Summary: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Gregg K, Hamdorf B, Henderson K, Kopecny J, Wong C. Genetically modified ruminal bacteria protect sheep from fluoroacetate poisoning. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:3496-8 pubmed
    ..Five inoculated sheep showed markedly reduced toxicological symptoms after fluoroacetate poisoning when behavioral, physiological, and histological effects were compared with those of five uninoculated control sheep...
  2. Liu J, Kurihara T, Ichiyama S, Miyagi M, Tsunasawa S, Kawasaki H, et al. Reaction mechanism of fluoroacetate dehalogenase from Moraxella sp. B. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:30897-902 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that His-272 probably acts as a base catalyst for the hydrolysis of the covalent ester intermediate...
  3. Hülsmann S, Oku Y, Zhang W, Richter D. Metabolic coupling between glia and neurons is necessary for maintaining respiratory activity in transverse medullary slices of neonatal mouse. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:856-62 pubmed
    ..This data demonstrates that the glutamate-glutamine cycle in astrocytes and their supply of glutamine to neuronal glutamatergic terminals is essential for the rhythm generation in the respiratory centre...
  4. Turner J, Greville K, Murphy E, Hooks M. Characterization of Arabidopsis fluoroacetate-resistant mutants reveals the principal mechanism of acetate activation for entry into the glyoxylate cycle. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2780-7 pubmed
  5. Liu R, Chou T, Chang C, Wu C, Chang C, Chang T, et al. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and PET imaging of [(18)F]FMISO, [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FAc in a sarcoma- and inflammation-bearing mouse model. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and imaging of these three tracers in a sarcoma- and inflammation-bearing mouse model...
  6. Zarkovic J, Anderson S, Rhoads D. A reporter gene system used to study developmental expression of alternative oxidase and isolate mitochondrial retrograde regulation mutants in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;57:871-88 pubmed
    ..Taken altogether, the data provide genetic evidence that suggests that induction of the AtAOX1a gene by distinct mitochondrial perturbations are via distinct, but overlapping signaling pathways that are tissue specific...
  7. Lindhe O, Sun A, Ulin J, Rahman O, Langstrom B, Sorensen J. [(18)F]Fluoroacetate is not a functional analogue of [(11)C]acetate in normal physiology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the logistic challenges with C-AC, 2-[(18)F]fluoroacetate (F-AC) has been proposed as a marker for prostate cancer imaging...
  8. Davis C, Denman S, Sly L, McSweeney C. Development of a colorimetric colony-screening assay for detection of defluorination by micro-organisms. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;53:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop a colorimetric colony-screening assay to facilitate the isolation of micro-organisms capable of defluorination...
  9. Macrae J, Sheiner L, Nahid A, Tonkin C, Striepen B, McConville M. Mitochondrial metabolism of glucose and glutamine is required for intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:682-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, T. gondii tachyzoites have metabolic flexibility that likely allows the parasite to infect diverse cell types...

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Dennis C. Baiting plan to remove fox threat to Tasmanian wildlife. Nature. 2002;416:357 pubmed
  2. Thust S, Koksch B. Protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis for the site-specific incorporation of alpha-fluoroalkyl amino acids into peptides. J Org Chem. 2003;68:2290-6 pubmed
    ..Trypsin was shown to be the more versatile protease. ..
  3. Mori T, Sun L, Kobayashi M, Kiyono Y, Okazawa H, Furukawa T, et al. Preparation and evaluation of ethyl [(18)F]fluoroacetate as a proradiotracer of [(18)F]fluoroacetate for the measurement of glial metabolism by PET. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..18)F]EFA rapidly enters the brain and is then converted into TCA cycle metabolites in the brains of common marmosets. [(18)F]EFA shows promise as a proradiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism. ..
  4. Nugent G, Warburton B, Thomson C, Cross M, Coleman M. Bait aggregation to reduce cost and toxin use in aerial 1080 baiting of small mammal pests in New Zealand. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:1374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Aggregated bait delivery could have relevance for other mammalian pest control scenarios internationally. ..
  5. Nakayama T, Kamachi T, Jitsumori K, Omi R, Hirotsu K, Esaki N, et al. Substrate specificity of fluoroacetate dehalogenase: an insight from crystallographic analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and theoretical computations. Chemistry. 2012;18:8392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Chloroacetate cannot reach the reactive conformation, due to the longer C-Cl bond; this results in an increase of the activation energy despite the weaker C-Cl bond. ..
  6. Eason C. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) risk assessment and risk communication. Toxicology. 2002;181-182:523-30 pubmed
    ..The benefits of 1080 use in conservation, pest control, and disease control should be weighed up alongside the risks of using 1080 and other techniques for pest control. ..
  7. Canosa P, Rodriguez I, Rubi E, Cela R. Optimization of solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of triclosan and possible related compounds in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1072:107-15 pubmed
    ..The method was applied to several samples of treated and raw wastewater, triclosan was found in all samples, at concentrations from 120 to 14,000 ng/l, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in most of them, at levels up to 2222 ng/l. ..
  8. Zhang L, Liu Y, Xie M, Qiu Y. Simultaneous determination of thyreostatic residues in animal tissues by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1074:1-7 pubmed
    ..5% and 8.7%. ..
  9. Luben T, Nuckols J, Mosley B, Hobbs C, Reif J. Maternal exposure to water disinfection by-products during gestation and risk of hypospadias. Occup Environ Med. 2008;65:420-9 pubmed
    ..Our results provide little evidence for a positive relationship between DBP exposure during gestation and an increased risk of hypospadias but emphasise the necessity of including individual-level data when assessing exposure to DBPs. ..
  10. Thompson M, Adams H, Chen B. Development of a diversity-oriented approach to oxazole-5-amide libraries. J Org Chem. 2009;74:3856-65 pubmed publisher
  11. Zurita J, Jos A, Cameán A, Salguero M, López Artíguez M, Repetto G. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sodium fluoroacetate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on two fish cell lines. Chemosphere. 2007;67:1-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, sulphydryl groups and oxidative stress could be involved in PLHC-1 cell death induced by SMFA more than changes in calcium homeostasis. ..
  12. Holstege C, Bechtel L, Reilly T, Wispelwey B, Dobmeier S. Unusual but potential agents of terrorists. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2007;25:549-66; abstract xi pubmed
    ..It is beyond the scope of this article to review all potential terrorist agents. Rather, four potential agents have been chosen for review: sodium monofluoroacetate, trichothecene mycotoxins, vomiting agents, and saxitoxin. ..
  13. Zhou Y, Wang Z, Jia N. Formation of multiple trimethylsilyl derivatives in the derivatization of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol with BSTFA or MSTFA followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. J Environ Sci (China). 2007;19:879-84 pubmed
    ..This problem can be solved by adding trimethylsilylimidaz (TMSI) in the BSTFA reagent as recommended, and the performance of the method has been proved in this study. ..
  14. B Hymer C, Butler M, Cheever K. Comparison and evaluation of analysis procedures for the quantification of (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid in urine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005;383:201-9 pubmed
    ..The limit of detection (LOD) and other figures of merit for both derivatization procedures will be discussed in detail. Applications of these analysis procedures are also discussed. ..
  15. Heffernan B, Murphy C, Casey E. Comparison of planktonic and biofilm cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8341 cells grown on fluoroacetate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2899-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatial stratification of oxygen within the biofilm was identified as a possible explanation for the overflow metabolism of glycolate and the decreased performance of the biofilm cells. ..
  16. Charba J, Nakata H. Role of glutamate in the sporogenesis of Bacillus cereus. J Bacteriol. 1977;130:242-8 pubmed
  17. Lantum H, Baggs R, Krenitsky D, Anders M. Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:261-8 pubmed
    ..2 mmol DFA/kg/day for 5 days had normal urine volumes but showed proximal and distal tubular damage; fluoride excretion was not elevated. The mechanism of DFA-induced nephrotoxicity is not known but appears to differ from that of CFA. ..
  18. Forsdahl G, Gmeiner G. Quantification and stability of salbutamol in human urine. J Sep Sci. 2004;27:110-4 pubmed
    ..Above that value a doping violation occurs. In addition, the stability of salbutamol in human urine has been evaluated. ..
  19. Murphy C, Schaffrath C, O Hagan D. Fluorinated natural products: the biosynthesis of fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine in Streptomyces cattleya. Chemosphere. 2003;52:455-61 pubmed
    ..cattleya have identified two enzymes, an aldehyde dehydrogenase and a threonine transaldolase, that are involved in the biotransformation of fluoroacetaldehyde to fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine. ..
  20. Proudfoot A, Bradberry S, Vale J. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25:213-9 pubmed
    ..The immediate, and probably only, management of fluoroacetate poisoning is therefore supportive, including the correction of hypocalcaemia. ..
  21. Fornalczyk M, Singh K, Stuart A. Synthesis of ?-fluoro-?-hydroxy esters by an enantioselective Reformatsky-type reaction. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:3500-2 pubmed publisher
    ..For smaller alkyl groups the diastereoselectivities were moderate, but excellent enantioselectivities were obtained for both diastereomers (79-94% ee). ..
  22. Eusterwiemann S, Martinez H, Dolbier W. Methyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate, a difluorocarbene reagent with reactivity comparable to that of trimethylsilyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate (TFDA). J Org Chem. 2012;77:5461-4 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, in reaction with highly unreactive n-butyl acrylate and using only 2 equiv of MDFA, a yield of 76% of difluorocyclopropane product was obtained after 2 days. ..
  23. Kawase -, Sunaga K, Tani S, Niwa M, Uematsu T. Trifluoromethyl ketone-based inhibitors of apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:1335-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these compounds effectively suppressed DNA fragmentation accompanied with apoptosis. The neuroprotection mode of 2 and 11 was not related to inhibition of caspase-3. ..
  24. Vincent S, Gastinel L. An efficient synthesis of GDP-hexanolamine, a key tool for the purification of fucosyltransferases. Carbohydr Res. 2002;337:1039-42 pubmed
    ..The pyrophosphate formation, the key step of this preparation, was achieved through a sequential GMP activation procedure based on polytrifluoroacetylation of GMP followed by activation of the phosphate group by 1-methylimidazole. ..
  25. Onega M, McGlinchey R, Deng H, Hamilton J, O Hagan D. The identification of (3R,4S)-5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribulose-1-phosphate as an intermediate in fluorometabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces cattleya. Bioorg Chem. 2007;35:375-85 pubmed
    ..It was demonstrated that 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribose gave the identical diastereoisomer to that observed from 5-FDRulP. ..
  26. Venner A, Karnani M, González J, Jensen L, Fugger L, Burdakov D. Orexin neurons as conditional glucosensors: paradoxical regulation of sugar sensing by intracellular fuels. J Physiol. 2011;589:5701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this unexpected intrinsic property of orexin cells allows them to act as 'conditional glucosensors' that preferentially respond to glucose during reduced background energy levels. ..
  27. Alexandrino D, Ribeiro I, Pinto L, Cambra R, Oliveira R, Pereira F, et al. Biodegradation of mono-, di- and trifluoroacetate by microbial cultures with different origins. N Biotechnol. 2018;43:23-29 pubmed publisher
    This work focused on the biodegradation of three structurally related fluoroacetates (FAs), mono- (MFA), di- (DFA) and trifluoroacetate (TFA), using as microbial inocula samples collected from a site with a long history of industrial ..
  28. Ponde D, Dence C, Oyama N, Kim J, Tai Y, Laforest R, et al. 18F-fluoroacetate: a potential acetate analog for prostate tumor imaging--in vivo evaluation of 18F-fluoroacetate versus 11C-acetate. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:420-8 pubmed
    ..All of these data indicate that (18)F-FAC may be a useful alternative to (11)C-ACE tracer for the detection of prostate tumors by PET. ..
  29. Wilkinson D, Hulst A, de Reuver L, van Krimpen S, van Baar B. The fate of the chemical warfare agent during DNA extraction. J Forensic Sci. 2007;52:1272-83 pubmed
    ..02 mg/mL) for diazinon. Therefore, once extracted these DNA samples could be safely processed in a forensic laboratory. ..
  30. Tsuji H, Shimizu H, Dote T, Usuda K, Imanishi M, Tanida E, et al. Effects of sodium monofluoroacetate on glucose, amino-acid, and fatty-acid metabolism and risk assessment of glucose supplementation. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2009;32:353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..All these changes are inter-related and may contribute to SMFA intoxication. ..
  31. Stehmann A, Schröder H. Derivatisation of 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A with halogenated anhydrides. Water Sci Technol. 2004;50:115-8 pubmed
    ..The NMR-spectra contained the predicted resonance signals...
  32. Lien S, Kvitvang H, Bruheim P. Utilization of a deuterated derivatization agent to synthesize internal standards for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of silylated metabolites. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1247:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed method is thus a valuable contribution to the field of absolute quantitative metabolomics...
  33. Shareef A, Parnis C, Angove M, Wells J, Johnson B. Suitability of N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide as derivatization reagents for the determination of the estrogens estrone and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol by gas chromatography-mass spec. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1026:295-300 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these reagents may not be suitable for simultaneous determination of estrogens in environmental samples, which raises questions about the reliability of results from some earlier studies. ..
  34. Kobayashi J, Nakamura M, Mori Y, Yamashita Y, Kobayashi S. Catalytic enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reactions of glycine-derived silicon enolate with aldehydes: an efficient approach to the asymmetric synthesis of anti-beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acid derivatives. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:9192-3 pubmed
    ..The resulting N-trifluoroacetyl group is easily cleaved under either acidic or basic conditions and can be used directly as a protecting group for further transformations...
  35. Bowden J, Colosi D, Mora Montero D, Garrett T, Yost R. Enhancement of chemical derivatization of steroids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009;877:3237-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, generalized rules for steroid derivatization are described. ..
  36. Gómez Castaño J, Romano R, Beckers H, Willner H, Della Vedova C. Trifluoroselenoacetic acid, CF(3)C(O)SeH: preparation and properties. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:9972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead of CF(3)SeH, CF(2)Se, and HF were detected among the pyrolysis products. The different decomposition pathways of CF(3)C(O)SeH are discussed. ..
  37. Yang P, Shi W, Zhou H, Liu L, Deng Q. [Determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in human blood and food samples by ion chromatography]. Se Pu. 2004;22:177-80 pubmed
    ..9978 within the range from 0.10 to 10.0 mg/L. The detection limit for blood was 2.5 mg/L. This method also can be used for the determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in food samples. ..
  38. Berendsen B, Mulder P, van Rhijn H. The derivatisation of avermectins and milbemycins in milk: new insights and improvement of the procedure. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;585:126-33 pubmed
    ..Using the optimised procedure a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.1 microg kg(-1) in milk was readily obtained. ..
  39. Xie W, Chen Z, Li X. [Advances in the detection method of several forbidden rodenticides]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2002;31:316-8 pubmed
    ..The progress of detection method of four forbidden rodenticides, including fluoroacetamide, sodium fluoroacetate, gliftor and tetramine is reviewed in this paper. The technique of sample preparation and gas chromatography are emphasized. ..
  40. Shareef A, Angove M, Wells J. Optimization of silylation using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide, N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide for the determination of the estrogens estrone and 17alpha-ethinyl. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1108:121-8 pubmed
    ..However, we can confirm that any of the TMS reagents can be used with either pyridine or dimethyl formamide under suitable reaction conditions. ..
  41. Turner R, Hauksson N, Gipe J, Lokey R. Selective, on-resin N-methylation of peptide N-trifluoroacetamides. Org Lett. 2013;15:5012-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The Tfa group was removed quickly and completely by reduction with excess NaBH4, and it was shown to be orthogonal to many of the protecting groups used in solid-phase peptide synthesis. ..
  42. Molnár B, Fodor B, Boldizsár I, Molnár Perl I. Trimethylsilyl speciations of cathine, cathinone and norephedrine followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry: Direct sample preparation and analysis of khatamines. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1440:172-178 pubmed publisher
    ..061w/w% CAT and 0.014w/w% NE contents were obtained. In this tissue CTN was not found. Very likely attributable to the unfavorable climate for the plant: grown in Hungary of temperate zone and naturalized in the tropical Africa. ..
  43. Kress M, Meissner D, Kaiser P, Hanke R, Wood W. The measurement of theophylline in human serum or plasma using gas chromatography and isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) taking other substituted xanthines into consideration. Clin Lab. 2002;48:535-40 pubmed
    ..The extraction and derivatisation procedures were examined in detail and optimised stepwise during the development of the method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for comparison. ..
  44. Wagner M. Molecular depth profiling of multilayer polymer films using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2005;77:911-22 pubmed
    ..This study shows that polyatomic primary ions can be used for the molecular depth profiling of some multilayer polymer films and presents new opportunities for the analysis of thin organic films using TOF-SIMS. ..
  45. Kuznetsov S. [Studies of ECG, parameters of external breathing and motor activity of rats of different ages during acute fluoroacetamide intoxication]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2006;42:346-58 pubmed
  46. Gotoh K, Yamamoto T, Yoshimatsu M. Scandium-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formations using alpha-organosulfanyl and organoselanyl-alpha-fluoroacetic acid derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1611-5 pubmed
    The scandium-catalyzed reactions of alpha-organosulfanyl and organoselanyl-alpha-fluoroacetates 1-2, acetamides 3-4 and acetonitrile 5 with soft nucleophiles proceeded to give the products 6a-b, 7a-c, 8a-c, 9a-e in good to high yields...
  47. Dharuman S, Gupta P, Kancharla P, Vankar Y. Synthesis of 2-nitroglycals from glycals using the tetrabutylammonium nitrate-trifluoroacetic anhydride-triethylamine reagent system and base-catalyzed Ferrier rearrangement of acetylated 2-nitroglycals. J Org Chem. 2013;78:8442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactivity of these nitroacetates and associated selectivity has been examined, and some of the products have been converted into 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxyglycosides and methyl N-acetyl-D-lividosaminide. ..
  48. Ouyang Y, Tinianow J, Cherry S, Marik J. Evaluation of 2-[¹?F]fluoroacetate kinetics in rodent models of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:836-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that kinetic modeling of [(18)F]FACE uptake represents a potentially useful tool for interrogation of glial metabolism. ..
  49. Di Gioia M, Leggio A, Le Pera A, Liguori A, Napoli A, Perri F, et al. Determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of p-phenylenediamine in hair dyes after conversion to an imine derivative. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1066:143-8 pubmed
    ..The regression calibration curves for PPDA in hair dyes are linear within 0.1 +/- 25 mg/ml with 0.99 as a typical correlation coefficient...
  50. Fraser J, Kaminsky L. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol intestinal and bone marrow toxicity: the role of its metabolism to 2,2,2-trifluoroacetaldehyde and trifluoroacetic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988;94:84-92 pubmed
  51. Ogilvie S, Ataria J, Waiwai J, Doherty J, Lambert M, Lambert N, et al. Uptake and persistence of the vertebrate pesticide, sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080), in plants of cultural importance. Ecotoxicology. 2006;15:1-7 pubmed
    ..To allay community concerns that minute concentrations of 1080 might influence the medicinal properties of plants, it is suggested a withholding period of 30 days after 1080 control operations could be adopted...
  52. Takeda N. [Selective synthesis of benzofurans and dihydrobenzofurans via efficient rearrangement as key reaction]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008;128:1139-47 pubmed
    ..Synthetic utility of these selective constructions is demonstrated by the formal total synthesis of (+/-)-lunarine and the short synthesis of natural 2-arylbenzofurans...
  53. Yoon H. Determination of plasma dibasic amino acids following trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacyl derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present study suggest that this method could be useful for diagnosis, screening, therapeutic monitoring of metabolic disorders on dietary therapy with excellent sensitivity and rapidity...
  54. Baverel G, Martin G, Michoudet C. Glutamine synthesis from aspartate in guinea-pig renal cortex. Biochem J. 1990;268:437-42 pubmed
  55. Kato T, Shimamoto Y, Uchida J, Ohshimo H, Abe M, Shirasaka T, et al. Possible regulation of 5-fluorouracil-induced neuro- and oral toxicities by two biochemical modulators consisting of S-1, a new oral formulation of 5-fluorouracil. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:1705-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that oral S-1 could be employed for the treatment of cancer patients with marked reduction in the incidence of toxicities including encephalopathy, stomatitis and diarrhea...
  56. Wang F, Dicinoski G, Zhu Y, Haddad P. Simultaneous determination of monofluoroacetate, difluoroacetate and trifluoroacetate in environmental samples by ion chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1032:31-5 pubmed
    ..The fluoroacetates were successfully separated from a range of inorganic and organic species likely to be present in ..
  57. Lee J, Tommerdahl M, Favorov O, Whitsel B. Optically recorded response of the superficial dorsal horn: dissociation from neuronal activity, sensitivity to formalin-evoked skin nociceptor activation. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:852-64 pubmed
  58. O Halloran K, Jones D, Booth L, Fisher P. Ecotoxicity of sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) to soil organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1211-8 pubmed
    ..1 mg/kg) following application of 1080 in baits for vertebrate pest control in New Zealand...
  59. Goh C, Hodgson D, Fearnside S, Heller J, Malikides N. Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) poisoning in dogs. Aust Vet J. 2005;83:474-9 pubmed
    ..Safety measures such as the use of wire dog muzzles and investigating alternatives to 1080 in pest control programs may be the key to reducing the incidence of future accidental poisonings...
  60. Deng H, Gao Y, Li Y. [Management of severe fluoroacetamide poisoning with hemoperfusion in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2007;9:253-4 pubmed
  61. Baba Y, Arimura A, Schally A. On the tryptophan residue in porcine LH and FSH-releasing hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1971;45:483-7 pubmed
  62. van Pee K. Biosynthesis of halogenated metabolites by bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1996;50:375-99 pubmed
    ..A yet-unknown type of halogenating enzyme having both substrate and regio-specificity must be involved in the biosynthesis of halogenated compounds...
  63. Foronda N, Fowles J, Smith N, Taylor M, Temple W. A benchmark dose analysis for sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) using dichotomous toxicity data. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;47:84-9 pubmed
    ..The BMD(10) and BMDL(10) for cardiomyopathy and testicular effects were 0.21 mgkg(-1) bw and 0.10 mgkg(-1) bw, respectively. These values are proposed for use in the eventual determination of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for 1080...
  64. Xie Z, Shi W, Liu L, Deng Q. Determination of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in biological samples as its 4-bromomethyl-7-methoxycoumarin derivative by RP-HPLC. J Chromatogr Sci. 2007;45:405-8 pubmed
    ..The recovery rates of MFA-Na are between 81% and 88%, and the relative standard deviations are less than 5%. The method shows good sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of MFA-Na in biological samples...
  65. Kondrat R, Kanamori K, Ross B. In vivo microdialysis and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry for 13C-enrichment measurement of extracellular glutamate in rat brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;120:179-92 pubmed
    ..Isotope labeling provides a novel method for determining the extent to which dialysate GLU reflects synaptic GLU(ECF), and for measuring its turnover under physiological or pathological conditions...
  66. Stringer J, Aribi A. Effects of glial toxins on extracellular acidification in the hippocampal CA1 region in vivo. Epilepsy Res. 2003;54:163-70 pubmed
    ..This acidification may contribute to feedback regulation of neuronal excitability...
  67. Forsdahl G, Gmeiner G. Investigation of the silylation of ephedrines using N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004;811:201-8 pubmed
    ..An evaluation of various silylation conditions compatible with screening methods in doping control analysis is presented. The method was found to be well suited for quantification of ephedrines in doping control...
  68. Lu Q, Wu P, Collins G. Contactless conductivity detection of sodium monofluoroacetate in fruit juices on a CE microchip. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:3485-91 pubmed
    ..The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis...
  69. Dols P, Folmer B, Hamersma H, Kuil C, Lucas H, Ollero L, et al. SAR study of 2,3,4,14b-tetrahydro-1H-dibenzo[b,f]pyrido[1,2-d][1,4]oxazepines as progesterone receptor agonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:1461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Substitution at positions 6, 7 and 1 has proven to be crucial for activity, indicating that probably these positions are involved in important interactions with the receptor...
  70. Vidal D, Augelli M, Hotta G, Lopes F, do Lago C. Determination of fluoroacetate and fluoride in blood serum by capillary zone electrophoresis using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:896-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CTAB and didecyldimethylammonium bromide are not useful for this task because of the severe reduction of the fluoride level. However, no interference was observed for fluoroacetate...
  71. Khalaf A, Bourdin C, Breen D, Donoghue G, Scott F, Suckling C, et al. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of minor groove binders: the role of non-cationic tail groups. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;56:39-47 pubmed publisher
  72. Fonnum F, Johnsen A, Hassel B. Use of fluorocitrate and fluoroacetate in the study of brain metabolism. Glia. 1997;21:106-13 pubmed
  73. Buchheim K, Wessel O, Siegmund H, Schuchmann S, Meierkord H. Processes and components participating in the generation of intrinsic optical signal changes in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:125-32 pubmed
    ..01). Our data indicate that the intrinsic optical signal change reflects type and strength of neuronal activation and point to glia and mitochondria as important participants in signal generation...
  74. You Q, Cheng L, Reilly T, Wegmann D, Ju C. Role of neutrophils in a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2006;44:1421-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our model provides a platform for elucidating strain-based and gender-based susceptibility factors in DILI development...
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    ..The potential for synergistic effects with 2 or more sorbents also warrant investigating...
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    ..Finally, the method was applied to real fruit samples containing the target compounds. The complete chromatographic runtime was 15min, which is faster than reported for recent HPLC methods able to analyze similar compounds...
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    ..25 mg/kg/day. After dosing with the LOEL dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day, mean concentrations of 1080 in rat plasma were 0.26 micro g/ml at 1 h and 0.076 microg/ml at 12 h. Rat urine collected from the same animals contained 0.059 microg/ml...
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