toxaphene

Summary

Summary: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Schneider A, Stapleton H, Cornwell J, Baker J. Recent declines in PAH, PCB, and toxaphene levels in the northern Great Lakes as determined from high resolution sediment cores. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:3809-15 pubmed
    ..and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxaphene. The extraordinarily high sediment focusing and accumulation rates in these cores relative to other Great Lakes ..
  2. Muir D, Jones P, Karlsson H, Koczansky K, Stern G, Kannan K, et al. Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine pesticides in three species of albatrosses from the north and south Pacific Ocean. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002;21:413-23 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds [sigmaCHL], DDT-related compounds [sigmaDDT], hexachlorocyclohexanes [sigmaHCH], tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, ..
  3. Chan H, Yeboah F. Total toxaphene and specific congeners in fish from the Yukon, Canada. Chemosphere. 2000;41:507-15 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene is one of the major persistent organic pollutants with global environmental impacts...
  4. Tuerk K, Kucklick J, Becker P, Stapleton H, Baker J. Persistent organic pollutants in two dolphin species with focus on toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:692-8 pubmed
    ..Focus was aimed at contaminants of emerging concern, specifically, toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples collected from L...
  5. Mills P, Yang R, Riordan D. Lymphohematopoietic cancers in the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), 1988-2001. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:823-30 pubmed
    ..Agricultural risk factors for lymphohematopoietic cancers (LHC) in Hispanic farm workers in California were examined in a nested case-control study embedded in a cohort of 139,000 ever members of a farm worker labor union in California...
  6. Calciu C, Kubow S, Chan H. Interactive dysmorphogenic effects of toxaphene or toxaphene congeners and hyperglycemia on cultured whole rat embryos during organogenesis. Toxicology. 2002;175:153-65 pubmed
    ..In earlier work, we established the embryopathy of the chlorinated pesticide, toxaphene technical mixture (TOX) and its two physiologically most important congeners, T(2) (2-exo,3-endo,5-exo,6-endo,8,..
  7. Lavastre V, Roberge C, Pelletier M, Gauthier M, Girard D. Toxaphene, but not beryllium, induces human neutrophil chemotaxis and apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS): involvement of caspases and ROS in the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Clin Immunol. 2002;104:40-8 pubmed
    ..We have previously documented that toxaphene activates human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accelerates apoptosis by a yet unknown ..
  8. Kucklick J, Tuerk K, Vander Pol S, Schantz M, Wise S. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners and toxaphene in selected marine standard reference materials. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;378:1147-51 pubmed
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and components of the complex mixture toxaphene are stable in the environment and readily bioaccumulated into wildlife and human tissues...
  9. Maruya K, Smalling K, Mora M. Residues of toxaphene in insectivorous birds (Petrochelidon spp.) from the Rio Grande, Texas. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;48:567-74 pubmed
    ..concentrations of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, particularly DDE, little has been published on residues of toxaphene throughout this major North American watershed...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pałecz D, Komuński R, Gabryelak T. Na+K+-ATPase activity as a biomarker of toxaphene toxicity in Unio tumidus. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005;19:707-12 pubmed
    In this study, the effect of toxaphene (camphechlor) on ATPase activity in the microsomal fraction of the Unio tumidus's digestive gland was determined...
  2. de Boer J, Oehme M, Smith K, Wells D. Toxaphene in standard solutions and cleaned biota extracts--results of the first QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies. Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe. Chemosphere. 2000;41:493-7 pubmed
    Two interlaboratory studies on individual toxaphene congeners have been organised by the project Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe (QUASIMEME)...
  3. Pulster E, Smalling K, Maruya K. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in preferred prey fish of coastal southeastern U.S. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:3128-36 pubmed
    ..Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (TOX) were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and negative chemical ionization mass ..
  4. de Geus H, Besselink H, Brouwer A, Klungsøyr J, McHugh B, Nixon E, et al. Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds. Environ Health Perspect. 1999;107 Suppl 1:115-44 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid)...
  5. Bezchlebová J, Cernohlávková J, Lána J, Sochová I, Kobeticová K, Hofman J. Effects of toxaphene on soil organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;68:326-34 pubmed
    The polychlorinated insecticide toxaphene belonged to the most used pesticides in the 20th century. Even recently, significant residues have been found in soils at various sites in the world...
  6. Trosko J, Jone C, Chang C. Inhibition of gap junctional-mediated intercellular communication in vitro by aldrin, dieldrin, and toxaphene: a possible cellular mechanism for their tumor-promoting and neurotoxic effects. Mol Toxicol. 1987;1:83-93 pubmed
    ..The insecticides aldrin, dieldrin, and toxaphene, known to have pleiotropic toxic effects in animals, were shown to inhibit gap junctional communication...
  7. Alegria H, Bidleman T, Figueroa M. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Pollut. 2006;140:483-91 pubmed
    ..Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (..
  8. Berntssen M, Lundebye A, Hop Johannessen L, Lock E. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquat Toxicol. 2012;112-113:54-61 pubmed publisher
    The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food ..
  9. Skopp S, Oehme M, Drenth H. Study of the enantioselective elimination of four toxaphene congeners in rat after intravenous administration by high resolution gas chromatography negative ion mass spectrometry. Chemosphere. 2002;46:1083-90 pubmed
    ..32 was metabolized the fastest, but showed no changes in ER. Brief information is also included about the possible reasons for the different behaviors of the four congeners in the studied tissues. ..
  10. de Geus H, Wester P, Schelvis A, de Boer J, Brinkman U. Toxaphene: a challenging analytical problem. J Environ Monit. 2000;2:503-11 pubmed
    The analysis of toxaphene, a highly complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and camphenes, is a challenging problem, especially as individual congeners are present at trace levels in biota and other relevant samples...
  11. Skopp S, Oehme M, Chu F, Yeboah F, Chan H. Analysis of "total toxaphene" and selected single congeners in biota by ion trap HRGC-EI-MS/MS using congener-optimized parent ion dissociations. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:2729-35 pubmed
    A method for the quantification of selected toxaphene congeners as well as "total toxaphene" was developed based on electron ionization (EI) tandem (MS/MS) ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) and a combination of fragment ion ..
  12. Woo S, Yum S. Transcriptional response of marine medaka (Oryzias javanicus) on exposure to toxaphene. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;153:355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..established from the head and liver tissues of the marine medaka fish (Oryzias javanicus) after its exposure to toxaphene, a persistent organic pollutant and insecticide, using differential display polymerase chain reaction...
  13. Vetter W, Luckas B. Enantioselective determination of persistent and partly degradable toxaphene congeners in high trophic level biota. Chemosphere. 2000;41:499-506 pubmed
    Enantiomer separation of chiral toxaphene components in biological samples was studied by application of different chiral stationary phases based on modified cyclodextrins...
  14. Chen X, Clark C. Modeling the effects of methanol on iron dechlorination of a complex chlorinated NAPL. J Hazard Mater. 2009;164:565-70 pubmed publisher
    Research was conducted to examine the effects of various fractions of cosolvent solutions on dechlorination of toxaphene by zero-valent iron (Fe(0))...
  15. Ma J, Li Y, Harner T, Cao Z. Assessing the relationship between extensive use of organochlorine pesticides and cooling trend during the mid-20th century in the southeastern United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7209-14 pubmed
    ..and the extensive use of organochlorine pesticides--particularly dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and toxaphene--in the southeastern U.S. from the mid-1940s through the 1970s...
  16. Hites R, Foran J, Carpenter D, Hamilton M, Knuth B, Schwager S. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science. 2004;303:226-9 pubmed
    ..Risk analysis indicates that consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose health risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption...
  17. van Hezik C, Letcher R, de Geus H, Wester P, Goksøyr A, Lewis W, et al. Indications for the involvement of a CYP3A-like iso-enzyme in the metabolism of chlorobornane (Toxaphene) congeners in seals from inhibition studies with liver microsomes. Aquat Toxicol. 2001;51:319-33 pubmed
    ..Stereochemical preferences of biotransformation enzymes can have an influence on the environmental distribution of both enantiomers of optically active compounds. ..
  18. Sochová I, Hofman J, Holoubek I. Effects of seven organic pollutants on soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Int. 2007;33:798-804 pubmed
    ..phenazine, and 1,10-phenanthroline), short-chain chlorinated paraffins, and two organochlorinated pesticides (toxaphene and hexachlorobenzene)...
  19. Tryphonas H, Arnold D, Bryce F, Huang J, Hodgen M, Ladouceur D, et al. Effects of toxaphene on the immune system of cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001;39:947-58 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene, dissolved in glycerol/corn oil, was administered at 0.1, 0.4 or 0...
  20. Simon T, Manning R. Development of a reference dose for the persistent congeners of weathered toxaphene based on in vivo and in vitro effects related to tumor promotion. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;44:268-81 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene is a mixture of chlorinated camphenes and bornanes that was produced and used in the United States until 1982. 1.3 million tons of toxaphene have been released worldwide...
  21. Witte J, Buthe A, Ternes W. Congener-specific analysis of toxaphene in eggs of seabirds from Germany by HRGC-NCI-MS using a carborane-siloxane copolymer phase (HT-8). Chemosphere. 2000;41:529-39 pubmed
    A method for the congener-specific analysis of toxaphene in eggs of seabirds from a monitoring program from the northern part of Germany was carried out...
  22. Lacayo Romero M, van Bavel B, Mattiasson B. Degradation of toxaphene in aged and freshly contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 2006;63:609-15 pubmed
    Degradation of toxaphene in soil from both newly contaminated (from Sweden) and aged spills (from Nicaragua) were studied...
  23. Armbruster W, Lehnert K, Vetter W. Establishing a chromium-reactor design for measuring delta2H values of solid polyhalogenated compounds using direct elemental analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;384:237-43 pubmed
    ..An even greater difference was observed between the delta2H values of Toxaphene (US product dating from 1978) and Melipax (product from the former East Germany, dating from 1979), which gave ..
  24. Schrader T, Cooke G. Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 2000;53:278-88 pubmed
    ..b>Toxaphene at 10 microM induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT but decreased cell viability...
  25. Kucklick J, Helm P. Advances in the environmental analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and toxaphene. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:819-36 pubmed
    ..advances in the analysis of the chlorinated environmental pollutants polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and toxaphene are highlighted in this review...
  26. Paasivirta J, Sinkkonen S, Nikiforov V, Kryuchkov F, Kolehmainen E, Laihia K, et al. Long-range atmospheric transport of three toxaphene congeners across Europe. Modeling by chained single-box FATEMOD program. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2009;16:191-205 pubmed publisher
    Since toxaphene (polychlorocamphene, polychloropinene, or strobane) mixtures were applied for massive insecticide use in the 1960s to replace the use of DDT, some of their congeners have been found at high latitudes far away from the ..
  27. Woo S, Lee A, Won H, Ryu J, Yum S. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;156:37-41 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12...
  28. Santerre C. Chlordane and toxaphene residues following cooking of treated channel catfish fillets. J Food Prot. 2000;63:763-7 pubmed
    The reduction in residues of chlordane and toxaphene following cooking (frying, baking, and smoking) of fillets obtained from treated Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined...
  29. Kashian D. Toxaphene detoxification and acclimation in Daphnia magna: do cytochrome P-450 enzymes play a role?. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004;137:53-63 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been shown to alter male production in Daphnia magna and to induce P-450 activity in mammals...
  30. Bernardo F, Fernandez M, Gonzalez M. Congener specific determination of toxaphene residues in fish liver oil using gas chromatography coupled to ion trap MS/MS. Chemosphere. 2005;61:398-404 pubmed
    A new approach to the determination of six toxaphene congeners in edible stuff has been accomplished. The analytical procedure presented in this paper involves a single-step cleanup process prior to the analysis...
  31. Andersen G, Føreid S, Skaare J, Jenssen B, Lydersen C, Kovacs K. Levels of toxaphene congeners in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway. Sci Total Environ. 2006;357:128-37 pubmed
    This study reports concentrations of three pesticide toxaphene congeners (CHBs; CHB-26, -50 and -62) from the blubber of ten adult, male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway...
  32. Vetter W, Costas N, Bartha R, Martinez A, Luckas B. Liquid chromatographic profiles of individual compounds of technical toxaphene. J Chromatogr A. 2000;886:123-31 pubmed
    ..Twenty-one compounds of technical toxaphene (CTTs) are commercially available and four were isolated from environmental samples...
  33. Alava J, Keller J, Wyneken J, Crowder L, Scott G, Kucklick J. Geographical variation of persistent organic pollutants in eggs of threatened loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from southeastern United States. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:1677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..DDTs), chlordanes, mirex, dieldin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene, and toxaphene congeners, as well as polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs)...
  34. Boon J, Lewis W, Goksøyr A. Immunochemical and catalytic characterization of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 in the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Aquat Toxicol. 2001;52:297-309 pubmed
    ..In contrast, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-77) and two chlorobornanes (CHB-32 and CHB-62) occurring in the insectide toxaphene(R), were not metabolised.
  35. Gagne J, Gouteux B, Bertrand M. Development of a novel high volume band compression injector for the analysis of complex samples like toxaphene pesticide. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:442-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the "on-column" and "split/splitless" injectors for the fatty acid methyl esters and toxaphene compounds tested. For higher volumes, the system produces a linear response according to the injected volume...
  36. Angermann J, Fellers G, Matsumura F. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002;21:2209-15 pubmed
    ..range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1...
  37. Young J, Freeman A, Bruce R, Williams D, Maruya K. Comparing the mutagenicity of toxaphene after aging in anoxic soils and accumulating in fish. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:162-72 pubmed publisher
    A test program was conducted to evaluate the mutagenicity of toxaphene residuals extracted from aged soils and from fish collected in creeks near a toxaphene-contaminated site...
  38. Scott K, Fåhraeus Van Ree G, Parrish C. Sex differences in hepatic lipids of Toxaphene-exposed juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus Storer). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2002;51:168-76 pubmed
    Histochemical and biochemical effects of Toxaphene on liver were investigated in laboratory-bred female and male juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus)...
  39. Vigen R, Chen D, Syversen U, Stunes K, Hakanson R, Zhao C. Serum gastrin and gastric enterochromaffin-like cells during estrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation, and in response to estrogen-like agents in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:335-40 pubmed
    ..4) Twelve-month treatment with estrogen-like agents, dieldrin and/or toxaphene (alone or in combination) was without any effect on the ECL cells neither in male nor in female rats...
  40. Maceachen D, Cocks N. A GCMSD/ECD method for the simultaneous determination of toxaphene and toxaphene congeners. Chemosphere. 2002;49:313-4 pubmed
    The methodology presented combines mass selective detection technology for routine automated total toxaphene determinations with electron capture detection confirmation of congener results...
  41. Gouteux B, Muir D, Backus S, Born E, Dietz R, Haug T, et al. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic. Environ Pollut. 2008;153:71-83 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time...
  42. Gauthier J, Dubeau H, Rassart E. Induction of micronuclei in vitro by organochlorine compounds in beluga whale skin fibroblasts. Mutat Res. 1999;439:87-95 pubmed
    ..b>Toxaphene, chlordane and p,p'-DDT induced significant (p<0...
  43. Barr J, Woolfitt A, Maggio V, Patterson D. Measurement of toxaphene congeners in pooled human serum collected in three U.S. cities using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;46:551-6 pubmed
    Because human toxaphene exposure data are largely lacking, we surveyed human serum pools collected from U.S...
  44. Blanar C, Curtis M, Chan H. Growth, nutritional composition, and hematology of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) exposed to toxaphene and tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium dendriticum) larvae. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;48:397-404 pubmed
    b>Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic...
  45. Ruppe S, Neumann A, Vetter W. Anaerobic transformation of compounds of technical toxaphene. I. Regiospecific reaction of chlorobornanes with geminal chlorine atoms. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003;22:2614-21 pubmed
    Technical toxaphene (Melipax) and the single compounds of technical toxaphene (CTTs) 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (B8-806), 2,2,5-endo,6-exo, 8,9,9,10-octachlorobornane (B8-809), 2,2,5,5,8,9,9,10,10-nonachlorobornane (B9-..
  46. Barbini D, Stefanelli P, Girolimetti S, Di Muccio A, Dommarco R. Determination of toxaphene residues in fish foodstuff by GC-MS. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:226-30 pubmed
    A method for the determination of toxaphene residues in fish and fish-based baby foods has been developed...
  47. Trukhin A, Kruchkov F, Hansen L, Kallenborn R, Kiprianova A, Nikiforov V. Toxaphene chemistry: separation and characterisation of selected enantiomers of the Polychloropinene mixtures. Chemosphere. 2007;67:1695-700 pubmed
    ..the study presented here was the preparation and characterisation of enantiomeric pure chlorobornane standards (Toxaphene). In this context, we partially modeled the procedure for Polychloropinene production in the former USSR...
  48. Pulster E, Smalling K, Zolman E, Schwacke L, Maruya K. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-..
  49. Routti H, van Bavel B, Letcher R, Arukwe A, Chu S, Gabrielsen G. Concentrations, patterns and metabolites of organochlorine pesticides in relation to xenobiotic phase I and II enzyme activities in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:2428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..3-methylsulfonyl-p,p'-DDE and the concentration ratios of pentachlorophenol/hexachlorobenzene increased, and the toxaphene pattern shifted more towards persistent Parlar-26 and -50 and less towards more biodegradable Parlar-44...
  50. Riget F, Bignert A, Braune B, Stow J, Wilson S. Temporal trends of legacy POPs in Arctic biota, an update. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:2874-84 pubmed publisher
  51. Wen Y, Chan H. A pharmacokinetic model for predicting absorption, elimination, and tissue burden of toxaphene in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000;168:235-43 pubmed
    A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was formulated to predict absorption, elimination, and tissue burden of toxaphene in rats. The model was constructed based on the database of Crowder and Dindal (Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol...
  52. Chu I, Secours V, Villeneuve D, Valli V, Nakamura A, Colin D, et al. Reproduction study of toxaphene in the rat. J Environ Sci Health B. 1988;23:101-26 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate in rats the reproductive effects of toxaphene, an insecticidal mixture which has been identified as a pollutant in the Great Lakes ecosystem...
  53. Gouteux B, Lebeuf M, Hammill M, Muir D, Gagne J. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:1448-54 pubmed
    ..These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly ..