mirex

Summary

Summary: An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.

Top Publications

  1. Kodavanti P, Kodavanti U, Faroon O, Mehendale H. Pivotal role of hepatocellular regeneration in the ultimate hepatotoxicity of CCl4 in chlordecone-, mirex-, or phenobarbital-pretreated rats. Toxicol Pathol. 1992;20:556-69 pubmed
    ..response in rats maintained on a diet containing either 10 ppm CD, 225 ppm phenobarbital (PB), or 10 ppm mirex (M)...
  2. Yarbrough J, Grimley J, Thottassery J. Mirex-induced adaptive liver growth in rats subjected to thyroidectomy. Hepatology. 1992;15:923-7 pubmed
    The organochlorine compound mirex (dodecachloro-octahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta-CD- pentalene) induces an adaptive liver growth dependent on the hormonal status of the experimental animal...
  3. Puertas R, Lopez Espinosa M, Cruz F, Ramos R, Freire C, Perez Garcia M, et al. Prenatal exposure to mirex impairs neurodevelopment at age of 4 years. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to an OC pesticide, mirex, and cognitive development in children at age of 4 years...
  4. Denham M, Schell L, Deane G, Gallo M, Ravenscroft J, DeCaprio A. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e127-34 pubmed
    ..ie, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mirex, lead, and mercury...
  5. Fitzgerald E, Hwang S, Deres D, Bush B, Cook K, Worswick P. The association between local fish consumption and DDE, mirex, and HCB concentrations in the breast milk of Mohawk women at Akwesasne. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2001;11:381-8 pubmed
    ..extent to which the consumption of local fish contaminated with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has impacted the concentrations of these compounds in the milk of nursing Mohawk ..
  6. Kearney J, Cole D, Ferron L, Weber J. Blood PCB, p,p'-DDE, and mirex levels in Great Lakes fish and waterfowl consumers in two Ontario communities. Environ Res. 1999;80:S138-S149 pubmed
    PCB, p,p'-DDE, and mirex levels were examined in blood plasma samples of 232 anglers from Cornwall and Mississauga, Ontario, in a pilot study to establish the feasibility and suitability of using a cohort of Ontario fish license holders ..
  7. Thakore K, Gargas M, Andersen M, Mehendale H. PB-PK derived metabolic constants, hepatotoxicity, and lethality of BrCCl3 in rats pretreated with chlordecone, phenobarbital, or mirex. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1991;109:514-28 pubmed
    ..on normal diet (control), or on diets containing either chlordecone (CD, 10 ppm), phenobarbital (PB, 225 ppm) or mirex (M, 10 ppm), were used in gas uptake studies to determine the kinetic constants of BrCCl3 metabolism...
  8. Yu Y, Huang J, Zhang W, Zhang K, Deng S, Yu G. Mechanochemical destruction of mirex co-ground with iron and quartz in a planetary ball mill. Chemosphere. 2013;90:1729-35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mirex, a termiticide ever used for many years in China, was ball milled in the presence of various reagent(s) in a ..
  9. Purushotham K, Lockard V, Mehendale H. Amplification of chloroform hepatotoxicity and lethality by dietary chlordecone (kepone) in mice. Toxicol Pathol. 1988;16:27-34 pubmed
    ..Swiss Webster mice (25-30 g) maintained on powdered control diet, or on diets containing chlordecone (CD, 10 ppm), mirex (M, 10 ppm), or phenobarbital (PB, 225 ppm) were used in this study...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hodgson E, Levi P. Pesticides: an important but underused model for the environmental health sciences. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104 Suppl 1:97-106 pubmed
  2. Savinov V, Muir D, Svetochev V, Svetocheva O, Belikov S, Boltunov A, et al. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:2734-45 pubmed publisher
    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (?DDT), total HCH isomers (?HCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (?CBz), total chlordane compounds (?CHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (..
  3. Meyer S, Kim T, Moser G, Monteiro Riviere N, Smart R. Synergistic interaction between the non-phorbol ester-type promoter mirex and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in mouse skin tumor promotion. Carcinogenesis. 1994;15:47-52 pubmed
    b>Mirex, an organochlorine pesticide and non-genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogen, is also a potent non-phorbol ester-type promoter of mouse skin tumors...
  4. Jovanovich L, Levin S, Khan M. Significance of mirex-caused hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats. J Biochem Toxicol. 1987;2:203-13 pubmed
    Treatment of rats with mirex (40 ppm in diet) caused hypoglycemia, liver enlargement, and inhibition of adrenal corticosteroid-synthesizing enzyme activity...
  5. Fouse B, Hodgson E. Effect of chlordecone and mirex on the acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in mice. Gen Pharmacol. 1987;18:623-30 pubmed
    1. Acetaminophen toxicity, as measured by leakage of intracellular enzymes, was increased by chlordecone and mirex with mirex having the greater effect. 2...
  6. Mitra A, Richards I, Kitchin K, Conolly R, Kulkarni A. Mirex induces ornithine decarboxylase in female rat liver. J Biochem Toxicol. 1990;5:119-24 pubmed
    ..polyamine synthesis, was significantly induced in female rat liver following oral administration of the pesticide mirex. After dual oral exposure (120 mg/kg of mirex; 21 and 4 hr prior to sacrifice), ornithine decarboxylase activity ..
  7. Plaa G, Caille G, Vezina M, Iijima M, Cote M. Chloroform interaction with chlordecone and mirex: correlation between biochemical and histological indices of toxicity and quantitative tissue levels. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1987;9:198-207 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the tissue distribution of chlordecone (CD) and mirex (M) might explain the difference in the potentiation of CHCl3 liver injury...
  8. Jallad K, Lynn B, Alley E. Amine promoted, metal enhanced degradation of Mirex under high temperature conditions. J Hazard Mater. 2006;135:437-42 pubmed
    In this study, zero-valent metal dehalogenation of mirex was conducted with amine solvents at high temperatures. Mirex was treated with excess amine in sealed glass tube reactors under nitrogen...
  9. Norstrom R, Clark T, Enright M, Leung B, Drouillard K, Macdonald C. ABAM, a model for bioaccumulation of POPs in birds: validation for adult herring gulls and their eggs in Lake Ontario. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:4339-47 pubmed
    ..and elimination in adult life-stage of birds was validated by simulation of concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, mirex, and HCB in herring gull eggs in Lake Ontario for the years 1985, 1990, and 1992...
  10. Teo S, Vore M. Mirex inhibits bile acid secretory function in vivo and in the isolated perfused rat liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1991;109:161-70 pubmed
    The insecticides mirex and chlordecone suppress the biliary excretion of a wide variety of non-bile acid organic anions in vivo in the rat, and mirex inhibits the uptake of taurocholate (TC), a common bile acid, in isolated rat ..
  11. George S, Claxton L. Biotransformation of chlordecone by Pseudomonas species. Xenobiotica. 1988;18:407-16 pubmed
    ..were further characterized for their chlordecone degrading ability. 3. Chlordecone and two derivatives, Mirex and Kelevan, supported growth of these strains. 4. All three Pseudomonas spp...
  12. Jung K, Kim J, Kim M, Noh J, Eun J, Bae H, et al. Characteristic molecular signature for early detection and prediction of persistent organic pollutants in rat liver. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:12882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The six different POPs (toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, chlordane, mirex, dieldrin, and heptachlor) were administered to 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, and after 48 h of exposure, ..
  13. Brown L, Wilson D, Yarbrough J. Alterations in the hepatic glucocorticoid response to mirex treatment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988;92:203-13 pubmed
    Corticosterone has been shown to be involved in the regulation of mirex-induced adaptive liver growth...
  14. Brown L, Yarbrough J. Mirex uptake and tissue disposition in intact and adrenalectomized rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988;92:343-50 pubmed
    The toxicity of mirex, an organochlorine insecticide, is increased significantly in adrenalectomized rats...
  15. Guerra P, Fernie K, Jiménez B, Pacepavicius G, Shen L, Reiner E, et al. Dechlorane plus and related compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Canada and Spain. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:1284-90 pubmed publisher
    Concentrations of Mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) Plus (DP), Dec 602, Dec 603, and Dec 604 were significantly higher in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Canada than Spain, with the former having the only measurable concentrations of ..
  16. Kodavanti P, Kodavanti U, Mehendale H. Altered hepatic energy status in chlordecone (Kepone)-potentiated CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;40:859-66 pubmed
    ..CCl4 administration to mirex or PB pretreated rats resulted in a smaller decrease in ATP levels (18-24%) only at 24 hr, returning to normal ..
  17. Wang B, Iino F, Yu G, Huang J, Wei Y, Yamazaki N, et al. HRGC/HRMS analysis of mirex in soil of Liyang and preliminary assessment of mirex pollution in China. Chemosphere. 2010;79:299-304 pubmed publisher
    China is a country with the most severe termite damage in the world. Mirex is one of the two effective orgochlorine pesticides used in China for termite control...
  18. Meyer S, Moser G, Monteiro Riviere N, Smart R. Minimal role of enhanced cell proliferation in skin tumor promotion by mirex: a nonphorbol ester-type promoter. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101 Suppl 5:265-9 pubmed
    b>Mirex, a chlorinated hydrocarbon previously used as a systemic insecticide and flame retardant, is a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen in both rats and mice...
  19. Kim T, Porter K, Foley J, Maronpot R, Smart R. Evidence that mirex promotes a unique population of epidermal cells that cannot be distinguished by their mutant Ha-ras genotype. Mol Carcinog. 1997;20:115-24 pubmed
    b>Mirex is a potent tumor promoter in 7,1 2-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated female CD-1 mouse skin...
  20. Mehendale H, Purushotham K, Lockard V. The time course of liver injury and [3H]thymidine incorporation in chlordecone-potentiated CHCl3 hepatotoxicity. Exp Mol Pathol. 1989;51:31-47 pubmed
    ..Male mice fed control, or CD (10 ppm), mirex (Mx. 10 ppm), or phenobarbital (PB. 225 ppm) diets for 15 days and receiving a single ip dose of 0...
  21. Wegmann F, Scheringer M, Hungerbuhler K. First investigations of mountainous cold condensation effects with the CliMoChem model. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;63:42-51 pubmed
    ..While strong effects are observed for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and PCB-28, the less volatile compounds mirex and PCB-180 are less susceptible to mountainous cold condensation...
  22. Kennedy D, Aust S, Bumpus J. Comparative biodegradation of alkyl halide insecticides by the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM-F-1767). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:2347-53 pubmed
    ..chrysosporium to degrade six alkyl halide insecticides (aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, and mirex) in liquid and soil-corncob matrices was compared by using 14C-labeled compounds...
  23. Mehendale H, Klingensmith J. In vivo metabolism of CCl4 by rats pretreated with chlordecone, mirex, or phenobarbital. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988;93:247-56 pubmed
    The propensity of chlordecone (CD) to potentiate hepatotoxic and lethal effects of CCl4 is well established. Mirex (M), a close structural analogue of CD, or phenobarbital (PB), powerful inducers of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing ..
  24. Thottassery J, Yarbrough J. Regulation of glucocorticoid receptors during adaptive liver growth. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:G603-9 pubmed
    b>Mirex, an organochlorine pesticide, is a potent inducer of liver hyperplasia and hypertrophy in intact (INT) rats...
  25. Khan M, Jovanovich L, Martin L, Qadri S, Podowski A. Effects of photoisomers of cyclodiene insecticides on liver and microsomal cytochrome P450 in rats. Arch Toxicol. 1998;72:74-83 pubmed
    ..caused wasting and lowered both the liver weight and the activity of aniline hydroxylase while those of mirex and endrin, which also caused wasting and lowered aniline hydroxylase activity, continued causing further hepatic ..
  26. DeRosa C, Johnson B. Strategic elements of ATSDR's Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program. Toxicol Ind Health. 1996;12:315-25 pubmed
    ..It also outlines the projected implications of this research effort for greater comprehension of the potential health effects of exposure to contaminants in the Great Lakes Basin. ..
  27. Dahlström King L, Couture J, Plaa G. Influence of agents affecting monooxygenase activity on taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis. Toxicol Lett. 1992;63:243-52 pubmed
    ..Phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, chlordecone or mirex were used as inducers, and SKF 525-A, piperonyl butoxide, or cobaltous chloride as inhibitors of monooxygenase ..
  28. Kim T, Smart R. Lack of effect of retinoic acid and fluocinolone acetonide on mirex tumor promotion indicates a novel mirex mechanism. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:2199-204 pubmed
    b>Mirex, a halogenated hydrocarbon, is a potent skin tumor promoter in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin...
  29. Gonzalez Mille D, Ilizaliturri Hernández C, Espinosa Reyes G, Costilla Salazar R, Diaz Barriga F, Ize Lema I, et al. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and DNA damage as an indicator of environmental stress in fish of different feeding habits of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1238-48 pubmed publisher
    ..hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)...
  30. Codru N, Schymura M, Negoita S, Rej R, Carpenter D. Diabetes in relation to serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in adult Native Americans. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1442-7 pubmed
    ..between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population...
  31. Cai Z, Mehendale H. Lethal effects of CCl4 and its metabolism by Mongolian gerbils pretreated with chlordecone, phenobarbital, or mirex. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;104:511-20 pubmed
    ..CCl4 lethality, the metabolism of CCl4 was studied in gerbils pretreated with dietary CD, phenobarbital (PB), or mirex (M) at 10, 225, and 10 ppm, respectively...
  32. Lambrych K, Hassett J. Wavelength dependent photoreactivity of mirex in Lake Ontario. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:858-63 pubmed
    b>Mirex is a toxic, hydrophobic pollutant in Lake Ontario that undergoes an indirect photoreaction mediated by natural dissolved organic matter. The monohydro product photomirex further photolyzes to form a dihydro product...
  33. Jia H, Sun Y, Liu X, Yang M, Wang D, Qi H, et al. Concentration and bioaccumulation of dechlorane compounds in coastal environment of northern China. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:2613-8 pubmed publisher
    Dechloranes, including Dechlorane Plus (DP), Mirex (Dechlorane), Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603), and Dechlorane 604 (Dec 604), were determined using GC-MSD for water, sediment and oyster samples collected at 15 ..
  34. Upson K, De Roos A, Thompson M, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr D, et al. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case-control study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk...
  35. Moser G, Meyer S, Smart R. The chlorinated pesticide mirex is a novel nonphorbol ester-type tumor promoter in mouse skin. Cancer Res. 1992;52:631-6 pubmed
    The hepatocarcinogenic organochlorine pesticide, mirex, was examined as a tumor promoter in the mouse skin initiation-promotion model...
  36. Crouch L, Ebel R. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolism in the Mongolian gerbil: influence of chlordecone and mirex induction. Xenobiotica. 1987;17:859-67 pubmed
    ..BP) by gerbil hepatic microsomes is increased following induction by phenobarbital (PB), chlordecone, mirex and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). 2...
  37. Lewandowski M, Levi P, Hodgson E. Induction of cytochrome P-450 isozymes by mirex and chlordecone. J Biochem Toxicol. 1989;4:195-9 pubmed
    The effect of the insecticides, mirex and chordecone (Kepone), on the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system in C57BL/6N mouse liver microsomes was studied...
  38. Hertzberg R. Fitting a model to categorical response data with application to species extrapolation of toxicity. Health Phys. 1989;57 Suppl 1:405-9 pubmed
    ..The application presented here is to interspecies scaling, i.e., the estimation of parameters in the model used to convert animal doses into equally toxic human doses. ..
  39. Pickard S, Clarke J, Lotufo G. Bioaccumulation and bioavailability of mirex from Lake Ontario sediments. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;74:1084-91 pubmed
  40. Thakore K, Mehendale H. Effect of phenobarbital and mirex pretreatments on CCl4 autoprotection. Toxicol Pathol. 1994;22:291-9 pubmed
    ..Male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on either normal diet (N) or on a diet containing phenobarbital (PB; 225 ppm) or mirex (M; 10 ppm) for 15 days received either corn oil or 1 single administration of a protective dose of CCl4 (0...
  41. Faroon O, Kueberuwa S, Smith L, Derosa C. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. II. Mirex and chlordecone: health effects, toxicokinetics, human exposure, and environmental fate. Toxicol Ind Health. 1995;11:1-203 pubmed
    ..toxicologists, and other interested individuals and groups with an overall perspective of the toxicology of mirex and chlordecone...
  42. Kocarek T, Schuetz E, Guzelian P. Selective induction of cytochrome P450e by kepone (chlordecone) in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1991;40:203-10 pubmed
    ..In contrast, additions to the medium of mirex, a structural analog of kepone, effectively induced both P450b and P450e mRNAs and their proteins...
  43. Leonel J, Sericano J, Fillmann G, Secchi E, Montone R. Long-term trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Southern Brazil. Mar Pollut Bull. 2010;60:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from Mirex and PCBs, which showed stable concentrations, DDTs, HCB, CHLs, Dieldrin levels presented a slight decrease over ..
  44. Schell L, Gallo M. Relationships of putative endocrine disruptors to human sexual maturation and thyroid activity in youth. Physiol Behav. 2010;99:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..summarizes our studies of the relationships of measured persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB and mirex), and heavy metals (lead and mercury), to outcomes directly related to thyroid function and sexual maturation...
  45. Riget F, Bignert A, Braune B, Stow J, Wilson S. Temporal trends of legacy POPs in Arctic biota, an update. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:2874-84 pubmed publisher
  46. Wilson D, Yarbrough J. Autoradiographic analysis of hepatocytes in mirex-induced adaptive liver growth. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:G132-9 pubmed
    ..hepatocyte nuclei, cell enlargement, and mitotic index were studied in intact (INT) and adrenalectomized (ADX) mirex-dosed rats...
  47. Wang Y, Murphy M, Lam J, Jiao L, Wong C, Yeung L, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: risk assessment to local waterbirds. Chemosphere. 2011;83:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected ..
  48. Hallanger I, Ruus A, Warner N, Herzke D, Evenset A, Schøyen M, et al. Differences between Arctic and Atlantic fjord systems on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in zooplankton from Svalbard. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:2783-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that zooplankton do biomagnify POPs, which is important for understanding contaminant uptake and flux in zooplankton, though consciousness regarding the method of evaluation is important. ..
  49. Teo S, Vore M. Mirex exposure inhibits the uptake of estradiol-17 beta(beta-D-glucuronide), taurocholate, and L-alanine into isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;104:411-20 pubmed
    The insecticides mirex and chlordecone have previously been found to suppress the biliary excretion of a wide variety of compounds...
  50. Stewart P, Pagano J, Sargent D, Darvill T, Lonky E, Reihman J. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance. Environ Res. 2000;82:18-32 pubmed
    ..pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat...
  51. Korver M, Burse V, Needham L, Green V, Gray D, Rouse M, et al. Determination of Mirex in human blood serum containing polychlorinated biphenyls by using packed column gas chromatography. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1991;74:875-7 pubmed
    An analytical method has been developed that uses electron capture/gas-liquid chromatography to determine Mirex in serum containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1260). With this method, 0...
  52. Ochiai S, Shimojo N, Yuka I, Watanabe M, Matsuno Y, Suzuki S, et al. A pilot study for foetal exposure to multiple persistent organic pollutants and the development of infant atopic dermatitis in modern Japanese society. Chemosphere. 2014;94:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..p,p'-DDE), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, mirex, oxychlordane, and 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners were measured in the umbilical cord tissues ..
  53. Marvin C, Painter S, Williams D, Richardson V, Rossmann R, Van Hoof P. Spatial and temporal trends in surface water and sediment contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Environ Pollut. 2004;129:131-44 pubmed
    ..The distribution of other compounds including hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene and mirex indicated the presence of local sources within the watersheds of the connecting channels...