Summary: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)

Top Publications

  1. Moser V, Shafer T, Ward T, Meacham C, Harris M, Chapin R. Neurotoxicological outcomes of perinatal heptachlor exposure in the rat. Toxicol Sci. 2001;60:315-26 pubmed
    The developing nervous system has been identified as a potential target of pesticide exposure. Heptachlor is a cyclodiene pesticide that was widely used for many years, and for which inadvertent exposure to children and fetuses took place ..
  2. Caudle W, Richardson J, Wang M, Miller G. Perinatal heptachlor exposure increases expression of presynaptic dopaminergic markers in mouse striatum. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:721-728 pubmed publisher
    Although banned in the 1970s, significant levels of the organochlorine pesticide heptachlor are still present in the environment raising concern over potential human exposure...
  3. Richardson J, Caudle W, Wang M, Dean E, Pennell K, Miller G. Developmental heptachlor exposure increases susceptibility of dopamine neurons to N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)in a gender-specific manner. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that developmental exposure to the organochlorine pesticide heptachlor alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of PD...
  4. Purkerson Parker S, McDaniel K, Moser V. Dopamine transporter binding in the rat striatum is increased by gestational, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to heptachlor. Toxicol Sci. 2001;64:216-23 pubmed
    b>Heptachlor is a persistent cyclodiene pesticide that affects GABAergic function. Recent reports indicate that heptachlor exposure also alters dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function in adult mice...
  5. Kirby M, Barlow R, Bloomquist J. Neurotoxicity of the organochlorine insecticide heptachlor to murine striatal dopaminergic pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61:100-6 pubmed
    ..studied in groups of C57BL/6 mice treated by ip injection three times over a 2-week period with 3--100 mg/kg heptachlor. On average, the maximal rate of striatal dopamine uptake increased > 2-fold in mice treated at doses of 6 mg/..
  6. Miller G, Kirby M, Levey A, Bloomquist J. Heptachlor alters expression and function of dopamine transporters. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:631-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that subchronic administration of the organochlorine insecticide heptachlor (0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 mg/kg given 3 times over a 2 week period) leads to a pronounced increase in both the plasma ..
  7. Suwalsky M, Benites M, Villena F, Aguilar F, Sotomayor C. The organochlorine pesticide heptachlor disrupts the structure of model and cell membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1326:115-23 pubmed
    b>Heptachlor is an organochlorine pesticide which is particularly toxic for aquatic life. A significant source of this pesticide for infants is breast milk, where its concentration is considerably higher than in dairy milk...
  8. Hong S, Kim J, Hwang J, Shin K, Kang S. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional ..
  9. McManus S, Coxon C, Richards K, Danaher M. Quantitative solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the pesticides lindane, heptachlor and two heptachlor transformation products in groundwater. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1284:1-7 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes the development and validation of a method for the determination of lindane, heptachlor and two heptachlor transformation products (exo- and endo-heptachlor epoxide) in groundwater...

More Information


  1. Hoppin J, Valcin M, Henneberger P, Kullman G, Umbach D, London S, et al. Pesticide use and chronic bronchitis among farmers in the Agricultural Health Study. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50:969-79 pubmed
    ..b>Heptachlor use had the highest odds ratio (OR=1.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.19, 1.89)...
  2. Sandhu S, Ma T, Peng Y, Zhou X. Clastogenicity evaluation of seven chemicals commonly found at hazardous industrial waste sites. Mutat Res. 1989;224:437-45 pubmed
    ..from the US EPA Superfund Priority 1 list were: aldrin, arsenic trioxide, 1,2-benz[a, h]anthracene, dieldrin, heptachlor, lead tetraacetate and tetrachloroethylene...
  3. Kim J, Smith A. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from South Korea. Chemosphere. 2001;43:137-40 pubmed
    ..The main pesticides found were gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin. The range of concentrations, for each compound, was respectively, 0.17-0.94, 0.77-2.97, 1...
  4. Jung K, Kim J, Kim M, Noh J, Eun J, Bae H, et al. Characteristic molecular signature for early detection and prediction of persistent organic pollutants in rat liver. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:12882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The six different POPs (toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, chlordane, mirex, dieldrin, and heptachlor) were administered to 11-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, and after 48 h of exposure, RNAs were extracted from ..
  5. Chuang L, Hinton D, Cheung A, Chuang R. Induction of differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells by heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1991;109:98-107 pubmed
    Effects of heptachlor, an organochlorine pesticide, on human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells were determined...
  6. Moser V, MacPhail R, Gennings C. Neurobehavioral evaluations of mixtures of trichloroethylene, heptachlor, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in a full-factorial design. Toxicology. 2003;188:125-37 pubmed
    ..o.) for 10 days either one of five doses of trichloroethylene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, or heptachlor, or else one of all possible chemical combinations...
  7. Bhadouria B, Mathur V, Kaul R. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in and around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:5295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations of ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, S-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, hept.epoxide, endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II, endo...
  8. Sousa S, Jiménez Guerrero P, Ruiz A, Ratola N, Alves A. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment. Environ Technol. 2011;32:673-83 pubmed
    ..biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters...
  9. Campagna A, Eler M, Fracácio R, Rodrigues B, Verani N. The toxic potential of aldrin and heptachlor on Danio rerio juveniles (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). Ecotoxicology. 2007;16:289-98 pubmed
    With the objective of evaluating the effects of organochlorine pesticides (aldrin and heptachlor) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio), four partial chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted (..
  10. Park J, Abd El Aty A, Lee M, Song S, Shim J. Residue analysis of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in fatty matrices by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection. Z Naturforsch C. 2006;61:341-6 pubmed
    ..The proposed analytical method may be used as a simple procedure in routine determinations of OCs and Ops in meat. It can also be applied to the determination of pesticide multi-residues in other animal products such as butter and milk. ..
  11. Xue J, Hao L, Peng F. Residues of 18 organochlorine pesticides in 30 traditional Chinese medicines. Chemosphere. 2008;71:1051-5 pubmed
    ..We tested for 18 pesticides: benzene hexachloride (BHC, including alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, methyl ..
  12. Zucchini Pascal N, Peyre L, De Sousa G, Rahmani R. Organochlorine pesticides induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human primary cultured hepatocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:3963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These events could account, at least in part, for the carcionogenic and/or fibrogenic activities of these POPs. ..
  13. Magnarelli G, Souza M, de D Angelo A. Heptachlor and o-p'DDT effects on protein kinase activities associated with human placenta particulate fractions. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2009;23:185-92 pubmed publisher
    Organochlorine pesticides have been detected in placenta. The ability of heptachlor (HC) and 1,1,1-tricholoro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o-p'DDT) to interfere with protein phosphorylation was evaluated...
  14. Xiao P, Mori T, Kamei I, Kondo R. Metabolism of organochlorine pesticide heptachlor and its metabolite heptachlor epoxide by white rot fungi, belonging to genus Phlebia. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;314:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the ability of 18 white rot fungi species of genus Phlebia to degrade heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and described the metabolic pathways by selected white rot fungi...
  15. Lawson G, Luderer U. Gestational and lactational exposure to heptachlor does not alter reproductive system development in rats. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004;46:113-8 pubmed
    Like other organochlorine insecticides, heptachlor is lipophilic and accumulates in fatty tissues...
  16. Fatoki O, Awofolu O. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in marine-, surface-, ground- and drinking waters from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. J Environ Sci Health B. 2004;39:101-14 pubmed
    ..chlordane, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor and endosulfan were determined in drinking-, ground-, surface- and marine waters from the Eastern Cape Province ..
  17. Hayashi O, Kameshiro M, Satoh K. Degradation of the persistent organic pollutant [14C]heptachlor in Japanese field soils. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1240-4 pubmed
    The fate of [(14)C]heptachlor in Saitama soil and the degradation of [(14)C]heptachlor in four Japanese field soils over 112 d after application were investigated...
  18. Kania Korwel I, Lehmler H. Chlordane and heptachlor are metabolized enantioselectively by rat liver microsomes. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:8913-22 pubmed publisher
    Chlordane, heptachlor, and their metabolites are chiral persistent organic pollutants that undergo enantiomeric enrichment in the environment...
  19. Pazi I, Kucuksezgin F, Gonul L. Distribution and sources of organochlorinated contaminants in sediments from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea). Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:1115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..But the higher concentrations in Inner bay and in the Gediz River estuary could cause biological damage. ..
  20. Ahad K, Mohammad A, Khan H, Ahmad I, Hayat Y. Monitoring results for organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from selected obsolete pesticide stores in Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess. 2010;166:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The soil samples mainly contained DDTs followed by lindane and heptachlor. The contamination levels in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sindh were in ranges of 247-9,157 ..
  21. Mussalo Rauhamaa H, Pyysalo H, Antervo K. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and other chlordane compounds in Finnish plywood workers. Arch Environ Health. 1991;46:340-6 pubmed
    Residue levels of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and other chlordane compounds were determined in sera from 74 Finnish plywood workers and 52 controls...
  22. Abdo W, Hirata A, Sakai H, El Sawak A, Nikami H, Yanai T. Combined effects of organochlorine pesticides heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene on the promotion stage of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:578-85 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate the combined effect of organochlorine pesticides heptachlor (HEP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were initially administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200mg/kgi...
  23. Yamada S, Naito Y, Funakawa M, Nakai S, Hosomi M. Photodegradation fates of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and heptachlor in ethanol. Chemosphere. 2008;70:1669-75 pubmed
    cis-Chlordane, trans-chlordane, and heptachlor were photodegraded in ethanol, and their degradation fates and degradation products were determined by a computational chemical method...
  24. Montuori P, Cirillo T, Fasano E, Nardone A, Esposito F, Triassi M. Spatial distribution and partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide in water and sediment from Sarno River and Estuary, southern Italy. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:5023-35 pubmed publisher
    ..4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulphate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (isomer B) and methoxychlor were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended ..
  25. Wang D, Atkinson S, Hoover Miller A, Lee S, Li Q. Organochlorines in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues from the northern Gulf of Alaska. Environ Pollut. 2007;146:268-80 pubmed
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, heptachlor and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) tissues collected from the Gulf of Alaska during ..
  26. Maskarinec G. Mortality and cancer incidence among children and adolescents in Hawaii 20 years after a heptachlor contamination episode. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2005;24:235-49 pubmed
    In 1982, dairy products were recalled from all stores on Oahu, Hawaii, after heptachlor epoxide was detected in milk at concentrations exceeding the federal action level...
  27. Klemens J, Wieland M, Flanagin V, Frick J, Harper R. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland. Environ Pollut. 2003;122:245-51 pubmed
    ..The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at ..
  28. Li A, Mink P, McIntosh L, Teta M, Finley B. Evaluation of epidemiologic and animal data associating pesticides with Parkinson's disease. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:1059-87 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the animal and epidemiologic data reviewed do not provide sufficient evidence to support a causal association between pesticide exposure and PD. ..
  29. Purdue M, Hoppin J, Blair A, Dosemeci M, Alavanja M. Occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:642-9 pubmed
    ..Information on ever use of 7 OC insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, lindane, toxaphene) was collected from a self-administered questionnaire at enrollment...
  30. Rivera Rodríguez L, Rodríguez Estrella R, Ellington J, Evans J. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (<or=100 microl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Environ Pollut. 2007;148:654-62 pubmed
    ..036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, ..
  31. Murataliev M, Guzov V, Walker F, Feyereisen R. P450 reductase and cytochrome b5 interactions with cytochrome P450: effects on house fly CYP6A1 catalysis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Both holo- and apo-b5 stimulated CYP6A1 heptachlor epoxidase and steroid hydroxylase activities and influenced the regioselectivity of testosterone hydroxylation...
  32. Petterson D, Casey R, Ebell G, McIntyre B. Residues in beef cattle accidentally exposed to commercial heptachlor. Aust Vet J. 1988;65:50-3 pubmed
    The changes in concentration of heptachlor epoxide (HCE) and oxychlordane (OCD) were studied in the tissues of beef cattle that had previously grazed pasture contaminated with commercial heptachlor...
  33. Waliszewski S, Pardio V, Waliszewski K, Chantiri J, Infanzon R, Rivera J. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk. Food Addit Contam. 1996;13:231-5 pubmed
    ..The results obtained for mean DDT and HCH levels were 0.057 and 0.098 mg/kg respectively expressed on fat basis and are within FAO tolerances and similar to those found in other tropical countries. ..
  34. Bempah C, Donkor A. Pesticide residues in fruits at the market level in Accra Metropolis, Ghana, a preliminary study. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;175:551-61 pubmed publisher
    ..sampled fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (?-HCH, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, ?-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, ?-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- ..
  35. Chow W, Chan W, Chan K. Toxicity assessment and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae acutely exposed to bisphenol A, endosulfan, heptachlor, methoxychlor and tetrabromobisphenol A. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sublethal and lethal effects of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely methoxychlor, endosulfan and heptachlor, as well as the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A, and its precursor compound bisphenol A...
  36. Reed A, Dzon L, Loganathan B, Whalen M. Immunomodulation of human natural killer cell cytotoxic function by organochlorine pesticides. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004;23:463-71 pubmed
    ..Exposure of highly purified NK cells to 5 microM alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, 4,4'-DDT, heptachlor, oxychlordane, or pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited their ability to destroy K562 tumor-cells by 88+/-5, 92+/-8, ..
  37. Adeshina F, Todd E. Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from north Texas. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1990;29:147-56 pubmed
    ..the presence of beta-benzene hexachloride, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide...
  38. Zuo H, Zhu J, Zhan C, Tang G, Guo P, Wei Y, et al. A method developed for determination of heptachlor and its metabolites from pork. Environ Monit Assess. 2014;186:2399-412 pubmed publisher
    A new method has been developed to determine heptachlor and its metabolites heptachlor-exo-epoxide and heptachlor-endo-epoxide in pork...
  39. Kessabi M, Elhraiki A, Nader B. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. Sci Total Environ. 1988;71:209-14 pubmed
    ..Hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin and heptachlor were frequently encountered...
  40. Moya de Juri M, Magnarelli de Potas G, Pechén de D Angelo A. Alteration of thrombine-signaling mechanism by heptachlor in human platelets. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2002;16:189-96 pubmed
    b>Heptachlor is a persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been detected in human tissues and fluids...
  41. Oduma J, Oduor Okelo D, Odongo H, Makawiti D. The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of rat. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;144:76-84 pubmed
    b>Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, suppresses the production of progesterone and estradiol in the female rat in vivo or in isolated ovaries in vitro...
  42. Chuang L, Rought S, Chuang R. Differential regulation of the major cyclin-dependent kinases, cdk2 and cdc2, during cell cycle progression in human lymphocytes exposed to heptachlor. In Vivo. 1999;13:455-61 pubmed
    b>Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, has been considered an environmental contaminant with potential adverse health effects...
  43. Waszak I, Dabrowska H. Persistent organic pollutants in two fish species of Percidae and sediment from the Sulejowski Reservoir in central Poland. Chemosphere. 2009;75:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, and DDTs were measured in the fish muscles...
  44. Fenoglio C, Grosso A, Boncompagni E, Gandini C, Milanesi G, Barni S. Exposure to heptachlor: evaluation of the effects on the larval and adult epidermis of Rana kl. esculenta. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;91:151-60 pubmed publisher
    Widely used in the past against termites and soil insects, the chlorinated insecticide heptachlor (H) is a toxic contaminant which represents a risk for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms...
  45. Hung C, Xu Y, Lam J, Connell D, Lam M, Nicholson S, et al. A preliminary risk assessment of organochlorines accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northwestern waters of Hong Kong. Environ Pollut. 2006;144:190-6 pubmed
    ..The HCHs, total PCBs and heptachlor had comparatively high RQs and thus they should also be the priority organochlorines that would require further ..
  46. Souza M, Magnarelli de Potas G, Pechén de D Angelo A. Organophosphorous and organochlorine pesticides affect human placental phosphoinositides metabolism and PI-4 kinase activity. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2004;18:30-6 pubmed
    ..b>Heptachlor (HC) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (o-p' DDT) increased phosphatidyl-inositol, ..
  47. Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani S, Malik R, Alamdar A, Faheem H. Status of organochlorine contaminants in the different environmental compartments of Pakistan: a review on occurrence and levels. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;88:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..05) than those reported from the agricultural areas and fresh water bodies of the country. HCHs, heptachlor, dieldrin, and HCB were also reported in many studies, but the concentrations are comparable among all the ..
  48. Hou S, Chen D, Li X, Li G, Yang Q, Min S, et al. [Simultaneous determination of 25 persistent organic pollutants in rice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring mode]. Se Pu. 2005;23:229-33 pubmed
    ..37% and 18.48%. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.1 to 5 ng/g for the different POPs except endrin, trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The results show that the method developed is sensitive and reliable. ..
  49. Adu Kumi S, Kares R, Literák J, Borůvková J, Yeboah P, Carboo D, et al. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:1963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (?-, ?-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), ..
  50. Ibarluzea J, Alvarez Pedrerol M, Guxens M, Marina L, Basterrechea M, Lertxundi A, et al. Sociodemographic, reproductive and dietary predictors of organochlorine compounds levels in pregnant women in Spain. Chemosphere. 2011;82:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..101, 118, 138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH and ?-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) were ..
  51. Joy V, Pramanik R, Sarkar K. Biomonitoring insecticide pollution using non-target soil microarthropods. J Environ Biol. 2005;26:571-7 pubmed
    ..experiments were conducted in small plots with mustard, wheat and lady's finger crops and insecticides namely heptachlor 20EC (3.25 kg ai/ha = 16.25 lit/ha) and endosulfan 35EC (0.875 kg ai/ha = 2...
  52. Nomata K, Kang K, Hayashi T, Matesic D, Lockwood L, Chang C, et al. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in heptachlor- and heptachlor epoxide-treated normal human breast epithelial cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 1996;12:69-78 pubmed
    ..the environment and in human tissue, this study was designed to determine whether various noncytotoxic levels of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide could inhibit, reversibly, gap junctional intercellular communication in human breast ..
  53. Davis L, Visitacion N, Riley L, Hiramatsu N, Sullivan C, Hirano T, et al. Effects of o,p'-DDE, heptachlor, and 17beta-estradiol on vitellogenin gene expression and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;149:507-14 pubmed publisher
    Effects of two endocrine disruptors, o,p'-DDE and heptachlor, and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on vitellogenin (Vg) and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis were examined in male tilapia...