methoxychlor

Summary

Summary: An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.

Top Publications

  1. Palanza P, Parmigiani S, vom Saal F. Effects of prenatal exposure to low doses of diethylstilbestrol, o,p'DDT, and methoxychlor on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development in male and female mice. Horm Behav. 2001;40:252-65 pubmed
    ..Pregnant mice were fed a 4-log range of o,p'DDT, methoxychlor (MXC), and the drug diethystilbestrol (DES) from gestation days 11 to 17...
  2. Staub C, Hardy V, Chapin R, Harris M, Johnson L. The hidden effect of estrogenic/antiandrogenic methoxychlor on spermatogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;180:129-35 pubmed
    Perinatal and juvenile oral treatment of rats with methoxychlor (MXC) only during development reduces testicular size and Sertoli cell number in those animals as adults...
  3. Schuh R, Kristian T, Gupta R, Flaws J, Fiskum G. Methoxychlor inhibits brain mitochondrial respiration and increases hydrogen peroxide production and CREB phosphorylation. Toxicol Sci. 2005;88:495-504 pubmed
    The organochlorine insecticide methoxychlor (mxc) is an established reproductive toxicant that affects other systems including the central nervous system (CNS), possibly by mechanisms involving oxidative stress...
  4. Chedrese P, Feyles F. The diverse mechanism of action of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor in ovarian cells in vitro. Reprod Toxicol. 2001;15:693-8 pubmed
    ..stable metabolite of the organochlorine insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and the DDT analog methoxychlor can have adverse effects on reproduction. These chemicals have been identified as having estrogenic activity...
  5. Zama A, Uzumcu M. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor causes epigenetic alterations in adult ovarian genes. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites possess estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities...
  6. Stouder C, Paoloni Giacobino A. Specific transgenerational imprinting effects of the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor on male gametes. Reproduction. 2011;141:207-16 pubmed publisher
    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), among which methoxychlor (MXC), have been reported to affect the male reproductive system. This study evaluates the possible deleterious effects of MXC on imprinted genes...
  7. Welshons W, Nagel S, Thayer K, Judy B, vom Saal F. Low-dose bioactivity of xenoestrogens in animals: fetal exposure to low doses of methoxychlor and other xenoestrogens increases adult prostate size in mice. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:12-25 pubmed
    ..Fetal exposure to low doses of xenobiotic estrogens by feeding to pregnant females, including the compounds methoxychlor (20 and 2000 micrograms/kg body weight), DES (0...
  8. Schuh R, Richardson J, Gupta R, Flaws J, Fiskum G. Effects of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor on dopamine metabolites and transporters in the mouse brain. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:274-80 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have found that the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (mxc) causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria...
  9. Takeuchi Y, Kosaka T, Hayashi K, Takeda M, Yoshida T, Fujisawa H, et al. Thymic atrophy induced by methoxychlor in rat pups. Toxicol Lett. 2002;135:199-207 pubmed
    The effect of Methoxychlor (MXC) on the thymus was examined in rat pups that were delivered from dams receiving MXC at a dietary concentration of 0 or 1500 ppm for a period from pregnancy to lactation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lee H, Hwang K, Park M, Yi B, Jeung E, Choi K. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathw. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29:883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response ..
  2. Borgeest C, Miller K, Gupta R, Greenfeld C, Hruska K, Hoyer P, et al. Methoxychlor-induced atresia in the mouse involves Bcl-2 family members, but not gonadotropins or estradiol. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1828-35 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that increases the rate of ovarian atresia. To date, little is known about the mechanism by which MXC induces atresia...
  3. Amstislavsky S, Kizilova E, Golubitsa A, Vasilkova A, Eroschenko V. Preimplantation exposures of murine embryos to estradiol or methoxychlor change postnatal development. Reprod Toxicol. 2004;18:103-8 pubmed
    Long-term effects of in vivo exposures to proestrogen methoxychlor (MXC) or estradiol-17beta (E) were studied during early pregnancy (preimplantation) in ICR mice...
  4. Guo T, Germolec D, Musgrove D, Delclos K, Newbold R, Weis C, et al. Myelotoxicity in genistein-, nonylphenol-, methoxychlor-, vinclozolin- or ethinyl estradiol-exposed F1 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats following developmental and adult exposures. Toxicology. 2005;211:207-19 pubmed
    ..Rats were exposed to genistein (GEN: 25, 250 and 1250 ppm), nonylphenol (NPH: 25, 500 and 2000 ppm), methoxychlor (MXC: 10, 100 and 1000 ppm), vinclozolin (VCZ: 10, 150 and 750 ppm) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2: 5, 25 and 200 ..
  5. You L, Casanova M, Bartolucci E, Fryczynski M, Dorman D, Everitt J, et al. Combined effects of dietary phytoestrogen and synthetic endocrine-active compound on reproductive development in Sprague-Dawley rats: genistein and methoxychlor. Toxicol Sci. 2002;66:91-104 pubmed
    ..phytoestrogen genistein to influence the reproductive developmental toxicity of the endocrine-active pesticide methoxychlor. Three levels of genistein (0, 300, or 800 ppm) and two levels of methoxychlor (0 or 800 ppm) were used in this ..
  6. Latchoumycandane C, Chitra K, Mathur P. The effect of methoxychlor on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2002;16:161-72 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor is widely used as a pesticide in many countries and has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats, causing reduced fertility...
  7. Masutomi N, Shibutani M, Takagi H, Uneyama C, Takahashi N, Hirose M. Impact of dietary exposure to methoxychlor, genistein, or diisononyl phthalate during the perinatal period on the development of the rat endocrine/reproductive systems in later life. Toxicology. 2003;192:149-70 pubmed
    ..period of brain sexual differentiation, maternal Sprague-Dawley rats were fed three representative chemicals, methoxychlor (MXC; 24, 240, and 1200 ppm), genistein (GEN; 20, 200, and 1000 ppm), or diisononyl phthalate (DINP; 400, 4000, ..
  8. Cupp A, Uzumcu M, Suzuki H, Dirks K, Phillips B, Skinner M. Effect of transient embryonic in vivo exposure to the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor on embryonic and postnatal testis development. J Androl. 2003;24:736-45 pubmed
    The current study was designed to examine the effects of a transient embryonic exposure to the pesticide methoxychlor, an endocrine disruptor, on in vivo rat testis development and function...
  9. Aly H, Azhar A. Methoxychlor induced biochemical alterations and disruption of spermatogenesis in adult rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;40:8-15 pubmed publisher
    Adult male albino rats were treated orally with methoxychlor at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 15 consecutive days. Testicular weight, sperm count and motility were significantly decreased...
  10. Murono E, Derk R. The reported active metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, inhibits testosterone formation by cultured Leydig cells from neonatal rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;20:503-13 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor (MC) is an insecticide that is presently used on agricultural crops, especially after the ban on the use of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) in the United States...
  11. Akgul Y, Derk R, Meighan T, Rao K, Murono E. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, directly inhibits the catalytic activity of cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) in cultured rat ovarian cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;25:67-75 pubmed
    Exposure to the pesticide methoxychlor in rodents is linked to impaired steroid production, ovarian atrophy and reduced fertility...
  12. Lafuente A, Cabaleiro T, Caride A, Esquifino A. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1570-5 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats...
  13. Vaithinathan S, Saradha B, Mathur P. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:833-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce reproductive abnormalities in male reproductive tract...
  14. Symonds D, Merchenthaler I, Flaws J. Methoxychlor and estradiol induce oxidative stress DNA damage in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:182-7 pubmed publisher
    Estrogenic compounds such as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and methoxychlor (MXC) induce oxidative stress damage in breast cells and mouse ovarian follicles, respectively...
  15. Swartz W, Eroschenko V. Neonatal exposure to technical methoxychlor alters pregnancy outcome in female mice. Reprod Toxicol. 1998;12:565-73 pubmed
    This study was designed to determine the ability of female mice who were exposed neonatally to the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) to mate, ovulate, and become pregnant upon reaching sexual maturity...
  16. Ghosh D, Taylor J, Green J, Lubahn D. Methoxychlor stimulates estrogen-responsive messenger ribonucleic acids in mouse uterus through a non-estrogen receptor (non-ER) alpha and non-ER beta mechanism. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3526-33 pubmed
    This study examined the effects of the xenoestrogen methoxychlor (Mxc) on messenger RNA (mRNA) concentrations of two estrogen-responsive uterine genes, lactoferrin (LF) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)...
  17. Johnson L, Staub C, Silge R, Harris M, Chapin R. The pesticide methoxychlor given orally during the perinatal/juvenile period, reduced the spermatogenic potential of males as adults by reducing their Sertoli cell number. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2002;42:573-80 pubmed
    Perinatal and juvenile oral treatment of rats with the insecticide, methoxychlor (MXC), reduced testicular size and other reproductive indices including the number of epididymal spermatozoa in those animals as adults 161...
  18. Miyashita M, Shimada T, Nakagami S, Kurihara N, Miyagawa H, Akamatsu M. Enantioselective recognition of mono-demethylated methoxychlor metabolites by the estrogen receptor. Chemosphere. 2004;54:1273-6 pubmed
    Metabolites of methoxychlor such as 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (mono-OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (bis-OH-MXC), have estrogenic activity...
  19. Hu Y, Kupfer D. Metabolism of the endocrine disruptor pesticide-methoxychlor by human P450s: pathways involving a novel catechol metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30:1035-42 pubmed
    The metabolism of methoxychlor, a proestrogenic pesticide (endocrine disruptor), was investigated with cDNA expressed human cytochrome P450s and liver microsomes (HLM)...
  20. Hemmer M, Hemmer B, Bowman C, Kroll K, Folmar L, Marcovich D, et al. Effects of p-nonylphenol, methoxychlor, and endosulfan on vitellogenin induction and expression in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:336-43 pubmed
    ..minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol (an alkylphenol) and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endosulfan...
  21. Ottinger M, Wu J, Hazelton J, Abdelnabi M, Thompson N, Quinn M, et al. Assessing the consequences of the pesticide methoxychlor: neuroendocrine and behavioral measures as indicators of biological impact of an estrogenic environmental chemical. Brain Res Bull. 2005;65:199-209 pubmed
    ..Embryonic exposure occurs with maternal deposition and methoxychlor (MXC) accumulated with maternal exposure...
  22. Latchoumycandane C, Mathur P. Effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. Toxicology. 2002;176:67-75 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor, an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a pesticide in many countries, has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats...
  23. Savabieasfahani M, Kannan K, Astapova O, Evans N, Padmanabhan V. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5956-66 pubmed
    ..This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe...
  24. Gupta R, Schuh R, Fiskum G, Flaws J. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;216:436-45 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death)...
  25. Palanza P, Morellini F, Parmigiani S, vom Saal F. Ethological methods to study the effects of maternal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupters: a study with methoxychlor. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2002;24:55-69 pubmed
    ..02, 0.2, and 2 microg/g mother bw/day) of the estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) on behavior...
  26. Gupta R, Miller K, Babus J, Flaws J. Methoxychlor inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway. Toxicol Sci. 2006;93:382-9 pubmed
    ..The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) causes atresia (follicle death via apoptosis) of antral follicles, but little is known about the ..
  27. Wang X, Bartolucci Page E, Fenton S, You L. Altered mammary gland development in male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor. Toxicol Sci. 2006;91:93-103 pubmed
    ..reported that in utero and lactational exposure to high doses of GE or the endocrine active pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) caused mammary epithelial proliferation in 21-day-old male rats...
  28. Gray L, Ostby J, Cooper R, Kelce W. The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:37-47 pubmed
    This study was designed to determine if long-term exposure to high doses of methoxychlor (M) would alter pituitary or testicular endocrine functions in either an estrogenic or antiandrogenic manner...
  29. Joussen N, Schuphan I, Schmidt B. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum. Chem Biodivers. 2010;7:722-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the ..
  30. Keum Y, Lee Y, Kim J. Metabolism of methoxychlor by Cunninghamella elegans ATCC36112. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7931-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Methoxychlor is considered as pro-estrogen, while some of its metabolites are more potent endocrine disruptors than the parent insecticide...
  31. Okazaki K, Okazaki S, Nishimura S, Nakamura H, Kitamura Y, Hatayama K, et al. A repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study of methoxychlor in rats, based on the 'enhanced OECD test guideline 407' for screening endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Arch Toxicol. 2001;75:513-21 pubmed
    ..project to establish an OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407, we performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study of methoxychlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide with pro-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities...
  32. Murono E, Derk R, Akgul Y. In vivo exposure of young adult male rats to methoxychlor reduces serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation and cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;21:148-53 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor (MC) was developed as a replacement for the banned pesticide DDT. After in vivo administration, it is metabolized in the liver to 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), which is proposed to be the active agent...
  33. Latchoumycandane C, Mathur P. Induction of oxidative stress in the rat testis after short-term exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76:692-8 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor is one of the environmental contaminants that has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system remains unclear...
  34. Alworth L, Howdeshell K, Ruhlen R, Day J, Lubahn D, Huang T, et al. Uterine responsiveness to estradiol and DNA methylation are altered by fetal exposure to diethylstilbestrol and methoxychlor in CD-1 mice: effects of low versus high doses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;183:10-22 pubmed
    ..1 microg/kg/day) and the insecticide methoxychlor (MXC) (10 microg/kg/day) as well as 1000-fold higher doses: 100 microg/kg/day DES and 10,000 microg/kg/day MXC...
  35. Fort D, Guiney P, Weeks J, Thomas J, Rogers R, Noll A, et al. Effect of methoxychlor on various life stages of Xenopus laevis. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:454-66 pubmed
    The toxicological effects of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor were evaluated at various life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in an effort to determine stage-specific sensitivity...
  36. Symonds D, Tomic D, Miller K, Flaws J. Methoxychlor induces proliferation of the mouse ovarian surface epithelium. Toxicol Sci. 2005;83:355-62 pubmed
    While the pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) has a variety of adverse effects on the female reproductive system, the effects of MXC on the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) are unknown...
  37. You L, Sar M, Bartolucci E, McIntyre B, Sriperumbudur R. Modulation of mammary gland development in prepubertal male rats exposed to genistein and methoxychlor. Toxicol Sci. 2002;66:216-25 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to examine interactions of genistein and the hormonally active pesticide methoxychlor on mammary gland development in juvenile rats...
  38. Miller K, Gupta R, Greenfeld C, Babus J, Flaws J. Methoxychlor directly affects ovarian antral follicle growth and atresia through Bcl-2- and Bax-mediated pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2005;88:213-21 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide and reproductive toxicant...
  39. Miller K, Gupta R, Flaws J. Methoxychlor metabolites may cause ovarian toxicity through estrogen-regulated pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2006;93:180-8 pubmed
    The pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a reproductive toxicant that targets antral follicles of the mammalian ovary...
  40. Nishino R, Fukuyama T, Tajima Y, Miyashita L, Watanabe Y, Ueda H, et al. Prior oral exposure to environmental immunosuppressive chemicals methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide aggravates allergic airway inflammation in NC/Nga mice. Toxicology. 2013;309:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..NC/Nga mice were exposed orally to pesticides parathion (an organophosphate compound) or methoxychlor (an organochlorine compound), or to an insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, prior to OVA intraperitoneal ..
  41. Martyniuk C, Spade D, Blum J, Kroll K, Denslow N. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;101:483-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish...
  42. Laws S, Carey S, Ferrell J, Bodman G, Cooper R. Estrogenic activity of octylphenol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and methoxychlor in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2000;54:154-67 pubmed
    ..Test chemicals selected for these studies included 17-beta-estradiol, ethynyl estradiol, methoxychlor, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A...
  43. Gaido K, Maness S, McDonnell D, Dehal S, Kupfer D, Safe S. Interaction of methoxychlor and related compounds with estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and androgen receptor: structure-activity studies. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;58:852-8 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated differential interactions of the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane (HPTE) with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), ERbeta, and the androgen receptor (AR)...
  44. Goldman J, Murr A, Buckalew A, Schmid J, Abbott B. Methoxychlor-induced alterations in the histological expression of angiogenic factors in pituitary and uterus. J Mol Histol. 2004;35:363-75 pubmed
    ..The pro-oestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor (MXC), however, has shown a differential effect on proliferative activity...
  45. Tiemann U. In vivo and in vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, TCPM, methoxychlor, and lindane on the female reproductive tract of mammals: a review. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;25:316-26 pubmed publisher
    ..summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, its metabolites, TCPM, methoxychlor and lindane on folliculogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of female reproductive organs in ..
  46. Cupp A, Skinner M. Actions of the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor and its estrogenic metabolite on in vitro embryonic rat seminiferous cord formation and perinatal testis growth. Reprod Toxicol. 2001;15:317-26 pubmed
    The current study examines the actions of methoxychlor and its estrogenic metabolite, 2, 2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (HPTE), on seminiferous cord formation and growth of the developing rat testis...
  47. Shin J, Moon H, Kang I, Kim T, Lee S, Oh J, et al. Calbindin-D9k mRNA expression in the rat uterus following exposure to methoxychlor: a comparison of oral and subcutaneous exposure. J Reprod Dev. 2007;53:179-88 pubmed
    ..We compared CaBP-9k mRNA expression in the uterus with uterotrophic response in immature rats exposed to methoxychlor (MC), an environmental chemical with estrogenic activity...
  48. Eroschenko V, Amstislavsky S, Schwabel H, Ingermann R. Altered behaviors in male mice, male quail, and salamander larvae following early exposures to the estrogenic pesticide methoxychlor. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2002;24:29-36 pubmed
    Numerous publications show that methoxychlor (MXC), in use today as a DDT substitute, is a reproductive toxicant; it produces deleterious effects on the structure and function of the reproductive organs in exposed species...
  49. Hu G, Zhao B, Chu Y, Li X, Akingbemi B, Zheng Z, et al. Effects of methoxychlor and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane on 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 activities in human and rat testes. Int J Androl. 2011;34:138-44 pubmed publisher
    Human and rat testis microsomes were used to investigate direct inhibitory activities of methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) on 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and 17?-..
  50. Gaido K, Leonard L, Maness S, Hall J, McDonnell D, Saville B, et al. Differential interaction of the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5746-53 pubmed
    ..HPTE), an estrogenic metabolite of the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor, at estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta)...
  51. Hu Y, Kupfer D. Enantioselective metabolism of the endocrine disruptor pesticide methoxychlor by human cytochromes P450 (P450s): major differences in selective enantiomer formation by various P450 isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30:1329-36 pubmed
    b>Methoxychlor, a currently used pesticide that in mammals elicits proestrogenic/estrogenic activity and reproductive toxicity, has been classified as a prototype endocrine disruptor...
  52. Aoyama H, Hojo H, Takahashi K, Shimizu Endo N, Araki M, Takeuchi Kashimoto Y, et al. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats with methoxychlor. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2012;52:28-41 pubmed publisher
    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study was conducted in rats with a reference estrogenic pesticide, methoxychlor, to validate the sensitivity and competency of current guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental ..
  53. Gupta V, Ali I. Removal of endosulfan and methoxychlor from water on carbon slurry. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:766-70 pubmed
    ..industrial generators was converted into an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of endosulfan and methoxychlor from aqueous solution...