ddt

Summary

Summary: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kwiatkowska R, Platt N, Poupardin R, Irving H, Dabire R, Mitchell S, et al. Dissecting the mechanisms responsible for the multiple insecticide resistance phenotype in Anopheles gambiae s.s., M form, from Vallée du Kou, Burkina Faso. Gene. 2013;519:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we detected high prevalence of resistance in Vallée du Kou (VK) to pyrethroids, DDT and dieldrin, moderate level for carbamates and full susceptibility to organophosphates...
  2. Canales Aguirre A, Padilla Camberos E, Gomez Pinedo U, Salado Ponce H, Feria Velasco A, De Celis R. Genotoxic effect of chronic exposure to DDT on lymphocytes, oral mucosa and breast cells of female rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats...
  3. Skinner M, Manikkam M, Tracey R, Guerrero Bosagna C, Haque M, Nilsson E. Ancestral dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity. BMC Med. 2013;11:228 pubmed publisher
    ..present work examined the potential transgenerational actions of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) on obesity and associated disease...
  4. Wang D, Xia Z, Zhou S, Zhou X, Wang R, Zhang Q. A potential threat to malaria elimination: extensive deltamethrin and DDT resistance to Anopheles sinensis from the malaria-endemic areas in China. Malar J. 2013;12:164 pubmed publisher
    ..There is lack of systematic and standard monitoring data of malaria vector resistance in the endemic areas, which is essential for the ambitious goal of malaria elimination programme of China...
  5. Qiu X, Sun W, McDonnell C, Li Byarlay H, Steele L, Wu J, et al. Genome-wide analysis of genes associated with moderate and high DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Pest Manag Sci. 2013;69:930-7 pubmed publisher
    Moderate to high DDT resistance in generally associated with overexpression of multiple genes and therefore has been considered to be polygenic...
  6. Bouwman H, Kylin H, Sereda B, Bornman R. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender. Environ Pollut. 2012;170:63-70 pubmed publisher
    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ?DDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9...
  7. Mitchell S, Stevenson B, M ller P, Wilding C, Egyir Yawson A, Field S, et al. Identification and validation of a gene causing cross-resistance between insecticide classes in Anopheles gambiae from Ghana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene-expression profile of a highly DDT-resistant population of A. gambiae s.s. from Ghana was characterized using a unique whole-genome microarray...
  8. Gunasekaran K, Muthukumaravel S, Sahu S, Vijayakumar T, Jambulingam P. Glutathione S transferase activity in Indian vectors of malaria: A defense mechanism against DDT. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:561-9 pubmed
    ..This investigation was to explore the metabolic status of GSTs in two Indian DDT-resistant malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles annularis, and one DDT-susceptible vector, ..
  9. Cohn B. Developmental and environmental origins of breast cancer: DDT as a case study. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:302-11 pubmed publisher
    More than 20 studies of serum "DDT" and breast cancer have found little support for the hypothesis that exposure influences risk of breast cancer...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Pérez Maldonado I, Trejo Acevedo A, Orta García S, Ochoa Martínez Á, Varela Silva J, Pérez Vázquez F. DDT and DDE concentrations in the blood of Mexican children residing in the southeastern region of Mexico. J Environ Sci Health B. 2014;49:87-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood of children living in the southeastern region of Mexico...
  2. Zhang K, Wei Y, Zeng E. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Sci Total Environ. 2013;463-464:1093-110 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various ..
  3. Kezios K, Liu X, Cirillo P, Cohn B, Kalantzi O, Wang Y, et al. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDT metabolites and pregnancy outcomes. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;35:156-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary OCP was 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), its primary metabolite, 1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and the contaminant, 1,1,1-..
  4. Torres Dosal A, Martinez Salinas R, Hernandez Benavides D, Pérez Vázquez F, Ilizaliturri Hernandez C, Pérez Maldonado I. Assessment of the levels of DDT and DDE in soil and blood samples from Tabasco, Mexico. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:7551-9 pubmed publisher
    In Mexico, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was used until the year 2000, principally in agriculture and anti-paludal program health campaigns...
  5. Himeidan Y, Muzamil H, Jones C, Ranson H. Extensive permethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from eastern and central Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:154 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed resistance to permethrin and DDT in seven populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Sudan...
  6. Burton M, Mellor I, Duce I, Davies T, Field L, Williamson M. Differential resistance of insect sodium channels with kdr mutations to deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of the wild-type channel with deltamethrin (? 1 nM), permethrin (? 30 nM) or DDT (? 1 ?M) resulted in hyperpolarizing shifts in V(50,act)...
  7. Kirman C, Aylward L, Hays S, Krishnan K, Nong A. Biomonitoring equivalents for DDT/DDE. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;60:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reviews available health based risk assessments and exposure guidance values for DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, CAS #50-29-3) and related metabolites and degradation products DDE (..
  8. Basilua Kanza J, El Fahime E, Alaoui S, Essassi E, Brooke B, Nkebolo Malafu A, et al. Pyrethroid, DDT and malathion resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013;107:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..used in the region, notably pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), an organochlorine (DDT) and an organophosphate (malathion)...
  9. Bratton M, Frigo D, Segar H, Nephew K, McLachlan J, Wiese T, et al. The organochlorine o,p'-DDT plays a role in coactivator-mediated MAPK crosstalk in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1291-6 pubmed publisher
    The organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a known estrogen mimic and endocrine disruptor, has been linked to animal and human disorders...
  10. Nardini L, Christian R, Coetzer N, Ranson H, Coetzee M, Koekemoer L. Detoxification enzymes associated with insecticide resistance in laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis of different geographic origin. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:113 pubmed publisher
    ..arabiensis resistance to DDT and pyrethroids...
  11. Sharma S, Upadhyay A, Haque M, Tyagi P, Kindo B. Impact of changing over of insecticide from synthetic pyrethroids to DDT for indoor residual spray in a malaria endemic area of Orissa, India. Indian J Med Res. 2012;135:382-8 pubmed
    ..The change-over from SP to DDT was done in one arm of study, and the other two arms remained on SP and insecticide-treated nets (ITN)...
  12. Han S, Qiao J, Zhang Y, Yang L, Lian H, Ge X, et al. Determination of n-octanol/water partition coefficient for DDT-related compounds by RP-HPLC with a novel dual-point retention time correction. Chemosphere. 2011;83:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the retention factor extrapolated to pure water, was investigated for a set of 12 benzene homologues and DDT-related compounds with reliable experimental P as model compounds. A linear regression logP=(1.10±0...
  13. Sholtz R, McLaughlin K, Cirillo P, Petreas M, Park J, Wolff M, et al. Assaying organochlorines in archived serum for a large, long-term cohort: implications of combining assay results from multiple laboratories over time. Environ Int. 2011;37:709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether we could successfully combine assay results for DDT-related compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum from the same birth cohort obtained from different ..
  14. Mahalingaiah S, Missmer S, MAITY A, Williams P, Meeker J, Berry K, et al. Association of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:316-20 pubmed publisher
    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are persistent chlorinated pesticides with endocrine activity that may adversely affect the early stages of human reproduction...
  15. Dominguez Lopez P, Diaz Cueto L, Olivares A, Ulloa Aguirre A, Arechavaleta Velasco F. Differential effect of DDT, DDE, and DDD on COX-2 expression in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SVneo cells. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2012;26:454-60 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) isomers on COX-2 ..
  16. Manaca M, Grimalt J, Garí M, Sacarlal J, Sunyer J, Gonzalez R, et al. Assessment of exposure to DDT and metabolites after indoor residual spraying through the analysis of thatch material from rural African dwellings. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:756-62 pubmed publisher
    We report on the analysis of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT) and its metabolites in thatch and branch samples constituting the wall materials of dwellings from South African subtropical areas...
  17. Martínez Salinas R, Diaz Barriga F, Batres Esquivel L, Pérez Maldonado I. Assessment of the levels of DDT and its metabolites in soil and dust samples from Chiapas, Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:33-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of DDT and its metabolites in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) in five communities in Chiapas, Mexico. DDT and its metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
  18. Martínez F, Trejo Acevedo A, Betanzos A, Espinosa Reyes G, Alegría Torres J, Maldonado I. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;62:351-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT ..
  19. Humphries M. DDT residue contamination in sediments from Lake Sibaya in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for conservation in a World Heritage Site. Chemosphere. 2013;93:1494-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The region is malaria endemic and this study reports the presence of DDT and its metabolites in the sediments of Lake Sibaya that have resulted from the widespread and continued use of DDT ..
  20. Tangena J, Adiamoh M, D Alessandro U, Jarju L, Jawara M, Jeffries D, et al. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in the Gambia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74351 pubmed publisher
    ..The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT...
  21. Wang N, Shi L, Kong D, Cai D, Cao Y, Liu Y, et al. Accumulation levels and characteristics of some pesticides in human adipose tissue samples from Southeast China. Chemosphere. 2011;84:964-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that POPs pesticides were frequently detected, including 2,4'-DDD, 2,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex...
  22. Malaithong N, Polsomboon S, Poolprasert P, Parbaripai A, Bangs M, Suwonkerd W, et al. Human-landing patterns of Anopheles dirus sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) in experimental huts treated with DDT or deltamethrin. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:823-32 pubmed
    Anopheles dirus females landing on humans inside experimental huts treated with residual applications of DDT or deltamethrin were observed during the wet season in Pu Teuy Village, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand...
  23. Gyalpo T, Fritsche L, Bouwman H, Bornman R, Scheringer M, Hungerbuhler K. Estimation of human body concentrations of DDT from indoor residual spraying for malaria control. Environ Pollut. 2012;169:235-41 pubmed publisher
    Inhabitants of dwellings treated with DDT for indoor residual spraying show high DDT levels in blood and breast milk. This is of concern since mothers transfer lipid-soluble contaminants such as DDT via breastfeeding to their children...
  24. Zhao M, Wang C, Zhang C, Wen Y, Liu W. Enantioselective cytotoxicity profile of o,p'-DDT in PC 12 cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43823 pubmed publisher
    The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant...
  25. Fujii Y, Haraguchi K, Harada K, Hitomi T, Inoue K, Itoh Y, et al. Detection of dicofol and related pesticides in human breast milk from China, Korea and Japan. Chemosphere. 2011;82:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ng g?¹ lipid) or Korean breast milk samples (1.9 ng g?¹ lipid) (p<0.05 for each). Furthermore, the ?DDT levels in breast milk from China were 10-fold higher than those from Korea and Japan...
  26. Polson K, Rawlins S, Brogdon W, Chadee D. Characterisation of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Trinidad and Tobago populations of Aedes aegypti. Bull Entomol Res. 2011;101:435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to investigate the status of the organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroid (permethrin and deltamethrin) resistance in Trinidad and Tobago populations of Ae...
  27. Oduola A, Idowu E, Oyebola M, Adeogun A, Olojede J, Otubanjo O, et al. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:116 pubmed publisher
    ..insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin...
  28. Channa K, Röllin H, Nøst T, Odland J, Sandanger T. Prenatal exposure to DDT in malaria endemic region following indoor residual spraying and in non-malaria coastal regions of South Africa. Sci Total Environ. 2012;429:183-90 pubmed publisher
    Exemption was granted by the Stockholm Convention in 2004 for use of DDT by indoor residual spraying (IRS) as a malaria vector control...
  29. Chanda E, Hemingway J, Kleinschmidt I, Rehman A, Ramdeen V, Phiri F, et al. Insecticide resistance and the future of malaria control in Zambia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24336 pubmed publisher
    ..a major campaign of insecticide treated net distribution was initiated in 1999 and indoor residual spraying with DDT or pyrethroids was reintroduced in 2000 in Zambia...
  30. Valvi D, Mendez M, Martinez D, Grimalt J, Torrent M, Sunyer J, et al. Prenatal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE, and DDT and overweight in children: a prospective birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)] were associated with overweight at 6...
  31. Mishra K, Sharma R. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides in human milk and risk exposure to infants from North-East India. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4939-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations of organochlorine contaminants, DDT and HCH, have been determined in human breast milk from Dibrugarh and Nagaon districts of Assam state, North-East ..
  32. Arrebola J, Mutch E, Rivero M, Choque A, Silvestre S, Olea N, et al. Contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, occupation, diet and lifestyle to DDT and DDE concentrations in serum and adipose tissue from a Bolivian cohort. Environ Int. 2012;38:54-61 pubmed publisher
    The organochlorine pesticide p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was widely used in the early 1960s-70s for vector control in tropical and subtropical areas of South America...
  33. Wassie F, Spanoghe P, Tessema D, Steurbaut W. Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012;22:549-58 pubmed publisher
    We assessed exposure of applicators, health risk of DDT to the applicators and evaluated the applicability of existing pesticide exposure models for indoor residual spraying (IRS)...
  34. Oliver S, Brooke B. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. Malar J. 2013;12:44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis...
  35. Konan K, Kone A, Konan Y, Fofana D, Konan K, Diallo A, et al. [Resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids and DDT at Tiassalékro, an irrigated rice-growing village in the southern forest of Ivory Coast]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011;104:303-6 pubmed publisher
    ..l.to three pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin) and DDT has been carried out with a laboratory strain (Kisumu reference sensitive strain) and a wild strain (Tiassalékro ..
  36. Nardini L, Christian R, Coetzer N, Koekemoer L. DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from South Africa. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:229 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyrethroid resistance has been well documented in Anopheles arabiensis, one of the major African malaria vectors, and the predominant malaria vector in South Africa...
  37. Pérez Maldonado I, Trejo Acevedo A, Pruneda Álvarez L, Gaspar Ramírez O, Ruvalcaba Aranda S, Pérez Vázquez F. DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:9287-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico...
  38. La Merrill M, Cirillo P, Terry M, Krigbaum N, Flom J, Cohn B. Prenatal exposure to the pesticide DDT and hypertension diagnosed in women before age 50: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:594-9 pubmed publisher
    Elevated levels of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) have been positively associated with blood pressure and hypertension in studies among adults...
  39. Warner M, Aguilar Schall R, Harley K, Bradman A, Barr D, Eskenazi B. In utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old Mexican-American children in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:631-6 pubmed publisher
    In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life...
  40. Bouwman H, van den Berg H, Kylin H. DDT and malaria prevention: addressing the paradox. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:744-7 pubmed publisher
    The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT...
  41. Abate A, Hadis M. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to DDT, malathion, permethrin and deltamethrin in Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:486-91 pubmed publisher
    To assess the susceptibility/resistance level of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to DDT, malathion, permethrin and deltamethrin in different parts of Ethiopia. Field collected female An.gambiae s.l...
  42. Ding Y, Landrum P, You J, Lydy M. Assessing bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and DDT in sediment using matrix solid phase microextraction. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..dose in organisms to estimate bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in laboratory-spiked sediment...
  43. Martínez Salinas R, Pérez Maldonado I, Batres Esquivel L, Flores Ramírez R, Diaz Barriga F. Assessment of DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in blood and urine samples in children from Chiapas Mexico. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2011;19:2658-66 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was assess co-exposure to DDT, DDE (main DDT metabolite), and PAHs (1-hydroxypyrene) in areas where biomass is used to cook and to heat homes and where DDT was used to combat malaria transmission...
  44. Ferreira C, De Oliveira A, Paumgartten F. Serum concentrations of DDT and DDE among malaria control workers in the Amazon region. J Occup Health. 2011;53:115-22 pubmed
    In Brazil, DDT was used to control malaria-transmitting mosquitoes from 1945 to 1997...
  45. Jones C, Toé H, Sanou A, Namountougou M, Hughes A, Diabate A, et al. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45995 pubmed publisher
    ..l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70...
  46. Fossog Tene B, Poupardin R, Costantini C, Awono Ambene P, Wondji C, Ranson H, et al. Resistance to DDT in an urban setting: common mechanisms implicated in both M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae in the city of Yaoundé Cameroon. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61408 pubmed publisher
    ..by the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae and both are resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides and DDT. Mutations in the target site of these insecticides, present at a high frequency in malaria vectors in this city, ..
  47. Al Saleh I, Al Doush I, Alsabbaheen A, Mohamed G, Rabbah A. Levels of DDT and its metabolites in placenta, maternal and cord blood and their potential influence on neonatal anthropometric measures. Sci Total Environ. 2012;416:62-74 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have shown mixed results for the harmful effects on fetal growth and development...
  48. Tilghman S, Bratton M, Segar H, Martin E, Rhodes L, Li M, et al. Endocrine disruptor regulation of microRNA expression in breast carcinoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32754 pubmed publisher
    ..The EDCs DDT and BPA are ubiquitously present in the environment, and DDT and BPA levels in human blood and adipose tissue are ..
  49. Ritter R, Scheringer M, Macleod M, Hungerbuhler K. Assessment of nonoccupational exposure to DDT in the tropics and the north: relevance of uptake via inhalation from indoor residual spraying. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:707-12 pubmed publisher
    People who live in dwellings treated with indoor residual spraying (IRS) of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] for disease-vector control in the tropics and indigenous populations in the Arctic who consume marine mammals ..
  50. Perry T, Batterham P, Daborn P. The biology of insecticidal activity and resistance. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:411-22 pubmed publisher
  51. Dinesh D, Das M, Picado A, Roy L, Rijal S, Singh S, et al. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in visceral leishmaniasis endemic districts in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e859 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the DDT and deltamethrin susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Leishmania donovani, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in two countries (India and Nepal) with different histories of insecticide ..
  52. Smith D, Hosken D, Rostant W, Yeo M, Griffin R, Bretman A, et al. DDT resistance, epistasis and male fitness in flies. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:1351-62 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila melanogaster, the DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is beneficial in the presence of DDT. Interestingly, DDT-R also elevates female fitness in the absence of DDT and existed in populations before DDT use...