halothane

Summary

Summary: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)

Top Publications

  1. Mandal P, Pettegrew J. Abeta peptide interactions with isoflurane, propofol, thiopental and combined thiopental with halothane: a NMR study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:2633-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, studies with combined anesthetics (thiopental and halothane), showed perturbation of these residues (G29, A30 and I31) and subsequently Abeta oligomerization was found...
  2. Wen Y, Yeh G, Shyu B, Ling Q, Wang K, Chen T, et al. A minimal stress model for the assessment of electroacupuncture analgesia in rats under halothane. Eur J Pain. 2007;11:733-42 pubmed
    ..1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, or 1.1% halothane for 120min. Under 0...
  3. Carpenter D, Robinson R, Quinnell R, Ringrose C, Hogg M, Casson F, et al. Genetic variation in RYR1 and malignant hyperthermia phenotypes. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103:538-48 pubmed publisher
    ..They may also inform a mutation screening strategy in cases of idiopathic hyperCKaemia. ..
  4. Kobayashi E, Kobayashi M, Tsuneyama K, Fukami T, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Halothane-induced liver injury is mediated by interleukin-17 in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been known that halothane, an inhaled anesthetic, induces liver injury...
  5. Orth M, Barter L, Dominguez C, Atherley R, Carstens E, Antognini J. Halothane and propofol differentially affect electroencephalographic responses to noxious stimulation. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:477-84 pubmed
    ..We investigated the actions of propofol and halothane on EEG responses to noxious stimuli, including repetitive electrical C-fibre stimulation, which normally evokes ..
  6. Moshitch D, Las L, Ulanovsky N, Bar Yosef O, Nelken I. Responses of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) to pure tones in the halothane-anesthetized cat. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:3756-69 pubmed
    ..Here we analyze frequency-response areas (FRAs) and temporal-response patterns of 1,828 units in A1 of halothane-anesthetized cats...
  7. Kuratani N, Oi Y. Greater incidence of emergence agitation in children after sevoflurane anesthesia as compared with halothane: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher incidence of emergence agitation has been suspected after sevoflurane anesthesia as compared with halothane, whereas some controlled studies showed conflicting results...
  8. Strzalka J, Liu J, Tronin A, Churbanova I, Johansson J, Blasie J. Mechanism of interaction between the general anesthetic halothane and a model ion channel protein, I: Structural investigations via X-ray reflectivity from Langmuir monolayers. Biophys J. 2009;96:4164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..on a synthetic ion channel and a hydrophilic domain with designed cavities for binding the general anesthetic halothane. In this work, we synthesized an improved version of this halothane-binding amphiphilic peptide with only a ..
  9. Lawrence J, Stroman P, Malisza K. Functional MRI of the cervical spinal cord during noxious and innocuous thermal stimulation in the alpha-chloralose- and halothane-anesthetized rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;26:1-10 pubmed
    ..The patterns of functional activity elicited by thermal stimuli were compared in alpha-chloralose- and halothane-anesthetized rats...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zhang S, Knight T, Stalder K, Goodwin R, Lonergan S, Beitz D. Effects of breed, sex, and halothane genotype on fatty acid composition of pork longissimus muscle. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:583-91 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of breed, sex, and halothane genotype on fatty acid composition and several fatty acid indices of lipid extracted from porcine LM...
  2. Barter L, Mark L, Jinks S, Carstens E, Antognini J. Immobilizing doses of halothane, isoflurane or propofol, do not preferentially depress noxious heat-evoked responses of rat lumbar dorsal horn neurons with ascending projections. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:985-90, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal responses to heat were evaluated under two doses of halothane, isoflurane, or propofol anesthesia. Under both halothane and isoflurane anesthesia, increasing the dose from 0...
  3. Murrell J, Waters D, Johnson C. Comparative effects of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on the electroencephalogram of the rat. Lab Anim. 2008;42:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Halothane causes less EEG depression than isoflurane, however, the EEG effects of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and ..
  4. Chung J, Ahn J, Kim J, Lee H, Kang H, Lee Y, et al. The effect of isoflurane, halothane and pentobarbital on noise-induced hearing loss in mice. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1404-8, table of contents pubmed
    ..were exposed to broad band white noise for 3 h per day for 3 consecutive days, with or without anesthesia, using halothane, isoflurane, or pentobarbital...
  5. Zou H, Liu J, Blasie J. Mechanism of interaction between the general anesthetic halothane and a model ion channel protein, III: Molecular dynamics simulation incorporating a cyanophenylalanine spectroscopic probe. Biophys J. 2009;96:4188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..from experiment showed a blue-shift of the nitrile vibrational frequency in the presence of the anesthetic halothane. To interpret the infrared results and explore the nature of the interaction between halothane and the model ..
  6. Zhang S, Knight T, Stalder K, Goodwin R, Lonergan S, Beitz D. Effects of breed, sex and halothane genotype on fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in pork longissimus muscle. J Anim Breed Genet. 2009;126:259-68 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of breed, sex, and halothane (HAL-1843) genotype on fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) extracted from porcine longissimus muscle (LM)...
  7. Saghaei M, Ahmadi A, Rezvani M. Clinical trial of nitroglycerin-induced controlled hypotension with or without acupoint electrical stimulation in microscopic middle ear surgery under general anesthesia with halothane. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2005;43:135-9 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of blood pressure lowering effect of acupoint ES may be reducing of norepinephrine and other sympathomimetic substances in the blood. ..
  8. Kumar G, Bhat V, Sowdi V. Fulminant hepatic failure following halothane anaesthesia. J Clin Forensic Med. 2005;12:271-3 pubmed
    ..to his left hand in an industrial accident, died due to, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy and acute renal failure, having undergone six operations under general anesthesia with halothane during his stay in the hospital.
  9. Johnson C, Wilson P, Woodbury M, Caulkett N. Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in halothane-anaesthetized red deer (Cervus elaphus): electroencephalographic responses. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2005;32:61-71 pubmed
    ..25 +/- 1.28 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.18 +/- 0.15 mg kg(-1)) and maintained with halothane in oxygen...
  10. Mitsuyo T, Dutton R, Antognini J, Carstens E. The differential effects of halothane and isoflurane on windup of dorsal horn neurons selected in unanesthetized decerebrated rats. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:753-60 pubmed
    b>Halothane and isoflurane, in the peri-minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) range, exert differential effects on spinal nociceptive neurons, whereby halothane further depresses their responses from 0.8 to 1...
  11. Li L, Xia D, Wei S, Li X, Parvizi N, Zhao R. Diminished expression of ACTH signaling proteins and steroidogenic limiting factors in adrenocortical cells isolated from halothane nn pigs. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2008;35:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies demonstrated significantly lower plasma cortisol level in homozygous halothane-positive (Hal nn) pigs, as compared with homozygous halothane-negative (Hal NN) pigs...
  12. Mandal P, Simplaceanu V, Fodale V. Intravenous anesthetic diazepam does not induce amyloid-beta peptide oligomerization but diazepam co-administered with halothane oligomerizes amyloid-beta peptide: an NMR study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of a larger sized intravenous anesthetic, diazepam, as well as diazepam co-administered with halothane, on Abeta...
  13. Cheng L, You Q, Yin H, Holt M, Ju C. Involvement of natural killer T cells in halothane-induced liver injury in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently developed a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI)...
  14. Allison C, Johnson R, Doumit M. The effects of halothane sensitivity on carcass composition and meat quality in HAL-1843-normal pigs. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:671-8 pubmed
    Objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of halothane sensitivity in pigs that are homozygous normal at the ryanodine receptor nucleotide 1843 (HAL-1843-normal) and the relationships between halothane sensitivity and ..
  15. Umamaheswara Rao G, Ali Z, Ramamoorthy M, Patil J. Equi-MAC concentrations of halothane and isoflurane do not produce similar bispectral index values. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2007;19:93-6 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to examine the BIS values produced by equi-MAC concentrations of halothane and isoflurane...
  16. Pan J, Xi J, Eckenhoff M, Eckenhoff R. Inhaled anesthetics elicit region-specific changes in protein expression in mammalian brain. Proteomics. 2008;8:2983-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative analysis shows that 5 h exposures to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (1 MAC) halothane caused changes in the expression of approximately 2% of detectable proteins, but only at 2-24 h after awakening, ..
  17. Cheng L, You Q, Yin H, Holt M, Franklin C, Ju C. Effect of polyI:C cotreatment on halothane-induced liver injury in mice. Hepatology. 2009;49:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA mimetic (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [polyI:C]) to emulate viral infection and examined its effect on halothane-induced liver injury...
  18. Liu L, Haddadian E, Willenbring D, Xu Y, Tang P. Higher susceptibility to halothane modulation in open- than in closed-channel alpha4beta2 nAChR revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Flexible ligand docking and over 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations revealed similar halothane-binding sites in the closed and open channels...
  19. Kvolik S, Glavas Obrovac L, Bares V, Karner I. Effects of inhalation anesthetics halothane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane on human cell lines. Life Sci. 2005;77:2369-83 pubmed
    Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in anesthetic doses on human colon carcinoma (Caco-2), larynx carcinoma (HEp-2), pancreatic carcinoma cells (MIA PaCa-2), poorly differentiated cells from ..
  20. Pan J, Xi J, Tobias J, Eckenhoff M, Eckenhoff R. Halothane binding proteome in human brain cortex. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:582-92 pubmed
    ..To identify the anesthetic-binding targets and functional pathways associated with these targets in human brain, halothane photolabeling and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis were used...
  21. Dai X, Wildgoose G, Compton R. Apparent 'electrocatalytic' activity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the detection of the anaesthetic halothane: occluded copper nanoparticles. Analyst. 2006;131:901-6 pubmed
    The electrocatalytic detection of the anaesthetic halothane on a multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported with a low limit of detection of 4.6 microM...
  22. Sedensky M, Pujazon M, Morgan P. Tail clamp responses in stomatin knockout mice compared with mobility assays in Caenorhabditis elegans during exposure to diethyl ether, halothane, and isoflurane. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:498-502 pubmed
    ..Mice were placed in semiclosed chambers and exposed to continuous flows of diethyl ether, halothane, or isoflurane in air...
  23. Yoo K, Lee J, Yoon M, Shin M, Kim S, Kim Y, et al. The effects of volatile anesthetics on spontaneous contractility of isolated human pregnant uterine muscle: a comparison among sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:443-7, table of contents pubmed
    We examined the effects of equianesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and halothane on the spontaneous contractility of isolated human pregnant uterine muscles...
  24. Murrell J, White K, Johnson C, Taylor P, Doherty T, Waterman Pearson A. Investigation of the EEG effects of intravenous lidocaine during halothane anaesthesia in ponies. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2005;32:212-21 pubmed
    To record the electroencephalographic changes during castration in ponies anaesthetized with halothane and given intravenous (IV) lidocaine by infusion...
  25. Liu J, Strzalka J, Tronin A, Johansson J, Blasie J. Mechanism of interaction between the general anesthetic halothane and a model ion channel protein, II: Fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopy using a cyanophenylalanine probe. Biophys J. 2009;96:4176-87 pubmed publisher
    ..that cyano-phenylalanine (Phe(CN)) can be utilized to probe the binding of the inhalational anesthetic halothane to an anesthetic-binding, model ion channel protein hbAP-Phe(CN)...
  26. Durongphongtorn S, McDonell W, Kerr C, Neto F, Mirakhur K. Comparison of hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of anesthesia with isoflurane and halothane in horses undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67:32-42 pubmed
    To compare hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of halothane and isoflurane in horses undergoing arthroscopic surgery. 8 healthy adult horses...
  27. Allison C, Marr A, Berry N, Anderson D, Ivers D, Richardson L, et al. Effects of halothane sensitivity on mobility status and blood metabolites of HAL-1843-normal pigs after rigorous handling. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:1015-21 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine if HAL-1843-normal pigs that respond abnormally to halothane anesthesia were more likely to become nonambulatory (NA) when subjected to rigorous handling than pigs that exhibit a normal ..
  28. Taninishi H, Takeda Y, Kobayashi M, Sasaki T, Arai M, Morita K. Effect of nitrous oxide on neuronal damage and extracellular glutamate concentration as a function of mild, moderate, or severe ischemia in halothane-anesthetized gerbils. Anesthesiology. 2008;108:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-two gerbils were anesthetized with 1% halothane and randomly assigned to receive 70% nitrous oxide or 70% nitrogen...
  29. Mowrey D, Haddadian E, Liu L, Willenbring D, Xu Y, Tang P. Unresponsive correlated motion in alpha7 nAChR to halothane binding explains its functional insensitivity to volatile anesthetics. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:7649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhaled general anesthetics, such as halothane, could effectively inhibit the channel activity of the alpha4beta2 nAChR but not the homologous alpha7 nAChR...
  30. Bahnasi Y, Wright H, Milligan C, Dedman A, Zeng F, Hopkins P, et al. Modulation of TRPC5 cation channels by halothane, chloroform and propofol. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Gd3+) and phospholipids (e.g. lysophosphatidylcholine: LPC). Here we report the effects of inhalational (halothane and chloroform) and intravenous (propofol) general anaesthetics upon TRPC5...
  31. Cheng M, Coalson R, Tang P. Molecular dynamics and brownian dynamics investigation of ion permeation and anesthetic halothane effects on a proton-gated ion channel. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:16442-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Its function can be modulated by anesthetic halothane. In the present work, we integrate molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to elucidate ..
  32. You Q, Cheng L, Reilly T, Wegmann D, Ju C. Role of neutrophils in a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2006;44:1421-31 pubmed
    ..We developed a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury and characterized the mechanisms accounting for tissue damage...
  33. Yurdakoc A, Gunday I, Memis D. Effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on lipid peroxidation following experimental closed head trauma in rats. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:658-63 pubmed publisher
    In a rat closed head trauma model we examined both the time course of lipid peroxidation and the effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on it by analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation...
  34. Cuellar J, Dutton R, Antognini J, Carstens E. Differential effects of halothane and isoflurane on lumbar dorsal horn neuronal windup and excitability. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94:617-25 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that halothane and isoflurane would differentially affect windup of dorsal horn neurones...
  35. Nguyen C, Rose N, Njoku D. Trifluoroacetylated IgG4 antibodies in a child with idiosyncratic acute liver failure after first exposure to halothane. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:199-202 pubmed publisher
  36. Dugan C, MacDonald A, Roth R, Ganey P. A mouse model of severe halothane hepatitis based on human risk factors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:364-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-ethane) is an inhaled anesthetic that induces severe, idiosyncratic liver injury, i.e., "halothane hepatitis," in approximately 1 in 20,000 human patients...
  37. Gil A, Silvan G, Martínez Mateos M, Illera J. Serum catecholamine levels after halothane and isoflurane anaesthesia in rabbits. Vet Rec. 2005;157:589-90 pubmed
  38. Glenski J, Friesen R, Hassanein R, Henry D. Comparison of the hemodynamic and echocardiographic effects of sufentanil, fentanyl, isoflurane, and halothane for pediatric cardiovascular surgery. J Cardiothorac Anesth. 1988;2:147-55 pubmed
    Sufentanil, fentanyl, halothane, and isoflurane were compared as sole anesthetic agents in 48 infants and children aged 6 months to 9 years, undergoing repair of congenital heart defects...
  39. Raisis A, Blissitt K, Henley W, Rogers K, Adams V, Young L. The effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function in laterally recumbent horses. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:317-25 pubmed
    ..maintained with isoflurane is associated with less depression of cardiovascular function compared with halothane anaesthesia. Adverse effects of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) have also been demonstrated...
  40. Singaram V, Somerlot B, Falk S, Falk M, Sedensky M, Morgan P. Optical reversal of halothane-induced immobility in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2011;21:2070-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that halothane, a VA, caused immobility by altering the neuronal RMP. In C...
  41. Weinrich M, Rostovtseva T, Bezrukov S. Lipid-dependent effects of halothane on gramicidin channel kinetics: a new role for lipid packing stress. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5501-3 pubmed publisher
    We find that the sensitivity of gramicidin A channels to the anesthetic halothane is highly lipid dependent...
  42. Tirel O, Wodey E, Harris R, Bansard J, Ecoffey C, Senhadji L. The impact of age on bispectral index values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with desflurane and halothane in children. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96:480-5 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to quantify the BIS values at 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) for desflurane and halothane, and explore the relationship with age for these anaesthetic agents in children...
  43. Proctor W, Chakraborty M, Chea L, Morrison J, Berkson J, Semple K, et al. Eosinophils mediate the pathogenesis of halothane-induced liver injury in mice. Hepatology. 2013;57:2026-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We decided to investigate this problem in a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI)...
  44. Westphalen R, Krivitski M, Amarosa A, Guy N, Hemmings H. Reduced inhibition of cortical glutamate and GABA release by halothane in mice lacking the K+ channel, TREK-1. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:939-45 pubmed
    ..The effects of halothane on 4-aminopyridine-evoked and basal [(3)H]glutamate and [(14)C]GABA release from cerebrocortical nerve terminals ..
  45. Horiguchi T, Kis B, Rajapakse N, Shimizu K, Busija D. Cortical spreading depression (CSD)-induced tolerance to transient focal cerebral ischemia in halothane anesthetized rats is affected by anesthetic level but not ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Brain Res. 2005;1062:127-33 pubmed
    ..of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, adenosine A1 receptors, and the effects of different levels of halothane anesthesia in the development of CSD-induced ischemic tolerance. To elicit CSD, 0...
  46. Hasani A, Ozgen S, Baftiu N. Emergence agitation in children after propofol versus halothane anesthesia. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:CR302-6 pubmed
    The administration of anesthetic agents is associated with a high incidence of emergence agitation in children. Halothane and propofol appear to cause much less emergence agitation...
  47. Bianchi S, Caltagarone B, LaFerla F, Eckenhoff R, Kelz M. Inhaled anesthetic potency in aged Alzheimer mice. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:427-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the induction potency and emergence time for isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane using the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for loss of righting reflex as an end point ..
  48. Schuster F, Scholl H, Hager M, Müller R, Roewer N, Anetseder M. The dose-response relationship and regional distribution of lactate after intramuscular injection of halothane and caffeine in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible pigs. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:468-72 pubmed
    We hypothesized that IM halothane and caffeine injection increases local lactate concentration dose-dependently in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) and nonsusceptible (MHN) pigs and that the hypermetabolic reaction measured by ..
  49. Bendel O, Alkass K, Bueters T, von Euler M, von Euler G. Reproducible loss of CA1 neurons following carotid artery occlusion combined with halothane-induced hypotension. Brain Res. 2005;1033:135-42 pubmed
    ..We have utilized the hypotensive effect of halothane administrated by artificial respiration to prevent respiratory arrest and to ensure stable physiological ..
  50. Johannsen S, Klingler W, Schneiderbanger D, Heiderich S, Roewer N, Schuster F. Sevoflurane is less sensitive than halothane for in vitro detection of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013;57:1161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and nonsusceptible individuals in vitro and compared the results to the standardized test protocol with halothane and caffeine. A potential influence of a present ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) mutation was investigated...
  51. Toyoda Y, Miyashita T, Endo S, Tsuneyama K, Fukami T, Nakajima M, et al. Estradiol and progesterone modulate halothane-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicol Lett. 2011;204:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, it is believed that women exhibit worse outcomes from DILI than men. It is known that halothane (HAL), an inhaled anesthetic, rarely induces severe liver injury...
  52. Kim J, Yao A, Atherley R, Carstens E, Jinks S, Antognini J. Neurons in the ventral spinal cord are more depressed by isoflurane, halothane, and propofol than are neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1020-6, table of contents pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that isoflurane, halothane, and propofol would exert a greater depressant effect on nociceptive responses of ventral horn neurons when ..
  53. Streiff J, Allen T, Atanasova E, Juranic N, Macura S, Penheiter A, et al. Prediction of volatile anesthetic binding sites in proteins. Biophys J. 2006;91:3405-14 pubmed
    ..The binding of VAs to these hydrophobic pockets is supported by evidence that halothane predominantly makes contact with aliphatic resonances in [Ca(2+)](4)-CaM (nuclear Overhauser effect) and ..