dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene


Summary: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.

Top Publications

  1. Torres Sanchez L, Schnaas L, Cebrian M, Hernández M, Valencia E, García Hernández R, et al. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: a follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:1162-5 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The association of DDE with infant neurodevelopment seems to be reversible. However, we cannot rule out that other DDT metabolites may play a role in neurodevelopment. ..
  2. Knobeloch L, Turyk M, Imm P, Schrank C, Anderson H. Temporal changes in PCB and DDE levels among a cohort of frequent and infrequent consumers of Great Lakes sportfish. Environ Res. 2009;109:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..6 to 3.2 microg/L. Total PCB levels declined in 80% of participants with the mean concentration falling from 4.2 to 2.8 microg/L. Annual declines in serum DDE and PCB concentrations averaged 4.6% and 3.5%, respectively. ..
  3. Karmaus W, Osuch J, Eneli I, Mudd L, Zhang J, Mikucki D, et al. Maternal levels of dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) may increase weight and body mass index in adult female offspring. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..503-2.9 microg/l and by 2.88 if levels were >2.9 microg/l. Prenatal PCB levels showed no effect. Prenatal exposure to the oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical DDE may contribute to the obesity epidemic in women. ..
  4. Valvi D, Mendez M, Martinez D, Grimalt J, Torrent M, Sunyer J, et al. Prenatal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE, and DDT and overweight in children: a prospective birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This study suggests that prenatal OC exposures may be associated with overweight in children and that sex and high-fat intake may influence susceptibility. ..
  5. Björk C, Nenonen H, Giwercman A, Bergman A, Rylander L, Giwercman Y. Persistent organic pollutants have dose and CAG repeat length dependent effects on androgen receptor activity in vitro. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;32:293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our in vitro results have confirmed the in vivo data indicating a CAG repeat length dependent effect of endocrine disrupters on the AR activity. ..
  6. Wojtyniak B, Rabczenko D, Jonsson B, Zvezday V, Pedersen H, Rylander L, et al. Association of maternal serum concentrations of 2,2', 4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels with birth weight, gestational age and preterm births in Inuit and European populations. Environ Health. 2010;9:56 pubmed publisher
    ..In utero exposure to POPs may reduce birth weight and gestational age of newborns however, new insights as to why results vary across studies were not apparent. ..
  7. Pan I, Daniels J, Herring A, Rogan W, Siega Riz A, Goldman B, et al. Lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and infant growth: an analysis of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Babies Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010;24:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Breast feeding for 6 months or longer, with lactational exposure to PCBs, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE at the low background level concentrations studied here, resulted in no measurable influence on infant growth in the first 12 months. ..
  8. Koppen G, Den Hond E, Nelen V, Van De Mieroop E, Bruckers L, Bilau M, et al. Organochlorine and heavy metals in newborns: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS 2002-2006). Environ Int. 2009;35:1015-22 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the place of birth in Flanders is an important determinant of the load of pollutants measured at the start of life. This underlines the validity of human biomonitoring on (relatively) small geographical scale. ..
  9. Torres Sanchez L, Zepeda M, Cebrian M, Belkind Gerson J, Garcia Hernandez R, Belkind Valdovinos U, et al. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy alters the anal position in male infants. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1140:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to confirm a hormonal disruptive effect on the development of external genitalia, due not only to p,p'-DDE but also due to other antiandrogenic persistent compounds. ..

More Information


  1. Chevrier J, Eskenazi B, Holland N, Bradman A, Barr D. Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) are associated with thyroid function during pregnancy...
  2. De Coster S, Koppen G, Bracke M, Schroijen C, Den Hond E, Nelen V, et al. Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study. Environ Health. 2008;7:26 pubmed publisher
    ..In some rural areas, the levels of these biomarkers were not lower than in the rest of Flanders. ..
  3. Codru N, Schymura M, Negoita S, Rej R, Carpenter D. Diabetes in relation to serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in adult Native Americans. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1442-7 pubmed
    ..In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with diabetes after controlling for potential confounders, whereas a negative association was observed for mirex. ..
  4. Turyk M, Anderson H, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky V. Organochlorine exposure and incidence of diabetes in a cohort of Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1076-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies should address the biological pathways by which DDE could affect glucose homeostasis. ..
  5. Turyk M, Anderson H, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky V. Prevalence of diabetes and body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and p,p'-diphenyldichloroethene in Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Chemosphere. 2009;75:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study confirms previous cross sectional associations of DDE exposure with diabetes. Future studies should address biologic pathways by which selective POPs affect glucose homeostasis. ..
  6. Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rylander L, Rignell Hydbom A, Vartiainen T. A simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method for the determination of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) from human serum for epidemiological studies on type 2 diabetes. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:897-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented method was used for an epidemiological study with more than 700 serum samples from a type 2 diabetes cohort from Sweden. ..
  7. Cupul Uicab L, Hernández Avila M, Terrazas Medina E, Pennell M, Longnecker M. Prenatal exposure to the major DDT metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and growth in boys from Mexico. Environ Res. 2010;110:595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..01 microg/g) grew similarly and they had a BMI SDS similar to the referent group. The results do not support the prior findings of an association of DDE exposure with childhood height or BMI. ..
  8. Messaros B, Rossano M, Liu G, Diamond M, Friderici K, Nummy Jernigan K, et al. Negative effects of serum p,p'-DDE on sperm parameters and modification by genetic polymorphisms. Environ Res. 2009;109:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..53, 1.0-6.31) was unaffected by the presence of the polymorphisms. High DDE-DDT exposure adversely affected all 3 sperm parameters and its effects were exacerbated by the GSTT1 null polymorphism and by the CYP1A1 common alleles. ..
  9. Howell G, Mangum L. Exposure to bioaccumulative organochlorine compounds alters adipogenesis, fatty acid uptake, and adipokine production in NIH3T3-L1 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the current data suggest that exposure to these compounds, especially DDE, may promote some aspects of adipocyte dysfunction that are commonly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  10. Arrebola J, Mutch E, Rivero M, Choque A, Silvestre S, Olea N, et al. Contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, occupation, diet and lifestyle to DDT and DDE concentrations in serum and adipose tissue from a Bolivian cohort. Environ Int. 2012;38:54-61 pubmed publisher
  11. Bahena Medina L, Torres Sanchez L, Schnaas L, Cebrian M, Chávez C, Osorio Valencia E, et al. Neonatal neurodevelopment and prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a cohort study in Mexico. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011;21:609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..02) and mental (?(2T) = -0.03 and ?(3T) = -0.19) development. Our results are consistent with previous studies and suggest that prenatal DDE exposure is not associated with neurological functions present in the neonatal stage. ..
  12. Gasull M, Bosch de Basea M, Puigdomenech E, Pumarega J, Porta M. Empirical analyses of the influence of diet on human concentrations of persistent organic pollutants: a systematic review of all studies conducted in Spain. Environ Int. 2011;37:1226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..As in a few other countries, in Spain food consumption is increasingly analyzed as a major determinant of human POP intake. ..
  13. Rignell Hydbom A, Rylander L, Hagmar L. Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:447-52 pubmed
    ..004) and p,p9-DDE and T2DM (P 5 0. 002) were observed. The study shows an association between POP serum concentrations and an increased prevalence of T2DM. ..
  14. Harley K, Marks A, Bradman A, Barr D, Eskenazi B. DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:1335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..7, 95% CI: 0.5 to 1.0) were associated with reduced fecundability (ie, longer TTP). Longer TTP was seen among women, but not men, reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides. ..
  15. Windham G, Pinney S, Sjodin A, Lum R, Jones R, Needham L, et al. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls. Environ Res. 2010;110:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications. ..
  16. Lopez Espinosa M, Vizcaino E, Murcia M, Llop S, Espada M, Seco V, et al. Association between thyroid hormone levels and 4,4'-DDE concentrations in pregnant women (Valencia, Spain). Environ Res. 2009;109:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that some environmental chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system of pregnant women. The major role that maternal THs may play in fetal neurodevelopment makes these findings especially relevant. ..
  17. Liu C, Shi Y, Li H, Wang Y, Yang K. p,p'-DDE disturbs the homeostasis of thyroid hormones via thyroid hormone receptors, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the observed effects in the present study show that p, p'-DDE could disturb the homeostasis of THs via TRs increase, TTR decrease, and hepatic enzymes induction. ..
  18. Pan I, Daniels J, Goldman B, Herring A, Siega Riz A, Rogan W. Lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and infant neurodevelopment: an analysis of the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition babies study. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:488-94 pubmed publisher
    ..1-3.3). Infant neurodevelopment at 12 months of age was not impaired by PCBs, DDT, and DDE at the concentrations measured here, in combination with benefits from long duration of breast-feeding in this population. ..
  19. Porta M, Jariod M, López T, Pumarega J, Puigdomenech E, Marco E, et al. Correcting serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by lipids: alternatives to the organochlorine/total lipids ratio. Environ Int. 2009;35:1080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..They suggest that it is unwarranted to routinely correct OC by TL, offer ways to assess such need, and present alternatives as no TL correction, correction by total cholesterol only or use of different statistical models. ..
  20. Sagiv S, Nugent J, Brazelton T, Choi A, Tolbert P, Altshul L, et al. Prenatal organochlorine exposure and measures of behavior in infancy using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses will focus on whether organochlorine-associated decrements in attention and attention-related skills in infancy persist in later childhood. ..
  21. Mendez M, Plana E, Guxens M, Foradada Morillo C, Albareda R, Garcia Esteban R, et al. Seafood consumption in pregnancy and infant size at birth: results from a prospective Spanish cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010;64:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies exploring seafood subtypes and additional contaminants are needed to determine whether these associations are causal and identify mechanisms involved. ..
  22. Cohn B, Wolff M, Cirillo P, Sholtz R. DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1406-14 pubmed
    ..Exposure to p,p'-DDT early in life may increase breast cancer risk. Many U.S. women heavily exposed to DDT in childhood have not yet reached 50 years of age. The public health significance of DDT exposure in early life may be large. ..
  23. Sagiv S, Thurston S, Bellinger D, Tolbert P, Altshul L, Korrick S. Prenatal organochlorine exposure and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171:593-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ..
  24. Rignell Hydbom A, Lidfeldt J, Kiviranta H, Rantakokko P, Samsioe G, Agardh C, et al. Exposure to p,p'-DDE: a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7503 pubmed publisher
    ..6 [95% 0.61, 4.0] for CB-153 and 5.5 [95% CI 1.2, 25] for p,p'-DDE). The results from the present case-control study, including a follow-up design, confirms that p,p'-DDE exposure can be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ..
  25. Al Saleh I, Coskun S, El Doush I, Billedo G, Mashhour A, Jaroudi K, et al. Outcome of in-vitro fertilization treatment and DDT levels in serum and follicular fluid. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:BR320-33 pubmed
    ..Currently there is no active source of DDT in our region; therefore, further studies are needed to identify sources in order to develop preventive measures because we can not exclude its potential reproductive toxicity. ..
  26. Purdue M, Engel L, Langseth H, Needham L, Andersen A, Barr D, et al. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings suggest that exposure to organochlorine (OC) compounds, chlordanes and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in particular, may increase the risk of developing testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)...
  27. Tiedeken J, Ramsdell J. DDT exposure of zebrafish embryos enhances seizure susceptibility: relationship to fetal p,p'-DDE burden and domoic acid exposure of California sea lions. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden...
  28. Tsang H, Wu S, Leung C, Tao S, Wong M. Body burden of POPs of Hong Kong residents, based on human milk, maternal and cord serum. Environ Int. 2011;37:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Human milk is a reliable and comparatively non-invasive tool for monitoring body loading of POPs, which also allows health risk assessment of residual chemicals on our next generation. ..
  29. Brucker Davis F, Wagner Mahler K, Delattre I, Ducot B, Ferrari P, Bongain A, et al. Cryptorchidism at birth in Nice area (France) is associated with higher prenatal exposure to PCBs and DDE, as assessed by colostrum concentrations. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher concentrations in milk could be a marker of higher exposure or for an impaired detoxification pattern in genetically predisposed individuals. ..
  30. McGlynn K, Quraishi S, Graubard B, Weber J, Rubertone M, Erickson R. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:663-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as persistent organochlorine pesticides, has been suggested to increase the risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)...
  31. Ferreira C, De Oliveira A, Paumgartten F. Serum concentrations of DDT and DDE among malaria control workers in the Amazon region. J Occup Health. 2011;53:115-22 pubmed
    ..The half-life of pp'-DDE (29.5 mo) estimated for this group of occupationally exposed male adults was shorter than t(1/2) values previously reported for environmentally exposed subjects. ..
  32. Turyk M, Anderson H, Persky V. Relationships of thyroid hormones with polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and DDE in adults. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1197-203 pubmed
    ..The effects were stronger in women. The results suggest that older adults, who have a high risk of thyroid disease, may be more at risk for disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis by dioxin-like organochlorines than younger adults. ..
  33. Torres Sanchez L, Rothenberg S, Schnaas L, Cebrian M, Osorio E, Del Carmen Hernández M, et al. In utero p,p'-DDE exposure and infant neurodevelopment: a perinatal cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:435-9 pubmed
    ..Residues of DDT metabolites may present a risk of developmental delay for years after termination of DDT use. ..
  34. Engel S, Berkowitz G, Barr D, Teitelbaum S, Siskind J, Meisel S, et al. Prenatal organophosphate metabolite and organochlorine levels and performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1397-404 pubmed
    ..The authors uncovered additional evidence that prenatal levels of organophosphate pesticide metabolites are associated with anomalies in primitive reflexes, which are a critical marker of neurologic integrity. ..
  35. Song Y, Liang X, Hu Y, Wang Y, Yu H, Yang K. p,p'-DDE induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of cultured rat Sertoli cells. Toxicology. 2008;253:53-61 pubmed publisher
  36. Grimalt J, Carrizo D, Garí M, Font Ribera L, Ribas Fito N, Torrent M, et al. An evaluation of the sexual differences in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children at birth and at the age of 4 years. Environ Res. 2010;110:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these results should be taken with caution because the differences of the gender averages have low statistically significance when evaluated with the Student test. ..
  37. Longnecker M, Klebanoff M, Zhou H, Brock J. Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth. Lancet. 2001;358:110-4 pubmed
    ..If this association is causal, it should be included in any assessment of the costs and benefits of vector control with DDT. ..
  38. Axmon A, Thulstrup A, Rignell Hydbom A, Pedersen H, Zvyezday V, Ludwicki J, et al. Time to pregnancy as a function of male and female serum concentrations of 2,2'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Hum Reprod. 2006;21:657-65 pubmed
    ..The overall results of the present study create a somewhat ambiguous pattern, but give some support to the idea that dietary POP exposure might be harmful for couple fertility. ..
  39. Hauser R, Singh N, Chen Z, Pothier L, Altshul L. Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2525-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there are not strong relationships between adult levels of these chlorinated organic compounds and sperm DNA damage as measured by the comet assay. ..
  40. You L, Casanova M, Archibeque Engle S, Sar M, Fan L, Heck H. Impaired male sexual development in perinatal Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans hooded rats exposed in utero and lactationally to p,p'-DDE. Toxicol Sci. 1998;45:162-73 pubmed
  41. Cooper G, Martin S, Longnecker M, Sandler D, Germolec D. Associations between plasma DDE levels and immunologic measures in African-American farmers in North Carolina. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1080-4 pubmed
    ..32-11.3; for > or = 12.0 microg/L compared with < 3.0 microg/L p,p'-DDE), but this difference was not statistically significant. These analyses provide evidence that p,p'-DDE modulates immune responses in humans. ..
  42. Farhang L, Weintraub J, Petreas M, Eskenazi B, Bhatia R. Association of DDT and DDE with birth weight and length of gestation in the Child Health and Development Studies, 1959-1967. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:717-25 pubmed
    ..27) for DDT; none of the study results achieved statistical significance. Given the persistence of DDT in the environment and its continuing role in malaria control, studies using more robust data should continue to assess this relation. ..
  43. Wolff M, Britton J, Teitelbaum S, Eng S, Deych E, Ireland K, et al. Improving organochlorine biomarker models for cancer research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2224-36 pubmed
    ..e., PCB) or long discontinued (i.e., DDE). ..
  44. Wolff M, Engel S, Berkowitz G, Teitelbaum S, Siskind J, Barr D, et al. Prenatal pesticide and PCB exposures and birth outcomes. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:243-50 pubmed
    ..In summary, we found suggestive relationships between prenatal environmental biomarkers and birth outcomes in this population. Maternal susceptibility factors including PON1 and maternal weight contributed to the observed effects. ..
  45. Meeker J, Altshul L, Hauser R. Serum PCBs, p,p'-DDE and HCB predict thyroid hormone levels in men. Environ Res. 2007;104:296-304 pubmed
  46. Bonefeld Jorgensen E, Hjelmborg P, Reinert T, Andersen B, Lesovoy V, Lindh C, et al. Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations. Environ Health. 2006;5:12 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the variation in xenoestrogenic serum activity reflects differences in POP exposure mixture, genetic factors and/or life style factors. ..
  47. Jonsson B, Rylander L, Lindh C, Rignell Hydbom A, Giwercman A, Toft G, et al. Inter-population variations in concentrations, determinants of and correlations between 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE): a cross-sectional study of 3161 men and women from Inuit. Environ Health. 2005;4:27 pubmed
    ..Age and gender were consistent determinants of serum POPs; seafood was of importance only in the Inuit and Swedish populations. ..
  48. Hauser R, Chen Z, Pothier L, Ryan L, Altshul L. The relationship between human semen parameters and environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:1505-11 pubmed
    ..The lack of a consistent relationship among semen parameters and other individual PCB congeners and groupings of congeners may indicate a difference in spermatotoxicity between congeners. ..
  49. Younglai E, Foster W, Hughes E, Trim K, Jarrell J. Levels of environmental contaminants in human follicular fluid, serum, and seminal plasma of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;43:121-6 pubmed
    ..Of the chemical contaminants detected in the serum and follicular fluid of these women, p,p'-DDE was the most frequently detected, had the highest residue levels, and was associated with failed fertilization. ..
  50. Wozniak A, Bulayeva N, Watson C. Xenoestrogens at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations trigger membrane estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated Ca2+ fluxes and prolactin release in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:431-9 pubmed
  51. Turyk M, Anderson H, Hanrahan L, Falk C, Steenport D, Needham L, et al. Relationship of serum levels of individual PCB, dioxin, and furan congeners and DDE with Great Lakes sport-caught fish consumption. Environ Res. 2006;100:173-83 pubmed
    ..In epidemiologic studies, it may be important to include populations with higher organochlorine exposures as well as background exposures and to consider the effects of individual congeners or mixtures of congeners on health outcomes. ..
  52. You L, Sar M, Bartolucci E, Ploch S, Whitt M. Induction of hepatic aromatase by p,p'-DDE in adult male rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;178:207-14 pubmed
    ..This study supports the notion that induction of aromatase by DDE is a contributory factor to its reproductive developmental effects. ..
  53. Romieu I, Hernandez Avila M, Lazcano Ponce E, Weber J, Dewailly E. Breast cancer, lactation history, and serum organochlorines. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:363-70 pubmed
    ..Serum DDT level was not related to the risk of breast cancer. The data suggest that high levels of exposure to DDE may increase women's risk of breast cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women. ..