Summary: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)

Top Publications

  1. Vo T, Gladen B, Cooper G, Baird D, Daniels J, Gammon M, et al. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls: intraindividual changes, correlations, and predictors in healthy women from the southeastern United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2729-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are widespread environmental contaminants that have been postulated to increase the risk of diseases such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, as well as lead ..
  2. Huang Y, Wang J. Degradation and mineralization of DDT by the ectomycorrhizal fungi, Xerocomus chrysenteron. Chemosphere. 2013;92:760-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There were significant differences in the ?(13)C of released CO2 between [(13)C]DDT and DDT cultures, which indicated X. chrysenteron was able to mineralize DDT to CO2. ..
  3. Al Saleh I, Al Doush I, Alsabbaheen A, Mohamed G, Rabbah A. Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures. Sci Total Environ. 2012;416:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts should be made to decrease exposure of women of reproductive age and to examine maternal DDT exposure in relation to long-term impact on health. ..
  4. Bergonzi R, De Palma G, Specchia C, Dinolfo M, Tomasi C, Frusca T, et al. Persistent organochlorine compounds in fetal and maternal tissues: evaluation of their potential influence on several indicators of fetal growth and health. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:2888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..005 for both) higher serum p,p'-DDE serum concentrations and p,p'-DDT levels in the adipose tissue, as compared to mothers delivering at term. ..
  5. Chen S, Xu F, Dawson R, Jiao X, Tao S. Adsorption and absorption of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites (DDD and DDE) by rice roots. Environ Pollut. 2007;147:256-61 pubmed
    ..A case specific equation was developed to quantitatively describe the partition of DDXs between soil and root surface. ..
  6. Pinkney A, McGowan P. Use of the p,p'-DDD: p,p'-DDE concentration ratio to trace contaminant migration from a hazardous waste site. Environ Monit Assess. 2006;120:559-74 pubmed
    ..We recommend that environmental scientists use this ratio when investigating sites with DDT contamination. ..
  7. Witzig C, Parry M, Morgan J, Irving H, Steven A, Cuamba N, et al. Genetic mapping identifies a major locus spanning P450 clusters associated with pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Anopheles arabiensis from Chad. Heredity (Edinb). 2013;110:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist and biochemical assays further support a role for P450s in conferring pyrethroid resistance in this population. ..
  8. Santhi V, Hairin T, Mustafa A. Simultaneous determination of organochlorine pesticides and bisphenol A in edible marine biota by GC-MS. Chemosphere. 2012;86:1066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential health risk from dietary intakes of OCPs and BPA from the analysed fish species was negligible. ..
  9. Li F, Li X, Zhou S, Zhuang L, Cao F, Huang D, et al. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT in an anaerobic system of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and iron oxide. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:1733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated the important role of DIRB and iron oxide on DDT and DDD transformation under anaerobic iron-reducing environments. ..

More Information


  1. Baczynski T, Pleissner D, Grotenhuis T. Anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides in contaminated soil - significance of temperature and availability. Chemosphere. 2010;78:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, DDD metabolite was only partially removed despite its good desorbability. ..
  2. Wu T, Canas J, Rainwater T, Platt S, McMurry S, Anderson T. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize. Environ Pollut. 2006;144:151-7 pubmed
    ..The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. ..
  3. Bouwman H, Cooppan R, Reinecke A, Becker P. Levels of DDT and metabolites in breast milk from Kwa-Zulu mothers after DDT application for malaria control. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68:761-8 pubmed
    ..At 6 and 9 months after the application it was 45.85% (sigma DDT = 19.49 mg/kg milk fat) and 43.27% (sigma DDT = 18.34 mg/kg milk fat), respectively. These results suggest a risk to the health of the infants in the exposed group. ..
  4. Weijs L, Yang R, Das K, Covaci A, Blust R. Application of Bayesian population physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to pesticide kinetics studies in protected marine mammals: DDT, DDE, and DDD in harbor porpoises. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:4365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, such an approach could very well be extended to other protected marine mammals. ..
  5. Ssebugere P, Wasswa J, Mbabazi J, Nyanzi S, Kiremire B, Marco J. Organochlorine pesticides in soils from south-western Uganda. Chemosphere. 2010;78:1250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the use of OCPs has been banned, our results show that they can still be detected in the environment. Their presence may be attributed to adulteration of pesticides which are not banned and also atmospheric deposition. ..
  6. Gautam S, Suresh S. Complete dechlorination of DDE/DDD using magnesium/palladium system. Water Environ Res. 2007;79:430-5 pubmed
    ..The magnesium/palladium system is a promising option because of its high reactivity and ability to achieve complete dechlorination of DDE and DDD. ..
  7. Hung C, Gong G, Chen H, Hsieh H, Santschi P, Wade T, et al. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan. Environ Pollut. 2007;148:546-54 pubmed
  8. Bouwman H, Becker P, Cooppan R, Reinecke A. Transfer of DDT used in malaria control to infants via breast milk. Bull World Health Organ. 1992;70:241-50 pubmed
    ..3% of the variation in p,p'-DDE but only for 38.2% of that in p,p'-DDT. Organochlorines were therefore largely transferred to the infant from the mother, with DDT in the environment playing a secondary role. ..
  9. Yáñez L, Borja Aburto V, Rojas E, de la Fuente H, Gonzalez Amaro R, Gómez H, et al. DDT induces DNA damage in blood cells. Studies in vitro and in women chronically exposed to this insecticide. Environ Res. 2004;94:18-24 pubmed
    ..Although the precise biological importance remains to be explained, our results strongly suggest that DDT and its metabolites are able to induce DNA damage in PBMC both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  10. Okay O, Karacik B, Henkelmann B, Schramm K. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments and mussels from the Istanbul Strait. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;176:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that OC pesticide contamination in the strait might not pose a serious threat to the health of the marine inhabitants at most of the stations. ..
  11. Koelmans A, Kaag K, Sneekes A, Peeters E. Triple domain in situ sorption modeling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in aquatic sediments. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:8847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..For PAH a single oil sorption coefficient was found. Oil dominated sorption only for PCBs, at oil levels above 50-250 mg oil/kg sediment. BC dominated sorption of most other compounds, especially high molecular PAHs, PCDD, and PCDFs. ..
  12. Peris E, Requena S, de la Guardia M, Pastor A, Carrasco J. Organochlorinated pesticides in sediments from the Lake Albufera of Valencia (Spain). Chemosphere. 2005;60:1542-9 pubmed
    ..Concentrations of pesticides in sediments were compared to three sediment quality guidelines, and indicated that a low biological effects level can be expected in either sediments or aquatic organisms. ..
  13. Naudé Y, Rohwer E. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;730:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that the DDT products used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) prior to, and during 2007, may have been compromised with regards to insecticidal efficacy, demonstrating the power of this new environmental forensics tool. ..
  14. Bornman M, Pretorius E, Marx J, Smit E, van der Merwe C. Ultrastructural effects of DDT, DDD, and DDE on neural cells of the chicken embryo model. Environ Toxicol. 2007;22:328-36 pubmed
    ..These results support the finding of other researchers as well as the concerns of the WHO that DDT and its metabolites may cause neurotoxicity after prenatal exposure. ..
  15. Dominguez Lopez P, Diaz Cueto L, Olivares A, Ulloa Aguirre A, Arechavaleta Velasco F. Differential effect of DDT, DDE, and DDD on COX-2 expression in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SVneo cells. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2012;26:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the regulation of COX-2 by these organochlorines pesticides appears to be at the translational level. ..
  16. Wang C, Li Z, Zhang Q, Zhao M, Liu W. Enantioselective induction of cytotoxicity by o,p'-DDD in PC12 cells: implications of chirality in risk assessment of POPs metabolites. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological activities of the chiral metabolites are likely to occur in the same absolute configuration between chiral POPs and their metabolites provided that they have the similar stereostructures. ..
  17. Sahagún A, Teran M, Garcia J, Sierra M, Fernandez N, Diez M. Organochlorine pesticide residues in muscle tissue of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, taken from four fish farms in León, Spain. Food Addit Contam. 1998;15:501-5 pubmed
    ..22-2.3%; sigma DDT 0.05-0.46%; heptachlor epoxide 10.0-71.4% and sigma dieldrin 16.7-33.3% assuming 300 g of trout muscle as a mean daily intake). The highest concentration found was for heptachlor epoxide (0.043 microgram/g). ..
  18. Roland K, Kestemont P, Dieu M, Raes M, Silvestre F. Using a novel "Integrated Biomarker Proteomic" index to assess the effects of freshwater pollutants in European eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Proteomics. 2016;137:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..IBP is relevant in environmental risk assessment, giving to this index the potential to be applied as a global index of proteome alteration in endangered species such as the European eel. ..
  19. Zhang N, Yang Y, Tao S, Liu Y, Shi K. Sequestration of organochlorine pesticides in soils of distinct organic carbon content. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:700-5 pubmed publisher
  20. Huang H, Liu S, Kuo C. Anaerobic biodegradation of DDT residues (DDT, DDD, and DDE) in estuarine sediment. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001;36:273-88 pubmed
  21. Juhasz A, Naidu R. Enrichment and isolation of non-specific aromatic degraders from unique uncontaminated (plant and faecal material) sources and contaminated soils. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;89:642-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, the degradation of DDT (100 mg l(-1)) by isolate AJR39,504 resulted in a 35% decrease in DDT concentration after 28 days with a concomitant increase in DDD concentration. ..
  22. Van Zwieten L, Ayres M, Morris S. Influence of arsenic co-contamination on DDT breakdown and microbial activity. Environ Pollut. 2003;124:331-9 pubmed
    ..Microbial activity was inhibited as residues of total DDTs and arsenic increased. Hence arsenic co-contamination and high concentrations of DDT in soil may result in an increased persistence of DDT in the environment studied. ..
  23. Zhou Q, Ding Y, Xiao J, Liu G, Guo X. Investigation of the feasibility of TiO(2) nanotubes for the enrichment of DDT and its metabolites at trace levels in environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1147:10-6 pubmed
    ..Good recoveries over the range of 81.2-115% were obtained. These results indicated that titanium nanotubes had enormous potential in environmental field as a novel SPE adsorbent material. ..
  24. Sethajintanin D, Anderson K. Temporal bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:3689-95 pubmed
  25. Gómez Gutiérrez A, Jover E, Bodineau L, Albaiges J, Bayona J. Organic contaminant loads into the Western Mediterranean Sea: estimate of Ebro River inputs. Chemosphere. 2006;65:224-36 pubmed
    ..Bulk chemical parameters such as SPM, DOC, POC, %OC, %ON and C/N ratio provided additional information on the organic matter sources. This provides a better understanding of the temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. ..
  26. Mo C, Cai Q, Li H, Zeng Q, Tang S, Zhao Y. Potential of different species for use in removal of DDT from the contaminated soils. Chemosphere. 2008;73:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though phytoextraction is not the main removal process for DDTs, the plant species especially Zea mays cv Jinhai-6 showed high potential for removing DDTs from the contaminated soils. ..
  27. Johnson K, Muller J, Price B, Ware A, Sepúlveda M, Borgert C, et al. Influence of seasonality and exposure on the accumulation and reproductive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and dieldrin in largemouth bass. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007;26:927-34 pubmed
    Two studies investigated the accumulation and reproductive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and dieldrin over 30 or 120 d of oral exposure in captive Florida, USA, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus)...
  28. Ying G, Rawson C, Kookana R, Warne M, Peng P, Li X, et al. Distribution of inorganic and organic contaminants in sediments from Sydney Olympic Park and the surrounding Sydney metropolitan area. J Environ Monit. 2009;11:1687-96 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhou Q, Xiao J, Wang W. Using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction adsorbents to determine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites at trace level in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1125:152-8 pubmed
    ..7-115.5%. All these facts indicated that MWCNTs as SPE packing materials coupled to HPLC was an excellent alternative for the routine analysis of DDT and its metabolites at trace level in environment. ..
  30. Gupta V, Ali I. Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste. Water Res. 2001;35:33-40 pubmed
    ..5 ml/min. The adsorption was found to be exothermic in nature. The bagasse fly ash system has been used for the removal of DDD and DDE from the wastewater. The developed system is very useful, economic, and reproducible. ..
  31. Gallo M, Schell L, DeCaprio A, Jacobs A. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults. Chemosphere. 2011;83:1374-82 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high ..
  32. Mishra K, Sharma R, Kumar S. Contamination levels and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;76:215-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatial distribution was also investigated to identify the areas with higher pesticide loadings in soil. ..
  33. Wetterauer B, Ricking M, Otte J, Hallare A, Rastall A, Erdinger L, et al. Toxicity, dioxin-like activities, and endocrine effects of DDT metabolites--DDA, DDMU, DDMS, and DDCN. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:403-15 pubmed publisher
    ..For a more conclusive assessment of the spectrum of DDT metabolites, additional bioassays are needed to identify potential anti-estrogenic, androgenic, and/or anti-androgenic effects. ..
  34. Yang H, Xue B, Yu P, Zhou S, Liu W. Residues and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Yueqing Bay and Sanmen Bay, East China Sea. Chemosphere. 2010;80:652-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implied that the sediment quality guidelines of chiral OCPs should be reassessed using concentrations of their individual enantiomers. ..
  35. Chiu S, Ho K, Chan S, So O, Lai K. Characterization of contamination in and toxicities of a shipyard area in Hong Kong. Environ Pollut. 2006;142:512-20 pubmed
    ..Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. Thus, ex situ remediation was needed. ..
  36. Del Toro L, Heckel G, Camacho Ibar V, Schramm Y. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, México, than in California, USA. Environ Pollut. 2006;142:83-92 pubmed
  37. An Q, Dong Y, Wei F, Wang H, Liang P. [Dynamics of DDMS and DDMU in soils under rice and ryegrass planting]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2007;28:2794-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, above phenomena are not observed in the aged DDT of soils, which implies that submerging could increase degradation of DDT added newly to DDD and DDMS/DDMU, but not for the aged DDT of soils. ..
  38. Lotufo G, Landrum P, Gedeon M. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of DDT in freshwater amphipods in exposures to spiked sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:810-25 pubmed
    ..the toxicity using EqP pore-water toxic units (TUs) was evaluated for DDT and its degradation product, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), as the ratio of the predicted interstitial water concentration divided by the water-only LC50 ..
  39. Khwaja M. POPs hot spot. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1140:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..For soil between the surface and a depth of 0.60 m, the highest residual DDT level (5.78 +/- 3.94 microg/g) was observed in samples from the northwest direction, followed by samples from the west direction (4.88 +/- 3.80 microg/g). ..
  40. Hofle G, Gasser R, Lhotta K, Janetschek G, Kreczy A, Finkenstedt G. Adrenocortical carcinoma evolving after diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in an adrenal incidentaloma. A case report. Horm Res. 1998;50:237-42 pubmed
    ..Postoperatively we continued ketoconazole and started o, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane as well as chemotherapy with doxorubicin and suramin...
  41. Nims R, Lubet R, Fox S, Jones C, Thomas P, Reddy A, et al. Comparative pharmacodynamics of CYP2B induction by DDT, DDE, and DDD in male rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998;53:455-77 pubmed
    ..98, 0.83, and > or = 2.7 microM, respectively). These results suggest that DDT, DDE, and DDD each possess a high degree of intrinsic CYP2B-inducing ability for rat liver, despite marked differences in bioretention among the congeners. ..
  42. Daniel V, Huber W, Bauer K, Suesal C, Conradt C, Opelz G. Associations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 4.4 and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) 4.4 blood levels with plasma IL-4. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57:541-7 pubmed
    ..the authors attempted to determine associations of DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) blood levels with several immune parameters in patients occupationally exposed to insecticides...
  43. Allan I, Ruus A, Schaanning M, Macrae K, Næs K. Measuring nonpolar organic contaminant partitioning in three Norwegian sediments using polyethylene passive samplers. Sci Total Environ. 2012;423:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the notion that the assessment of the risk posed by these compounds present in sediments in most cases requires actual measurement of contaminant availability. ..
  44. Ciliberti A, Berny P, Vey D, De Buffrénil V. Assessing environmental contamination around obsolete pesticide stockpiles in West Africa: using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Malathion and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD) also were detected sporadically. Interindividual variability was substantial...
  45. Barra R, Cisternas M, Urrutia R, Pozo K, Pacheco P, Parra O, et al. First report on chlorinated pesticide deposition in a sediment core from a small lake in central Chile. Chemosphere. 2001;45:749-57 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, results point out a relatively new occurrence of pp'-DDT in the watershed, but the source remains unknown. ..
  46. Asawasinsopon R, Prapamontol T, Prakobvitayakit O, Vaneesorn Y, Mangklabruks A, Hock B. The association between organochlorine and thyroid hormone levels in cord serum: a study from northern Thailand. Environ Int. 2006;32:554-9 pubmed
    ..76, P = 0.019). These results therefore suggest that exposure to DDT and its metabolites during fetal development may cause some effects on thyroid hormonal status in infants. ..
  47. Kirman C, Aylward L, Hays S, Krishnan K, Nong A. Biomonitoring equivalents for DDT/DDE. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;60:172-80 pubmed publisher
  48. Purnomo A, Koyama F, Mori T, Kondo R. DDT degradation potential of cattle manure compost. Chemosphere. 2010;80:619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolated fungi possessed the ability to degrade DDT in sterilized (SL) and un-sterilized (USL) soils. These results indicated that CMC contains fungi that can be potentially used for bioremediation in DDT-contaminated environments. ..
  49. Linderholm L, Biague A, Månsson F, Norrgren H, Bergman A, Jakobsson K. Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in West Africa--a temporal trend study from Guinea-Bissau. Environ Int. 2010;36:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, PBDEs follow a trend of increasing concentrations even though at low levels. ..
  50. Stapleton D. Historical perspectives on malaria: the Rockefeller antimalaria strategy in the 20th century. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Mt Sinai J Med 76:468-473, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine. ..
  51. Gaw S, Kim N, Northcott G, Wilkins A, Robinson G. Uptake of SigmaDDT, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and lead by lettuce and radish grown in contaminated horticultural soils. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:6584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To be protective of human health, site-specific risk assessments and soil guideline derivations for residential settings with vegetable gardens need to consider the produce consumption pathway. ..
  52. Ge J, Woodward L, Li Q, Wang J. Composition, distribution and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. Sci Total Environ. 2013;452-453:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ?DDTs and ?HCHs. ..
  53. Suhara H, Adachi A, Kamei I, Maekawa N. Degradation of chlorinated pesticide DDT by litter-decomposing basidiomycetes. Biodegradation. 2011;22:1075-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Monohydroxylation of the aromatic rings of DDT (and DDD) by fungal P450 is reported here for the first time. ..