endrin

Summary

Summary: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Hassoun E, Stohs S. Comparative teratological studies on TCDD, endrin and lindane in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1996;113:393-8 pubmed
    The teratogenic effects of endrin and lindane have been determined and compared to those induced by TCDD in the fetuses of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice after the administration of single oral doses to pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation...
  2. Shara M, Dickson P, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Excretion of formaldehyde, malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats in response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, paraquat, endrin and carbon tetrachloride. J Chromatogr. 1992;576:221-33 pubmed
    ..induced by orally administering 100 micrograms/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 75 mg/kg paraquat, 6 mg/kg endrin or 2.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride to rats...
  3. Akubue P, Stohs S. Endrin-induced production of nitric oxide by rat peritoneal macrophages. Toxicol Lett. 1992;62:311-6 pubmed
    The effect of oral endrin administration to rats on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Nitric oxide formation was measured as nitrite. Endrin (4.5 mg/kg) enhanced the secretion of NO by approx...
  4. Hassoun E, Stohs S. TCDD, endrin and lindane induced oxidative stress in fetal and placental tissues of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1996;115:11-8 pubmed
    The abilities of TCDD, endrin and lindane to induce oxidative stress in fetal and placental tissues have been studied after the oral administration of these xenobiotics to pregnant C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice...
  5. Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Endrin-induced increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation, membrane microviscosity, and DNA damage in rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992;23:1-5 pubmed
    b>Endrin is a polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbon pesticide which produces hepatic and neurologic toxicity. Previous studies have indicated that endrin induces hepatic lipid peroxidation...
  6. Hassoun E, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Comparative studies on lipid peroxidation and DNA-single strand breaks induced by lindane, DDT, chlordane and endrin in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1993;104:427-31 pubmed
    ..therefore examined the time-dependent effects of lindane (30 mg/kg), DDT (40 mg/kg), chlordane (120 mg/kg), and endrin (4...
  7. Bagchi M, Stohs S. In vitro induction of reactive oxygen species by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, endrin, and lindane in rat peritoneal macrophages, and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993;14:11-8 pubmed
    ..for up to 30 min at 37 degrees C in the presence of 0-200 ng/ml 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4 alpha,5,6,7,8,8 alpha-octahydroendo, endo-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), ..
  8. Bagchi D, Balmoori J, Bagchi M, Ye X, Williams C, Stohs S. Comparative effects of TCDD, endrin, naphthalene and chromium (VI) on oxidative stress and tissue damage in the liver and brain tissues of mice. Toxicology. 2002;175:73-82 pubmed
    ..01, 0.10 and 0.50 LD(50) doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), endrin, naphthalene and sodium dichromate (chromium VI) on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and enhanced production ..
  9. Peng X, Wang J, Fan B, Luan Z. Sorption of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. J Hazard Mater. 2009;168:210-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the sorption of endrin, a nonionic persistent organochlorine pesticide, to montmorillonite and kaolinite was investigated...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Bagchi D, Hassoun E, Bagchi M, Stohs S. Protective effects of antioxidants against endrin-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and excretion of urinary lipid metabolites. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993;15:217-22 pubmed
    Oxidative stress is believed to play a pivotal role in endrin-induced hepatic and neurologic toxicity...
  2. Bloomquist J. Intrinsic lethality of chloride-channel-directed insecticides and convulsants in mammals. Toxicol Lett. 1992;60:289-98 pubmed
    ..The evidence that multiple chloride-channel subtypes serve as targets for these compounds and the potential impact this had on the results of these studies are discussed. ..
  3. Schenck F. Screening of nonfatty fish for organochlorine pesticide residues by solid-phase extraction cleanup: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int. 1996;79:1215-9 pubmed
    ..The participants analyzed control and fortified (about 0.050 ppm lindane, heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, and endrin) croaker and flounder samples and a sea trout sample containing incurred p,p'-DDE residues...
  4. Moreno Aliaga M, Matsumura F. Endrin inhibits adipocyte differentiation by selectively altering expression pattern of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha in 3T3-L1 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;56:91-101 pubmed
    ..b>Endrin was found to cause a dose-dependent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells...
  5. Squires R, Saederup E. Polychlorinated convulsant insecticides potentiate the protective effect of NaCl against heat inactivation of [3H]flunitrazepam binding sites. J Neurochem. 1989;52:537-43 pubmed
    ..was similar to the rank order of potencies as inhibitors of [35S]TBPS binding (alpha-endosulfan greater than endrin greater than dieldrin greater than toxaphene greater than lindane)...
  6. Boada L, Lara P, Alvarez Leon E, Losada A, Zumbado M, Limiñana Cañal J, et al. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I in relation to organochlorine pesticides exposure. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2007;17:506-11 pubmed
    ..curve was observed between Total Cyclodienes Body Burden (Total Cyclodienes; sum of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) and IGF-I in men (p=0.024)...
  7. Matsumoto E, Kawanaka Y, Yun S, Oyaizu H. Isolation of dieldrin- and endrin-degrading bacteria using 1,2-epoxycyclohexane as a structural analog of both compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:1095-103 pubmed publisher
    This report describes the selective isolation of dieldrin- and endrin-degrading bacteria from soil with high degradation activity toward dieldrin and endrin...
  8. Matsumoto E, Kawanaka Y, Yun S, Oyaizu H. Bioremediation of the organochlorine pesticides, dieldrin and endrin, and their occurrence in the environment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;84:205-16 pubmed publisher
    Dieldrin and endrin are persistent organic pollutants that cause serious environmental problems...
  9. Waller K, Prendergast T, Slagle A, Jackson R. Seizures after eating a snack food contaminated with the pesticide endrin. The tale of the toxic taquitos. West J Med. 1992;157:648-51 pubmed
    ..Leftover taquitos were found to contain endrin, a highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide...
  10. Bloomquist J, Grubs R, Soderlund D, Knipple D. Prolonged exposure to GABA activates GABA-gated chloride channels in the presence of channel-blocking convulsants. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1991;99:397-402 pubmed
    ..2. Incubation with GABA following preincubation with 10 microM endrin, a polychlorocycloalkane insecticide and established blocker of GABA-gated chloride channels, showed a stimulation ..
  11. Maruyama S, Sukekawa Y, Kaneko Y, Fujimoto S. [Anti tumor activities of lentinan and micellapist in tumor-bearing mice]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2006;33:1726-9 pubmed
    ..CD4-positive cells appeared to be involved in this activity of CD8-positive cells. On the other hand, orally administered MME has exerted no clear cytotoxic effects...
  12. Bagchi M, Ghosh S, Bagchi D, Hassoun E, Stohs S. Protective effects of lazaroid U74389F (16-desmethyl tirilazad) on endrin-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in brain and liver and regional distribution of catalase activity in rat brain. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19:867-72 pubmed
    b>Endrin, a poly-halogenated cyclic hydrocarbon, induces hepatic lipid peroxidation, modulates calcium homeostasis, decreases membrane fluidity, and increases nuclear DNA damage...
  13. Dvorska A, Sir M, Honzajková Z, Komprda J, Cupr P, Petrlík J, et al. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment--an Armenian case study. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:1944-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Multi-stakeholder cooperation proved to be successful in identifying such sites suspected to be significant sources of persistent organic pollutants. ..
  14. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Stohs S. Endrin-induced urinary excretion of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde and acetone in rats. Toxicology. 1992;75:81-9 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that endrin induces an oxidative stress in rats as demonstrated by an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation, a decrease in glutathione content and a decrease in the activity in selenium-dependent glutathione ..
  15. Sargis R, Johnson D, Choudhury R, Brady M. Environmental endocrine disruptors promote adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cell line through glucocorticoid receptor activation. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..activity using a luciferase reporter construct, and four (bisphenol A (BPA), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), endrin, and tolylfluanid (TF)) were shown to significantly stimulate GR without significant activation of the peroxisome ..
  16. Wu T, Rainwater T, Platt S, McMurry S, Anderson T. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize. Chemosphere. 2000;40:671-8 pubmed
    ..collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs...
  17. Igbinosa I, Okafor F. Environmental stress and parasitic infections: I. The effects of Gramoxone and Hexadrin on embryo and hatching of Fasciola gigantica miracidia. Angew Parasitol. 1988;29:179-83 pubmed
    ..5 ppm. Results also show that at 4 ppm and 5.5 ppm the pesticides achieve 99.0% mortality of eggs. At sublethal concentrations they cause prolongation of embryonic processes and inhibition of hatching of miracidia. ..
  18. Tully D, Cox V, Mumtaz M, Davis V, Chapin R. Six high-priority organochlorine pesticides, either singly or in combination, are nonestrogenic in transfected HeLa cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2000;14:95-102 pubmed
    ..have evaluated the ability of six organochlorine pesticides (4, 4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin, all classified high priority by ATSDR) to modulate transcriptional activation of an estrogen-responsive reporter ..
  19. Bonner J, Yarbrough J. Role of the brain t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate receptor in vertebrate resistance to endrin, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane and cypermethrin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989;249:149-54 pubmed
    Certain populations of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) are highly resistant to endrin (42-fold), but are not cross-resistant to cypermethrin...
  20. Pulido J, del Hoyo N, Perez Albarsanz M. Effects of lindane on the glucose metabolism in rat brain cortex cells. Life Sci. 1990;47:1099-107 pubmed
    ..that the alpha-, delta-HCH isomers and dieldrin reproduced the same inhibitory pattern, while beta-HCH and endrin were inactive...
  21. Kessabi M, Elhraiki A, Nader B. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. Sci Total Environ. 1988;71:209-14 pubmed
    ..The contamination was relatively low for endrin and dieldrin and irregular for DDT and its derivatives. The levels detected differed from traces to 0.5 ppm...
  22. Xuan F, Zang S. Evaluation of risk associated with organchlorine pesticide contaminated sediment of the Lake Lianhuan watershed. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:1090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DDT) homologues (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE), and four cyclodienes (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin and Heptachlor), indicated that concentrations of OCPs, HCHs and DDTs ranged from 0.04 to 9.95, 0 to 7...
  23. Hassoun E, Bagchi D, Stohs S. TCDD endrin and lindane induced increases in lipid metabolites in maternal sera and amniotic fluids of pregnant C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996;94:157-69 pubmed
    TCDD, endrin and lindane induce an oxidative stress and enhance lipid peroxidation in fetal and placental tissues of mice...
  24. Pan B, Liu W, Shi Z, Cao J, Shen W, Qing B, et al. Sample purification for analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediment and fish muscle. J Environ Sci Health B. 2004;39:353-65 pubmed
    ..Due to complete loss of Dieldrin, Endrin, and Endrin aldehyde after sulphonation, this pretreatment was improper to the three components...
  25. Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Production of reactive oxygen species by peritoneal macrophages and hepatic mitochondria and microsomes from endrin-treated rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993;14:149-55 pubmed
    Recent studies have shown that the administration of endrin to rodents induces lipid peroxidation in various tissues and decreases glutathione content...
  26. Bagchi D, Bhattacharya G, Stohs S. In vitro and in vivo induction of heat shock (stress) protein (Hsp) gene expression by selected pesticides. Toxicology. 1996;112:57-68 pubmed
    The chloroacetamide insecticide alachlor, polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbons endrin and chlordane and the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenthion induce oxidative tissue damaging effects including lipid peroxidation and ..
  27. Shore R, Douben P. Predicting ecotoxicological impacts of environmental contaminants on terrestrial small mammals. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1994;134:49-89 pubmed
    ..as measurable endpoints, were reviewed and intake and residue LOAELs estimated for representative chemicals (lead, endrin, PCBs) from the heavy metal, organochlorine, and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon substance groups; the OPs and ..
  28. Zaman S, Harvey R, Barnard E, Darlison M. Unusual effects of benzodiazepines and cyclodiene insecticides on an expressed invertebrate GABAA receptor. FEBS Lett. 1992;307:351-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, members of the cyclodiene class of insecticides block the channel of the receptor in a manner indistinguishable from that of picrotoxin. ..
  29. Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Akubue P, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Comparative effects of endrin on hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J and DBA/2 mice. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1993;105:525-9 pubmed
    1. Endrin is a polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbon which produces hepatic and neurologic toxicity...
  30. Seifert J. Ontogenesis and properties of the convulsant recognition site(s) of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex in chicken embryo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;151:443-8 pubmed
    ..S-cis-cypermethrin interaction with the recognition site(s) by GABA; and inhibition of radioligand binding by endrin, picrotoxinin and TBPS...
  31. Jarvinen A, Tanner D, Kline E. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos, endrin, or fenvalerate to fathead minnows following episodic or continuous exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1988;15:78-95 pubmed
    ..Continuous exposure 96-hr LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, endrin, and fenvalerate were 122.2, 0.7, and 0.85 micrograms/liter, respectively...
  32. Wafford K, Lummis S, Sattelle D. Block of an insect central nervous system GABA receptor by cyclodiene and cyclohexane insecticides. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1989;237:53-61 pubmed
    The effects of a cyclodiene (endrin) and a cyclohexane (lindane) insecticide have been tested on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the central nervous system of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana), by using ..
  33. van Wyk E, Bouwman H, van der Bank H, Verdoorn G, Hofmann D. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;129:243-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. ..
  34. Numan I, Hassan M, Stohs S. Endrin-induced depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity in rats. Gen Pharmacol. 1990;21:625-8 pubmed
    1. Recent studies have shown that endrin induces lipid peroxidation and may produce toxicity through an oxidative stress...
  35. Carbajal Rodríguez L, Oldak Skvirsky D, Loredo Abdala A, Reynes Manzur J, Perea Martínez A. [Endrin poisoning]. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 1990;47:100-2 pubmed
    We present the case of a fifteen months female patient, who accidentally ingested "Endrin Helios" (cyclodiene organochlorinated pesticide) surviving this event...
  36. Numan I, Hassan M, Stohs S. Protective effects of antioxidants against endrin-induced lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, and lethality in rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990;19:302-6 pubmed
    b>Endrin depletes glutathione levels and induces lipid peroxidation in various species of animals. We have, therefore, examined the effect of antioxidants on these parameters in endrin-treated rats...
  37. Kintz P, Baron L, Tracqui A, Peton P, Coudane H, Mangin P. A high endrin concentration in a fatal case. Forensic Sci Int. 1992;54:177-80 pubmed
    Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to quantify endrin in biological fluids in a death attributed to endrin overdose. The blood concentration of endrin was 544.9 mg/l...
  38. You J, Schuler L, Lydy M. Acute toxicity of sediment-sorbed endrin, methoxychlor, and endosulfan to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;73:457-64 pubmed
  39. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Stohs S. Effect of endrin on the hepatic distribution of iron and calcium in female Sprague-Dawley rats. J Biochem Toxicol. 1992;7:37-42 pubmed
    The distribution of iron and calcium in hepatic subcellular fractions of female rats treated with endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4 alpha,5,6,7,8,8 alpha- octahydroendo,endo-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene) was determined...
  40. Savinov V, Muir D, Svetochev V, Svetocheva O, Belikov S, Boltunov A, et al. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:2734-45 pubmed publisher
    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (?DDT), total HCH isomers (?HCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (?CBz), total chlordane compounds (?CHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total ..
  41. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Hassoun E, Stohs S. In vitro and in vivo generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage and lactate dehydrogenase leakage by selected pesticides. Toxicology. 1995;104:129-40 pubmed
    ..examined the in vivo effects of structurally dissimilar polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (PCH), such as endrin and chlordane, chlorinated acetamide herbicides (CAH), such as alachlor, and organophosphate pesticides (OPS), ..
  42. Hassan M, Numan I, al Nasiri N, Stohs S. Endrin-induced histopathological changes and lipid peroxidation in livers and kidneys of rats, mice, guinea pigs and hamsters. Toxicol Pathol. 1991;19:108-14 pubmed
    b>Endrin toxicity may be due to an oxidative stress associated with increased lipid peroxidation, decreased glutathione content, and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase activity...
  43. Liu W, He W, Qin N, Kong X, He Q, Ouyang H, et al. Residues, distributions, sources, and ecological risks of OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu, China. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:897697 pubmed publisher
    ..species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method in the order of heptachlor?>??-HCH?>?p,p'-DDT > aldrin?>?endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS?>?JC?>?ZM >?TX, and those of different species were ..
  44. Wang Y, Murphy M, Lam J, Jiao L, Wong C, Yeung L, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: risk assessment to local waterbirds. Chemosphere. 2011;83:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected ..
  45. Concha Graña E, Fernández Martínez G, Fernández Villarrenaga V, Turnes Carou M, Muniategui Lorenzo S, López Mahía P, et al. A study of large-volume on-column injection GC-ECD for the ultratrace analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water. Talanta. 2009;78:764-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The degradation of endrin and p,p'-DDT thermolabile pesticides was evaluated for both injection techniques...
  46. Park J, Abd El Aty A, Lee M, Song S, Shim J. Residue analysis of organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in fatty matrices by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection. Z Naturforsch C. 2006;61:341-6 pubmed
    ..The proposed analytical method may be used as a simple procedure in routine determinations of OCs and Ops in meat. It can also be applied to the determination of pesticide multi-residues in other animal products such as butter and milk. ..
  47. Dai R, Liu H, Qu J, Ru J. [Preparation and characterization of a novel adsorbent made by cellulose acetate]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2005;26:111-3 pubmed
    ..The adsorption results of 4 organochlorinated pesticides, such as Dieldrin, Aldrin, Endrin and Heptachlor, show that the adsorbent has higher efficient for organic pollutants, the adsorption rate is about ..
  48. Mehrotra B, Moorthy K, Reddy S, Desaiah D. Effects of cyclodiene compounds on calcium pump activity in rat brain and heart. Toxicology. 1989;54:17-29 pubmed
    The in vitro and in vivo effects of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin on calmodulin regulated Ca2+-pump activity in rat brain synaptosomes and heart sarcoplasmic reticulum were investigated...
  49. Bagchi D, Balmoori J, Bagchi M, Ye X, Williams C, Stohs S. Role of p53 tumor suppressor gene in the toxicity of TCDD, endrin, naphthalene, and chromium (VI) in liver and brain tissues of mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28:895-903 pubmed
    ..01, 0.10, and 0.50 median lethal doses (LD(50)) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), endrin, naphthalene, and sodium dichromate (VI) [Cr(VI)] on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and enhanced ..
  50. Okafor F, Igbinosa I. Environmental stress and parasitic infections: II. Effects of gramoxone and hexadrin (pesticides) on the survival characteristics of Fasciola gigantica miracidia. Angew Parasitol. 1988;29:221-5 pubmed
    ..75 ppm. Dosage-mortality lines when tested statistically show no significant difference between the two pesticides at 95% level of confidence. The toxic effect of the pesticides was enhanced by synergism between the pesticides. ..
  51. Kinoshita H, Ijiri I, Ameno S, Fuke C, Tanaka N, Kubota T, et al. Forced double suicide by fire revealed by autopsy and toxicological examination: a case report. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. 1997;51:457-61 pubmed
    ..In the father, the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in the left ventricle was over 90% and endrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was also detected in the stomach contents. However, 30...
  52. Narahashi T, Frey J, Ginsburg K, Roy M. Sodium and GABA-activated channels as the targets of pyrethroids and cyclodienes. Toxicol Lett. 1992;64-65 Spec No:429-36 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the pyrethroids, lindane and the cyclodienes endrin, isobenzan, dieldrin and heptachlor-epoxide suppressed the GABA-induced chloride current...