chloroform

Summary

Summary: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

Top Publications

  1. Ifeoma O, Samuel O, Itohan A, Adeola S. Isolation, fractionation and evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of Phyllanthus niruri resident in its chloroform fraction. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..niruri) methanol extract (ME) and its fractions in mice. P. niruri methanol extract and its chloroform, ethanol and aqueous portions were tested against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei in early, ..
  2. Cappelletti M, Frascari D, Zannoni D, Fedi S. Microbial degradation of chloroform. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:1395-409 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloroform (CF) is largely produced by both anthropogenic and natural sources. It is detected in ground and surface water sources and it represents the most abundant halocarbon in the atmosphere...
  3. Hisam E, Zakaria Z, Mohtaruddin N, Rofiee M, Hamid H, Othman F. Antiulcer activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer...
  4. Zierkiewicz W, Wieczorek R, Hobza P, Michalska D. Halogen bonded complexes between volatile anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) and formaldehyde: a theoretical study. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011;13:5105-13 pubmed publisher
    The structures and intermolecular interactions in the halogen bonded complexes of anaesthetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane and isoflurane) with formaldehyde were studied by ab initio MP2 and CCSD(T) methods...
  5. Zhang W, Shi Q, Zhao L, Li Y, Tang F, Zhang F, et al. The safety and effectiveness of a chloroform/methanol extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (T2) plus methotrexate in treating rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:375-8 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the chloroform/methanol extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (T2) plus methotrexate (MTX) in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  6. Martos J, Bassotto A, González Rodríguez M, Ferrer Luque C. Dissolving efficacy of eucalyptus and orange oil, xylol and chloroform solvents on different root canal sealers. Int Endod J. 2011;44:1024-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the solubility of five root canal sealers in orange oil, eucalyptol, xylol and chloroform solvents...
  7. Turkyilmaz S, Almeida P, Regen S. Effects of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the interactions and lateral organization of lipids in the liquid-ordered phase. Langmuir. 2011;27:14380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..combination with Monte Carlo simulations, have been used to investigate the action of isoflurane, halothane, and chloroform on the compactness and lateral organization of cholesterol-rich bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-..
  8. Lee M, Low A, Zemb O, Koenig J, Michaelsen A, Manefield M. Complete chloroform dechlorination by organochlorine respiration and fermentation. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:883-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloroform (CF, CHCl(3)) is a recalcitrant and toxic environmental pollutant. In this communication we report for the first time a microbial community capable of complete CF dechlorination by metabolic processes...
  9. Barnett R, Larson G. A phenol-chloroform protocol for extracting DNA from ancient samples. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;840:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the phenol-chloroform method for extracting aDNA from any tissue type...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wolf M, Groenhof G. Evaluating nonpolarizable nucleic acid force fields: a systematic comparison of the nucleobases hydration free energies and chloroform-to-water partition coefficients. J Comput Chem. 2012;33:2225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As a test for thermodynamic properties, we have computed hydration free energies and chloroform-to-water partition coefficients of nucleobases using the AMBER-99, AMBER-gaff, CHARMM-27, GROMOS-45a4/53a6 and ..
  2. Montrucchio D, Miguel O, Zanin S, da Silva G, Cardozo A, Santos A. Antinociceptive effects of a chloroform extract and the alkaloid dicentrine isolated from fruits of Ocotea puberula. Planta Med. 2012;78:1543-8 pubmed
    The present work describes the chemical characterization of a chloroform fraction (CF) obtained from an extract of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae) fruits, and preliminary antinociceptive analysis of CF and the alkaloid dicentrine, isolated ..
  3. Sasso A, Schlosser P, Kedderis G, Genter M, Snawder J, Li Z, et al. Application of an updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chloroform to evaluate CYP2E1-mediated renal toxicity in rats and mice. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:360-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chloroform (CHCl(3)) is a chemical for which there are PBPK models available in different species and multiple sites of ..
  4. Reigada R. Influence of chloroform in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in lipid membranes. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:2527-35 pubmed publisher
    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the influence of chloroform in two different lipid membranes: one representative of a liquid-disordered phase and another one mixed with cholesterol and representative of a liquid-ordered ..
  5. Cho E, Lee S, Nam K, Shin J, Oh K, Kim K, et al. Amelioration of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death by chloroform fraction of bay leaves (Laurus nobilis). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2029-35 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Laurus nobilis chloroform fraction (LNCF) protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage...
  6. Buteau S, Valcke M. Probabilistic human health risk assessment for quarterly exposure to high chloroform concentrations in drinking-water distribution network of the Province of Quebec, Canada. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:1626-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting absorbed doses were compared to short-term reference values for chloroform, used as surrogate for THM, by calculating risk quotients (RQ)...
  7. Gvakharia B, Bottomley P, Arp D, Sayavedra Soto L. Construction of recombinant Nitrosomonas europaea expressing green fluorescent protein in response to co-oxidation of chloroform. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:1179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..europaea in response to oxidation of chloroform and chloromethane. In N...
  8. Aski S, Takacs Z, Kowalewski J. Inclusion complexes of cryptophane-E with dichloromethane and chloroform: A thermodynamic and kinetic study using the 1D-EXSY NMR method. Magn Reson Chem. 2008;46:1135-40 pubmed publisher
    Complexation equilibria and kinetics of exchange of chloroform and dichloromethane molecules between the cavity of cryptophane-E and bulk solution were investigated using NMR methods...
  9. Fabrizi L, Taylor G, Canas B, Boobis A, Edwards R. Adduction of the chloroform metabolite phosgene to lysine residues of human histone H2B. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003;16:266-75 pubmed
    Human exposure to trihalomethanes such as chloroform has been associated with both cancer and reproductive toxicity...
  10. Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:581-5 pubmed
    ..from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation...
  11. Tan Y, Liao K, Conolly R, Blount B, Mason A, Clewell H. Use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to identify exposures consistent with human biomonitoring data for chloroform. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:1727-56 pubmed
    ..was to use a combined PBPK model with an exposure model for showering to estimate the intake concentrations of chloroform based on measured blood and exhaled breath concentrations of chloroform...
  12. Tan Y, Liao K, Clewell H. Reverse dosimetry: interpreting trihalomethanes biomonitoring data using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007;17:591-603 pubmed
    ..The present study used an existing PBPK model for chloroform as a generic framework to develop PBPK models for other trihalomethanes (THMs)...
  13. Turkyilmaz S, Mitomo H, Chen W, Regen S. Phospholipid complexation of general anesthetics in fluid bilayers. Langmuir. 2010;26:5309-11 pubmed publisher
    ..derived from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in the presence of varying concentrations of chloroform. This analysis has yielded a fundamentally new, molecular-level view of the interaction of general anesthetics ..
  14. Hsu H, Chen M, Lin C, Chou W, Chen J. Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities. Water Res. 2009;43:3693-704 pubmed publisher
    Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern...
  15. Riley R, Szecsody J, Sklarew D, Mitroshkov A, Gent P, Brown C, et al. Desorption behavior of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in contaminated low organic carbon aquifer sediments. Chemosphere. 2010;79:807-13 pubmed publisher
    Slow release behavior of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and chloroform (CHCl(3)) in low organic carbon (<0.1%) deep aquifer sediments was quantified by 1-D column desorption studies with intact cores...
  16. Takacs Z, Soltésová M, Kotsyubynskyy D, Kowalewski J, Lang J, Brotin T, et al. NMR investigation of guest-host complex between chloroform and cryptophane C. Magn Reson Chem. 2010;48:623-9 pubmed publisher
    Guest-host complex between cryptophane C, possessing two non-equivalent caps, and chloroform is investigated by NMR spectroscopy...
  17. Fiss E, Rule K, Vikesland P. Formation of chloroform and other chlorinated byproducts by chlorination of triclosan-containing antibacterial products. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:2387-94 pubmed
    ..Products detected included (chlorophenoxy) phenols, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and chloroform. The daughter product yields were found to be highly variable and were dependent on the antimicrobial product ..
  18. Lind R, Gandolfi A. Hepatoprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. I. Protection when given twenty-four hours after chloroform or bromobenzene. Toxicol Pathol. 1999;27:342-7 pubmed
    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been reported to protect against hepatotoxicity resulting from chloroform (CHCl3) or bromobenzene (BB) when given 10 hr after the toxicant...
  19. Pavlov E, Zakharian E, Bladen C, Diao C, Grimbly C, Reusch R, et al. A large, voltage-dependent channel, isolated from mitochondria by water-free chloroform extraction. Biophys J. 2005;88:2614-25 pubmed
    We examined ion channels derived from a chloroform extract of isolated, dehydrated rat liver mitochondria...
  20. Köchl S, Niederstätter H, Parson W. DNA extraction and quantitation of forensic samples using the phenol-chloroform method and real-time PCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;297:13-30 pubmed
    ..The phenol-chloroform method is a sensitive method for the extraction of DNA from a wide variety of forensic samples, although it is ..
  21. Tan Y, Butterworth B, Gargas M, Conolly R. Biologically motivated computational modeling of chloroform cytolethality and regenerative cellular proliferation. Toxicol Sci. 2003;75:192-200 pubmed
    b>Chloroform is a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic carcinogen in rodents. As such, events related to cytotoxicity are the driving force for cancer induction...
  22. Scholz E, Alter M, Zitron E, Kiesecker C, Kathofer S, Thomas D, et al. In vitro modulation of HERG channels by organochlorine solvent trichlormethane as potential explanation for proarrhythmic effects of chloroform. Toxicol Lett. 2006;165:156-66 pubmed
    Acute chloroform intoxication can cause depression of the central nervous system and may lead to death from lethal arrhythmias or respiratory arrest...
  23. Merten C, Amkreutz M, Hartwig A. Determining the structure of ?-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform by VCD spectroscopy and DFT calculations--simple case or challenge?. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:11635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..theoretical and experimental study of the vibrational circular dichroism of (S)-?-phenylethyl isocyanide in chloroform. The structure in solution is investigated systematically by density functional theory calculations starting ..
  24. Yam M, Lim V, Salman I, Ameer O, Ang L, Rosidah N, et al. HPLC and anti-inflammatory studies of the flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves. Molecules. 2010;15:4452-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method...
  25. Posa M, Guzsvány V, Csanadi J, Kevresan S, Kuhajda K. Formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes between bile acids and lidocaine in the lidocaine transfer from an aqueous phase to chloroform. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2008;34:281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the rate constant of the decrease of lidocaine concentration in the aqueous phase during its transfer to the chloroform solution of a bile acid...
  26. Corley R, Gordon S, Wallace L. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the temperature-dependent dermal absorption of chloroform by humans following bath water exposures. Toxicol Sci. 2000;53:13-23 pubmed
    The kinetics of chloroform in the exhaled breath of human volunteers exposed skin-only via bath water (concentrations < 100 ppb) were analyzed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model...
  27. Vajrabhaya L, Suwannawong S, Kamolroongwarakul R, Pewklieng L. Cytotoxicity evaluation of gutta-percha solvents: Chloroform and GP-Solvent (limonene). Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:756-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 2 gutta-percha solvents, chloroform and GP-Solvent, on cell line L929. 2 gutta-percha solvents were diluted into the concentrations of 1:100, 1:400, and 1:800...
  28. Araki A, Kamigaito N, Sasaki T, Matsushima T. Mutagenicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA/pKM101 and WP2/pKM101, using a gas exposure method. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004;43:128-33 pubmed
    The volatile solvents carbon tetrachloride and chloroform are carcinogens that are often reported as nonmutagenic in bacterial mutagenicity assays...
  29. Lohiya N, Manivannan B, Goyal S, Ansari A. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:298-306 pubmed
    To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys.
  30. Selgrade M, Gilmour M. Suppression of pulmonary host defenses and enhanced susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infection in mice following inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene and chloroform. J Immunotoxicol. 2010;7:350-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S...
  31. Ene A, Atawodi S, Ameh D, Nnamani C, Apeh Y. Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:981-6 pubmed
    Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice...
  32. Brown Woodman P, Hayes L, Huq F, Herlihy C, Picker K, Webster W. In vitro assessment of the effect of halogenated hydrocarbons: chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane on embryonic development of the rat. Teratology. 1998;57:321-33 pubmed
    ..In the present study three of these solvents--chloroform, dichloromethane, and dibromoethane--were examined for embryotoxic/teratogenic potential using rat embryo ..
  33. Kim H. A case of acute toxic hepatitis after suicidal chloroform and dichloromethane ingestion. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:1073.e3-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Chloroform and dichloromethane are halogenated hydrocarbons that have been used as a potent anesthetic agent or a general industrial solvent...
  34. Gemma S, Vittozzi L, Testai E. Metabolism of chloroform in the human liver and identification of the competent P450s. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31:266-74 pubmed
    The oxidative and reductive cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated chloroform bioactivation has been investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM), and the role of human P450s have been defined by integrating results from several experimental ..
  35. Lipscomb J, Barton H, Tornero Velez R, Evans M, Alcasey S, Snawder J, et al. The metabolic rate constants and specific activity of human and rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 2E1 toward toluene and chloroform. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67:537-53 pubmed
    b>Chloroform (CHCl3) is a near-ubiquitous environmental contaminant, a by-product of the disinfection of drinking water sources and a commercially important compound...
  36. Andréani P, Gräler M. Comparative quantification of sphingolipids and analogs in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography after chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem. 2006;358:239-46 pubmed
    ..were efficiently isolated from biological samples such as cells, tissues, serum, plasma, and media by simple chloroform extraction...
  37. Choi S, Lee S, Hong Y, Kim S, Moon S, Moon J. Diagnostic radiopacity and hepatotoxicity following chloroform ingestion: a case report. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:394-5 pubmed
    ..Ingestion of chloroform with radiopaque material in the bowel on abdominal radiograph was documented...
  38. Ghosh A, Sarkar K, Sil P. Protective effect of a 43 kD protein from the leaves of the herb, Cajanus indicus L on chloroform induced hepatic-disorder. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:197-207 pubmed
    ..Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 43 kD protein isolated from the leaves of this herb against chloroform induced hepatotoxicity...
  39. Beddowes E, Faux S, Chipman J. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and glutathione depletion induce secondary genotoxicity in liver cells via oxidative stress. Toxicology. 2003;187:101-15 pubmed
    ..b>Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are rodent carcinogens with characteristics as described above...
  40. Xu X, Weisel C. Dermal uptake of chloroform and haloketones during bathing. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2005;15:289-96 pubmed
    ..We evaluated dermal absorption of two haloketones (1,1-dichloropropanone and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone) and chloroform while bathing, by collecting and analyzing time profiles of expired breath samples of six human subjects during ..
  41. Elmer S, Park S, Pande V. Foldamer dynamics expressed via Markov state models. I. Explicit solvent molecular-dynamics simulations in acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water. J Chem Phys. 2005;123:114902 pubmed
    ..polyphenylacetylene (pPA) 12-mer in explicit solvent for four common organic and aqueous solvents: acetonitrile, chloroform, methanol, and water. The solvent quality has a dramatic effect on the time scales in which pPA 12-mers fold...
  42. Zielhuis S, Nijsen J, Dorland L, Krijger G, van het Schip A, Hennink W. Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis. Int J Pharm. 2006;315:67-74 pubmed
    ..microspheres are loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) and prepared by a solvent evaporation method using chloroform. After preparation the microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) are activated by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor...
  43. Ooi K, Muhammad T, Sulaiman S. Growth arrest and induction of apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell death by, Physalis minima L. chloroform extract in human ovarian carcinoma Caov-3 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:92-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Bueno C, Delboni M, de Araújo R, Carrara H, Cunha R. Effectiveness of rotary and hand files in gutta-percha and sealer removal using chloroform or chlorhexidine gel. Braz Dent J. 2006;17:139-43 pubmed
    ..K3 rotary files and hand files for removal of gutta-percha and sealer from obturated root canals using either chloroform or chlorhexidine as solvents...
  45. Qin L, Wang Y, Xu J, Kaneko T, Sato A, Wang P. One-day dietary restriction changes hepatic metabolism and potentiates the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;212:379-87 pubmed
    ..0 kcal), and observed the metabolic changes of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) and the hepatotoxicity of chloroform (CHCl(3)) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))...
  46. Liao K, Tan Y, Conolly R, Borghoff S, Gargas M, Andersen M, et al. Bayesian estimation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in a mode-of-action-based cancer risk assessment for chloroform. Risk Anal. 2007;27:1535-51 pubmed
    b>Chloroform is a carcinogen in rodents and its carcinogenicity is secondary to events associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation...
  47. Jenkins A, Lobo I, Gong D, Trudell J, Solt K, Harris R, et al. General anesthetics have additive actions on three ligand gated ion channels. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..methods, we measured the effects of at least one combination of benzene, isoflurane (ISO), halothane (HAL), chloroform, flunitrazepam, zinc, and pentobarbital on at least one of the following ligand gated ion channels: N-methyl-D-..
  48. Singh M, Shakya S, Soni V, Dangi A, Kumar N, Bhattacharya S. The n-hexane and chloroform fractions of Piper betle L. trigger different arms of immune responses in BALB/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid Brugia malayi. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:716-28 pubmed publisher
    ..present report describes the in vivo immunomodulatory efficacy of the crude methanolic extract and its n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol fractions of the female plant at various dose levels ranging between 0.3 and 500 mg/kg in BALB/c...
  49. Gvakharia B, Permina E, Gelfand M, Bottomley P, Sayavedra Soto L, Arp D. Global transcriptional response of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform and chloromethane. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3440-5 pubmed
    Upon exposure of Nitrosomonas europaea to chloroform (7 microM, 1 h), transcripts for 175 of 2,460 genes were found at higher levels in treated cells than in untreated cells and transcripts for 501 genes were found at lower levels...
  50. Pajewski R, Ferdani R, Pajewska J, Li R, Gokel G. Cation dependence of chloride ion complexation by open-chained receptor molecules in chloroform solution. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:18281-95 pubmed
    ..Significant differences are apparent in complexation strengths when the heptapeptide chain is shortened or lengthened or when the relative position of proline within the heptapeptide is varied. ..
  51. Whitaker H, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Best N. The relationship between water concentrations and individual uptake of chloroform: a simulation study. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:688-94 pubmed
    We simulated the relationship between water chloroform concentrations and chloroform uptake in pregnant women to assess the potential extent of exposure measurement error in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to water ..
  52. Aggazzotti G, Fantuzzi G, Righi E, Predieri G. Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools. J Chromatogr A. 1995;710:181-90 pubmed
    The presence of chloroform as the result of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was demonstrated in the water and ambient air of indoor swimming pools...
  53. Jenkins A, Greenblatt E, Faulkner H, Bertaccini E, Light A, Lin A, et al. Evidence for a common binding cavity for three general anesthetics within the GABAA receptor. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC136 pubmed
    ..Using anesthetics of different molecular size (isoflurane > halothane > chloroform) together with complementary mutagenesis of specific amino acid side chains, we estimate the volume of a ..