products varies depending on the source of drinking water. Mean intakes of all products were much lower than values recommended by the World Health Organization. ..
  24. Grellier J, Bennett J, Patelarou E, Smith R, Toledano M, Rushton L, et al. Exposure to disinfection by-products, fetal growth, and prematurity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2010;21:300-13 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to total trihalomethanes in drinking water has been associated with several adverse birth outcomes relating to fetal growth and prematurity...
  25. Krasner S, Weinberg H, Richardson S, Pastor S, Chinn R, Sclimenti M, et al. Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:7175-85 pubmed
    ..These priority DBPs included iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs), other halomethanes, a nonregulated haloacid, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, halonitromethanes, ..
  26. Krasner S, Wright J. The effect of boiling water on disinfection by-product exposure. Water Res. 2005;39:855-64 pubmed
    ..g., hydrolysis) may have been responsible for removal of the non-volatile DBPs and further highlight the importance of examining individual species when estimating thermal effects on DBP concentrations. ..
  27. Santa Marina L, Ibarluzea J, Basterrechea M, Goni F, Ulibarrena E, Artieda J, et al. [Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Spain)]. Gac Sanit. 2009;23:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, 20% of the installations exceeded the concentration of total chlorine in the air proposed as a reference value to protect swimmers carrying out intense activities (0.5 mg/m(3)). ..
  28. Nieuwenhuijsen M, Smith R, Golfinopoulos S, Best N, Bennett J, Aggazzotti G, et al. Health impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Europe: HIWATE. J Water Health. 2009;7:185-207 pubmed publisher be very good epidemiological evidence for a relationship between chlorination by-products, as measured by trihalomethanes (THMs), in drinking water and bladder cancer, but the evidence for other cancers, including colorectal cancer ..
  29. Rivera Núñez Z, Wright J, Blount B, Silva L, Jones E, Chan R, et al. Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood: a case study in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found consistent blood-water correlations across season and site for BDCM and DBCM, and multivariate regression results suggest that water THM concentrations may be an adequate surro-gate for baseline blood levels. ..
  30. Aguilera Herrador E, Lucena R, Cárdenas S, Valcarcel M. Determination of trihalomethanes in waters by ionic liquid-based single drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1209:76-82 pubmed publisher
    A simple, rapid, solventless method for the determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) in water samples is presented...
  31. Vora Adisak N, Varanusupakul P. A simple supported liquid hollow fiber membrane microextraction for sample preparation of trihalomethanes in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1121:236-41 pubmed
    ..with gas chromatography-electron capture detector has been developed for extraction and determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water samples...
  32. Panyakapo M, Soontornchai S, Paopuree P. Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water. J Environ Sci (China). 2008;20:372-8 pubmed
    We investigated the concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water and swimming pool water in the area of the Nakhon Pathom Municipality during the period April 2005-March 2006...
  33. Bessonneau V, Derbez M, Clément M, Thomas O. Determinants of chlorination by-products in indoor swimming pools. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011;215:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and trichloramine (NCl(3)) in air as well as concentrations of parameters, including total organic ..
  34. MacLehose R, Savitz D, Herring A, Hartmann K, Singer P, Weinberg H. Drinking water disinfection by-products and time to pregnancy. Epidemiology. 2008;19:451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between specific DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, brominated-trihalomethanes, brominated-haloacetic acids, total organic halides, and ..
  35. King W, Dodds L, Allen A, Armson B, Fell D, Nimrod C. Haloacetic acids in drinking water and risk for stillbirth. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:124-7 pubmed
    b>Trihalomethanes (THMs) occurring in public drinking water sources have been investigated in several epidemiological studies of fetal death and results support a modest association...
  36. Richardson S, DeMarini D, Kogevinas M, Fernandez P, Marco E, Lourencetti C, et al. What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to measure trihalomethanes in water, GC with electron capture detection for air, low- and high-resolution GC/MS to comprehensively ..
  37. Parvez S, Rivera Núñez Z, Meyer A, Wright J. Temporal variability in trihalomethane and haloacetic acid concentrations in Massachusetts public drinking water systems. Environ Res. 2011;111:499-509 pubmed publisher
  38. Grazuleviciene R, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Vencloviene J, Kostopoulou Karadanelli M, Krasner S, Danileviciute A, et al. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study. Environ Health. 2011;10:32 pubmed publisher
    Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes...
  39. Lourencetti C, Ballester C, Fernandez P, Marco E, Prado C, Periago J, et al. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;662:23-30 pubmed publisher
    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported...
  40. Erdinger L, Kühn K, Kirsch F, Feldhues R, Fröbel T, Nohynek B, et al. Pathways of trihalomethane uptake in swimming pools. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2004;207:571-5 pubmed
    ..Basically, trihalomethanes (THMs) can be taken up by inhalation, by dermal absorption, or orally (swallowing of water)...
  41. Nuckols J, Ashley D, Lyu C, Gordon S, Hinckley A, Singer P. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:863-70 pubmed
    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure...
  42. Hinckley A, Bachand A, Reif J. Late pregnancy exposures to disinfection by-products and growth-related birth outcomes. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1808-13 pubmed
    ..Adjustment for potential confounders did not affect the conclusions. ..
  43. Caro J, Gallego M. Assessment of exposure of workers and swimmers to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:4793-8 pubmed
    A simultaneous study on workers' and swimmers' exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in an indoor swimming pool has been carried out by analyzing urine samples using the headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique...
  44. Pérez Pavón J, Martín S, García Pinto C, Moreno Cordero B. Headspace-programmed temperature vaporizer-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling for the determination of trihalomethanes in water. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1194:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..vaporizer (PTV) and an MS detector has been developed for the screening and quantitative determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in different aqueous matrices...
  45. Aylward L, LaKind J, Hays S. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE) dossier for trihalomethanes. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;51:S68-77 pubmed publisher
    Measurements of whole blood concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) have been reported in persons in the general population...
  46. Wei J, Ye B, Wang W, Yang L, Tao J, Hang Z. Spatial and temporal evaluations of disinfection by-products in drinking water distribution systems in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:4600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were the major disinfection by-products found in all treated water samples, which ..
  47. Lee J, Jun M, Lee M, Lee M, Eom S, Zoh K. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:465-74 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic ..
  48. Wei Y, Liu Y, Dai R, Liu X, Wu J, Shi Z, et al. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acid species from the chlorination of algal organic matter and bromide. Water Sci Technol. 2011;63:1111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The main aim of the present study is to explore their potential as precursors for trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acid (HAAs) speciation upon chlorination in the presence of bromide...
  49. Caro J, Gallego M. Alveolar air and urine analyses as biomarkers of exposure to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:5002-7 pubmed
    The exposure of workers and swimmers at an indoor swimming pool to trihalomethanes (THMs) as a consequence of water chlorination was evaluated by analyzing alveolar air and urine samples...
  50. Lewis C, Suffet I, Ritz B. Estimated effects of disinfection by-products on birth weight in a population served by a single water utility. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:38-47 pubmed
    ..The water system was monitored weekly for trihalomethanes and, system-wide, it maintained geographically stable total trihalomethane levels during the study period...
  51. LaKind J, Naiman D, Hays S, Aylward L, Blount B. Public health interpretation of trihalomethane blood levels in the United States: NHANES 1999-2004. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010;20:255-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Trihalomethanes (THMs) can form as byproducts during drinking water disinfection, which is crucial for limiting human exposure to disease-causing pathogens...
  52. Rahman M, Driscoll T, Clements M, Armstrong B, Cowie C. Effects of tap water processing on the concentration of disinfection by-products. J Water Health. 2011;9:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..electric kettle, and supply from an instant boiling water unit, with or without filtering, on four species of trihalomethanes (THMs) and nine species of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in water ready for consumption in Sydney, Australia...
  53. Costet N, Garlantezec R, Monfort C, Rouget F, Gagniere B, Chevrier C, et al. Environmental and urinary markers of prenatal exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products, fetal growth, and duration of gestation in the PELAGIE birth cohort (Brittany, France, 2002-2006). Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure was assessed by estimating levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water during pregnancy and maternal water use and by measuring maternal urinary levels of ..
  54. Summerhayes R, Morgan G, Edwards H, Lincoln D, Earnest A, Rahman B, et al. Exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and small-for-gestational-age births. Epidemiology. 2012;23:15-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Trihalomethanes in drinking water have been associated with higher occurrence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, although results have been inconsistent...
  55. Hinckley A, Bachand A, Nuckols J, Reif J. Identifying public water facilities with low spatial variability of disinfection by-products for epidemiological investigations. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:494-9 pubmed
    ..between THMs and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in these facilities was evaluated to see whether selection by total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) corresponds to low spatial variability for HAAs...
  56. Righi E, Bechtold P, Tortorici D, Lauriola P, Calzolari E, Astolfi G, et al. Trihalomethanes, chlorite, chlorate in drinking water and risk of congenital anomalies: a population-based case-control study in Northern Italy. Environ Res. 2012;116:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological evidence of an association between disinfection by-products (DBPs) exposure via drinking water and reproductive outcomes is still inconclusive...
  57. Weaver W, Li J, Wen Y, Johnston J, Blatchley M, Blatchley E. Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools. Water Res. 2009;43:3308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Pairwise correlations among the measured volatile DBPs allowed identification of dichloromethylamine and dichloroacetonitrile as potential swimming pool water quality indicator compounds...