Summary: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.

Top Publications

  1. Lu Y, Zhou S, Li B. Exposure to environmental hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) among rural children in north eastern China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2010;23:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Children living in rural areas are experiencing multiple sources of organochlorine pesticide exposure. These pesticides may have been retained in the environment for a long period of time. ..
  2. Sharma P, Singh R. Protective role of curcumin on lindane induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:378-84 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore the adverse effects of lindane pesticide on testes and epididymus weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, abnormal changes in sperm morphology, biochemical changes in endogenous antioxidants and ..
  3. Fantini F, Porta D, Fano V, De Felip E, Senofonte O, Abballe A, et al. [Epidemiologic studies on the health status of the population living in the Sacco River Valley]. Epidemiol Prev. 2012;36:44-52 pubmed
    ..of livestock were contaminated by beta-hexachlorocycloexane (?-HCH, an industrial waste belonging, as well as lindane, to the group of hexachlorocycloexane isomers)...
  4. Anand S, Sangwan N, Lata P, Kaur J, Dua A, Singh A, et al. Genome sequence of Sphingobium indicum B90A, a hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading bacterium. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:4471-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which has now become a model system for understanding the genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of HCH degradation...
  5. Saez J, Benimeli C, Amoroso M. Lindane removal by pure and mixed cultures of immobilized actinobacteria. Chemosphere. 2012;89:982-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane (?-HCH) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been widely used in developing countries. It is known to persist in the environment and can cause serious health problems...
  6. Buck Louis G, Chen Z, Peterson C, Hediger M, Croughan M, Sundaram R, et al. Persistent lipophilic environmental chemicals and endometriosis: the ENDO Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:811-6 pubmed publisher
    ..09, 2.72). Using a matched cohort design, we found that cohort-specific and biological-medium-specific POPs were associated with endometriosis, underscoring the importance of methodological considerations when interpreting findings. ..
  7. Cui Z, Meng F, Hong J, Li X, Ren X. Effects of electron donors on the microbial reductive dechlorination of hexachlorocyclohexane and on the environment. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012;113:765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that the methanol scenario was the most suitable option for the current research. ..
  8. Richardson J, Roy A, Shalat S, Buckley B, Winnik B, Gearing M, et al. ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane levels in serum and risk of Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:640-5 pubmed publisher
    ..8, 4.48; p value<0.001). These data are consistent with environmental decreases in ?-HCH levels between 2001 and 2008, but they indicate that elevated levels of serum ?-HCH are still associated with heightened risk for PD. ..
  9. Nagata Y, Ohtsubo Y, Endo R, Ichikawa N, Ankai A, Oguchi A, et al. Complete genome sequence of the representative ?-hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading bacterium Sphingobium japonicum UT26. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5852-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the complete genome sequence of UT26, which consists of two chromosomes and three plasmids. The 15 lin genes involved in ?-HCH degradation are dispersed on the two chromosomes and one of the three plasmids. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Calvelo Pereira R, Monterroso C, Macias F. Phytotoxicity of hexachlorocyclohexane: Effect on germination and early growth of different plant species. Chemosphere. 2010;79:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These (tolerant) plants therefore appear to be ideal for phytoremediation purposes. ..
  2. Sangwan N, Lata P, Dwivedi V, Singh A, Niharika N, Kaur J, et al. Comparative metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities across three hexachlorocyclohexane contamination levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46219 pubmed publisher
    ..8X coverage) and 3 plasmids (pISP3, pISP4 and pLB1; 13X coverage) containing lin genes/clusters also provides an evidence for the horizontal transfer of HCH catabolism genes. ..
  3. Jit S, Dadhwal M, Kumari H, Jindal S, Kaur J, Lata P, et al. Evaluation of hexachlorocyclohexane contamination from the last lindane production plant operating in India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;18:586-97 pubmed publisher
    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and lindane (?-HCH) were listed as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and hence must be phased out and their wastes/stockpiles eliminated...
  4. Vijgen J, Abhilash P, Li Y, Lal R, Forter M, Torres J, et al. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) as new Stockholm Convention POPs--a global perspective on the management of Lindane and its waste isomers. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;18:152-62 pubmed publisher
    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (?-, ?- and ?- (Lindane)) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention, and therefore, the legacy of HCH and Lindane production became a contemporary ..
  5. Okai M, Kubota K, Fukuda M, Nagata Y, Nagata K, Tanokura M. Crystal structure of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane Dehydrochlorinase LinA from Sphingobium japonicum UT26. J Mol Biol. 2010;403:260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Docking simulations with ?-HCH and ?-pentachlorocyclohexene suggest that 11 residues (K20, I44, L64, V94, L96, I109, A111, F113, A131, C132, and T133) are involved in the binding of these compounds and support the degradation mechanism. ..
  6. Zheng X, Chen D, Liu X, Zhou Q, Liu Y, Yang W, et al. Spatial and seasonal variations of organochlorine compounds in air on an urban-rural transect across Tianjin, China. Chemosphere. 2010;78:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The alpha/gamma-HCH ratio was between 1.26 and 5.79 which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane related compounds (DDTs) were higher at Hangu compared with other sites which ..
  7. Radosavljevic T, Mladenovic D, Jakovljevic V, Vucvic D, Rasc Markovic A, Hrncic D, et al. Oxidative stress in liver and red blood cells in acute lindane toxicity in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:747-57 pubmed publisher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in the hepatocytes and erythrocytes in early phase of acute lindane intoxication...
  8. Attia A, El Banna S, Nomeir F, Abd El Basser M. Lindane-induced biochemical perturbations in rat serum and attenuation by omega-3 and Nigella sativa seed oil. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48:184-90 pubmed
    b>Lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-HCH), a highly persistent organochlorine insecticide is neurotoxic at acute doses and has been reported to induce oxidative stress in cells and tissues...
  9. Zucchini Pascal N, De Sousa G, Pizzol J, Rahmani R. Molecular investigation of the effects of lindane in rat hepatocytes: microarray and mechanistic studies. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:3128-35 pubmed publisher
    Although many studies of lindane toxicity have been carried out, we still know little about the underlying molecular mechanisms...
  10. Hfaiedh N, Murat J, Elfeki A. A combination of ascorbic acid and ?-tocopherol or a combination of Mg and Zn are both able to reduce the adverse effects of lindane-poisoning on rat brain and liver. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..beneficial effects of supplementation with ascorbic acid (Vit C) and ?-tocopherol (Vit E) or with Mg and Zn upon lindane-induced damages in liver and brain...
  11. Anu Prathap M, Chaurasia A, Sawant S, Apte S. Polyaniline-based highly sensitive microbial biosensor for selective detection of lindane. Anal Chem. 2012;84:6672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..for detection of the persistent organochlorine pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), commonly known as lindane. The gene linA2 encoding the enzyme ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dehydrochlorinase (LinA2), involved in the ..
  12. Nagata Y, Natsui S, Endo R, Ohtsubo Y, Ichikawa N, Ankai A, et al. Genomic organization and genomic structural rearrangements of Sphingobium japonicum UT26, an archetypal ?-hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading bacterium. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2011;49:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..These facts strongly suggest that IS6100 plays important roles both in the dissemination of the specific lin genes and in the genome rearrangements...
  13. Berrojalbiz N, Dachs J, Del Vento S, Ojeda M, Valle M, Castro Jiménez J, et al. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment. ..
  14. Tabata M, Endo R, Ito M, Ohtsubo Y, Kumar A, Tsuda M, et al. The lin genes for ?-hexachlorocyclohexane degradation in Sphingomonas sp. MM-1 proved to be dispersed across multiple plasmids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Southern blot analysis revealed that all seven lin genes were dispersed across three of the four plasmids, and that IS6100, often found close to the lin genes, was present on all four plasmids...
  15. Briz V, Molina Molina J, Sánchez Redondo S, Fernandez M, Grimalt J, Olea N, et al. Differential estrogenic effects of the persistent organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane in primary neuronal cultures. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:413-27 pubmed publisher
    The organochlorine chemicals endosulfan, dieldrin, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) are persistent pesticides to which people are exposed mainly via diet...
  16. Bano M, Bhatt D. Ameliorative effect of a combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha-lipoic acid and stilbene resveratrol on lindane induced toxicity in mice olfactory lobe and cerebrum. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:150-8 pubmed
    Acute dose of lindane (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) caused significant reduction in butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity both in olfactory lobe and cerebrum of mice along with reduction in catalase (CAT), total protein and elevation in ..
  17. Piskac Collier A, Smith M. Lindane-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione do not result in necrosis in renal distal tubule cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:1160-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, currently used in prescription shampoos and lotions to treat scabies and lice infestations. Lindane is known to be nephrotoxic; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood...
  18. Hu W, Lu Y, Wang T, Luo W, Shi Y, Giesy J, et al. Spatial variability and temporal trends of HCH and DDT in soils around Beijing Guanting Reservoir, China. Environ Geochem Health. 2010;32:441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatial variability indicated how HCH and DDT had been applied and been distributed in the past. Between 2003 and 2007, concentrations of HCH and DDT decreased more rapidly in orchard soils than those in fallow soils. ..
  19. Böltner D, Godoy P, Muñoz Rojas J, Duque E, Moreno Morillas S, Sanchez L, et al. Rhizoremediation of lindane by root-colonizing Sphingomonas. Microb Biotechnol. 2008;1:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that the removal of persistent toxic chemicals can be accelerated by combinations of plants and bacteria, a process generally known as rhizoremediation. ..
  20. Vijaya Padma V, Sowmya P, Arun Felix T, Baskaran R, Poornima P. Protective effect of gallic acid against lindane induced toxicity in experimental rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:991-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide that persists in the environment, bioaccumulate through food chain and has a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment...
  21. Nolan K, Kamrath J, Levitt J. Lindane toxicity: a comprehensive review of the medical literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012;29:141-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane is an organochloride pesticide, first introduced as a scabicide for human use in the 1950s...
  22. Chen W, Jing M, Bu J, Ellis Burnet J, Qi S, Song Q, et al. Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;177:1-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was new input of ?-HCH (lindane) into the Peacock River...
  23. Khan F, Ganesan P, Kumar S. Y Chromosome microdeletion and altered sperm quality in human males with high concentration of seminal hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Chemosphere. 2010;80:972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study indicated the susceptibility of male germ line to mutagenic potential of HCH which is an acknowledged risk factor leading to spermatogenic failure. ..
  24. Lal R, Pandey G, Sharma P, Kumari K, Malhotra S, Pandey R, et al. Biochemistry of microbial degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and prospects for bioremediation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2010;74:58-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane, the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), is a potent insecticide...
  25. Ingelido A, Abballe A, Marra V, Valentini S, Ferro A, Porpora M, et al. Serum concentrations of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in groups of the Italian general population: a human biomonitoring study. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2009;45:401-8 pubmed
    ..64 and 300 ng/g fat, with a median value of 18.0 ng/g fat and a 90th percentile of 65.9 ng/g fat. The serum concentrations detected are in line with those detected in most Western European countries. ..
  26. Morgan M, Parker C, Robinson J, Pierce E. Using Representational Difference Analysis to detect changes in transcript expression of Aiptasia genes after laboratory exposure to lindane. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;110-111:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The organochlorine pesticide lindane is known to disrupt normal neuron function...
  27. Heusinkveld H, Westerink R. Organochlorine insecticides lindane and dieldrin and their binary mixture disturb calcium homeostasis in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:1842-8 pubmed publisher
    Current hypotheses link long-term environmental exposure of humans to persistent organochlorine (OC) insecticides lindane (HCH) and dieldrin (HEOD) to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease...
  28. Srivastava A, Shivanandappa T. Stereospecificity in the cytotoxic action of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;183:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this study demonstrates for the first time a clear link between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, i[Ca(2+)] level, and oxidative stress in HCH-induced cytotoxicity. ..
  29. Anguiano G, Amador A, Moreno Legorreta M, Arcos Ortega F, Vazquez Boucard C. Effects of exposure to oxamyl, carbofuran, dichlorvos, and lindane on acetylcholinesterase activity in the gills of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Environ Toxicol. 2010;25:327-32 pubmed publisher exposing animals to organophosphate (dichlorvos), carbamate (carbofuran and oxamyl), and organochlorine (lindane) pesticides. Adult Pacific oysters were exposed to several concentrations (0...
  30. Islam R, Lynch J. Mechanism of action of the insecticides, lindane and fipronil, on glycine receptor chloride channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    Docking studies predict that the insecticides, lindane and fipronil, block GABA(A) receptors by binding to 6' pore-lining residues. However, this has never been tested at any Cys-loop receptor...
  31. Cao H, Tao S, Xu F, Coveney R, Cao J, Li B, et al. Multimedia fate model for hexachlorocyclohexane in Tianjin, China. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:2126-32 pubmed
    ..The dispersions of the calculated and observed concentrations were compared in terms of coefficients of variation to distinguish between true variability and model uncertainty. ..
  32. Saradha B, Vaithinathan S, Mathur P. Lindane induces testicular apoptosis in adult Wistar rats through the involvement of Fas-FasL and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Toxicology. 2009;255:131-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is known to impair testicular functions and fertility...
  33. Gao J, Liu L, Liu X, Lu J, Zhou H, Huang S, et al. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides - lindane, p,p'-DDT, and heptachlor epoxide - in surface water of China. Environ Int. 2008;34:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The surface water samples were analyzed for the representative organochlorine pesticides contaminants including lindane (gamma-HCH), p,p'-DDT and heptachlor epoxide...
  34. Liu Z, Quan X, Yang F. Long-term fate of three hexachlorocyclohexanes in the lower reach of Liao River basin: dynamic mass budgets and pathways. Chemosphere. 2007;69:1159-65 pubmed
    ..It is believed that the model can provide a valuable understanding of the processes that determine the overall fate of HCHs in the basin. ..
  35. Garcia Fernandez A, Bayoumi A, Pérez Pertejo Y, Romero D, Ordonez C, Reguera R, et al. Changes in glutathione-redox balance induced by hexachlorocyclohexane and lindane in CHO-K1 cells. Xenobiotica. 2002;32:1007-16 pubmed
    1. The basal cytotoxic effect of the organochlorine pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane and lindane on CHO-K1 cultures was assessed at fractions of their lethal doses as determined by the neutral red incorporation (NRI) assay (NRI(6...
  36. Maskell P, Wafford K, Bermudez I. Effects of gamma-HCH and delta-HCH on human recombinant GABA(A) receptors: dependence on GABA(A) receptor subunit combination. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:205-12 pubmed
    ..By contrast, sensitivity to the direct actions of delta-HCH are abolished in receptors containing alpha 4, beta 1 or gamma 2L subunits. ..
  37. Phillips T, Seech A, Lee H, Trevors J. Colorimetric assay for Lindane dechlorination by bacteria. J Microbiol Methods. 2001;47:181-8 pubmed
    ..detects haloalkane dehalogenase activity was modified to detect dechlorination of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane)...
  38. Oskarsson A, Ullerås E, Plant K, Hinson J, Goldfarb P. Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human adrenal gland: adrenotoxic effects of lindane in vitro. J Appl Toxicol. 2006;26:484-92 pubmed a possible in vitro system for the assessment of adrenal disruption using molecular endpoints, the insecticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) was used...
  39. Bidlan R, Afsar M, Manonmani H. Bioremediation of HCH-contaminated soil: elimination of inhibitory effects of the insecticide on radish and green gram seed germination. Chemosphere. 2004;56:803-11 pubmed
    ..The degradation of 25 microg tech-HCH g(-1) soil was complete by 120 h. The seed germination and the activities of the assayed enzymes, amylase and protease, were same as before or better in bioremediated soils. ..
  40. Mohn W, Garmendia J, Galvao T, De Lorenzo V. Surveying biotransformations with à la carte genetic traps: translating dehydrochlorination of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) into lacZ-based phenotypes. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8:546-55 pubmed
    ..with a system to expose the activity of dehydrochlorinases acting upon gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane)...
  41. Alegria H, Bidleman T, Figueroa M. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Pollut. 2006;140:483-91 pubmed
  42. Ke F, Fang S, Lee M, Sheu S, Lai S, Chen Y, et al. Lindane, a gap junction blocker, suppresses FSH and transforming growth factor beta1-induced connexin43 gap junction formation and steroidogenesis in rat granulosa cells. J Endocrinol. 2005;184:555-66 pubmed
    ..There were three specific aims. First, we investigated the effect of FSH and TGF beta1 as well as lindane (a general gap junction blocker) on the level of connexin43 (Cx43), the major gap junction constituent in ..
  43. Bagchi M, Stohs S. In vitro induction of reactive oxygen species by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, endrin, and lindane in rat peritoneal macrophages, and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993;14:11-8 pubmed
    ..alpha,5,6,7,8,8 alpha-octahydroendo, endo-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane)...
  44. Antunes S, Castro B, Goncalves F. Effect of food level on the acute and chronic responses of daphnids to lindane. Environ Pollut. 2004;127:367-75 pubmed
    The toxic effects of lindane on the zooplankton communities may be strongly related to the population fitness, which is highly dependent on food availability...
  45. Huang D, Chen H. Effects of chlordane and lindane on testosterone and vitellogenin levels in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). Int J Toxicol. 2004;23:91-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of chlordane and lindane as well as their endocrine disruption effect on green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata), a common habitant in freshwater system of eastern Asia ..
  46. Wang C, Loch Caruso R. Phospholipase-mediated inhibition of spontaneous oscillatory uterine contractions by lindane in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:136-47 pubmed
    ..In a previous cumulative concentration-response study, 10 microM lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) reduced contraction force and 30 microM lindane abolished contractions in Gestation ..
  47. Li Y, Macdonald R, Jantunen L, Harner T, Bidleman T, Strachan W. The transport of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane to the western Arctic Ocean: a contrast to alpha-HCH. Sci Total Environ. 2002;291:229-46 pubmed
    ..Beta-HCH provides an important lesson that environmental pathways must be comprehensively understood before attempting to predict the behavior of one chemical by extrapolation from a seemingly similar chemical. ..
  48. Calvelo Pereira R, Camps Arbestain M, Rodríguez Garrido B, Macias F, Monterroso C. Behaviour of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane in the soil-plant system of a contaminated site. Environ Pollut. 2006;144:210-7 pubmed
    ..The results reflect the importance of vegetation in the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the soil-plant system. ..
  49. Endo R, Ohtsubo Y, Tsuda M, Nagata Y. Identification and characterization of genes encoding a putative ABC-type transporter essential for utilization of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in Sphingobium japonicum UT26. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3712-20 pubmed
    ..This study clearly demonstrated that a cellular factor besides catabolic enzymes and transcriptional regulators is essential for utilization of xenobiotic compounds in bacterial cells. ..
  50. Marco J, Kishimba M. Organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in young leaves of Mangifera indica from sites near a point source in Coast region, Tanzania. Chemosphere. 2007;68:832-7 pubmed
    ..The low alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios (<0.3-0.7) in most samples indicate recent input of lindane (99% gamma-HCH)...
  51. Mograbi B, Corcelle E, Defamie N, Samson M, Nebout M, Segretain D, et al. Aberrant Connexin 43 endocytosis by the carcinogen lindane involves activation of the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1415-23 pubmed
    ..Using the 42GPA9 Sertoli cell line, we recently reported that one widely used lipid-soluble pesticide, Lindane impairs gap junctional intercellular communication by promoting the intracellular localization of Connexin 43 (..
  52. Murayama H, Takase Y, Mitobe H, Mukai H, Ohzeki T, Shimizu K, et al. Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan. Chemosphere. 2003;52:683-94 pubmed
    ..A peculiar observation is that beta-HCH concentration measured in our study showed large temperature dependence, indicating there could be a source of contamination in the surrounding areas. ..
  53. Chouela E, Abeldaño A, Pellerano G, La Forgia M, Papale R, Garsd A, et al. Equivalent therapeutic efficacy and safety of ivermectin and lindane in the treatment of human scabies. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135:651-5 pubmed
    To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of ivermectin and lindane for the treatment of human scabies. Randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind, "double-dummy," and parallel clinical study...