trichloroacetic acid

Summary

Summary: A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.

Top Publications

  1. Tao L, Yang S, Xie M, Kramer P, Pereira M. Effect of trichloroethylene and its metabolites, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid, on the methylation and expression of c-Jun and c-Myc protooncogenes in mouse liver: prevention by methionine. Toxicol Sci. 2000;54:399-407 pubmed
    Trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are environmental contaminants that are carcinogenic in mouse liver...
  2. Raziee M, Balighi K, Shabanzadeh Dehkordi H, Robati R. Efficacy and safety of cryotherapy vs. trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of solar lentigo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:316-9 pubmed
    ..Although the newer photoselective lasers have become the mainstay of treatment, cryotherapy and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution are inexpensive alternatives in the treatment of solar lentigines...
  3. Selmin O, Thorne P, Caldwell P, Taylor M. Trichloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid regulate calcium signaling pathways in murine embryonal carcinoma cells p19. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2008;8:47-56 pubmed publisher
    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which have been regarded as risk factors for congenital heart malformations...
  4. Graubart E, Hubbard G. Giant intrascleral cyst treated with trichloroacetic acid. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:438-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Celik I, Isik I. Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:66-75 pubmed
    ..effects of Foeniculum vulgare (FV) and Salvia officinalis (SO) waters infusions against carcinogen chemical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats...
  6. Zhang W, Gabos S, Schopflocher D, Li X, Gati W, Hrudey S. Validation of urinary trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. J Water Health. 2009;7:359-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to validate urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) excretion as a biomarker of exposure to DBPs in an experimental exposure cohort...
  7. Drake V, Koprowski S, Hu N, Smith S, Lough J. Cardiogenic effects of trichloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid following exposure during heart specification of avian development. Toxicol Sci. 2006;94:153-62 pubmed
    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are common drinking water contaminants in the United States...
  8. Celik I, Temur A, Isik I. Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..designed to investigate the protective and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (PG) beverage against trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats...
  9. Yong Feng C, Zhen Y, Bao Hua Z, Lu Wei X, Pei Jian T. Application of trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation method for protein extraction in bone tissue. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2011;33:210-3 pubmed publisher
    To explore the feasibility and efficiency of extracting protein from bone tissue using trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone precipitation method.

More Information

Publications69

  1. Chiu W. Trichloroacetic acid: updated estimates of its bioavailability and its contribution to trichloroethylene-induced mouse hepatomegaly. Toxicology. 2011;285:114-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a common drinking water disinfection byproduct that produces a spectrum of liver effects, including hepatomegaly and liver tumors, in mice...
  2. Blossom S, Pumford N, Gilbert K. Activation and attenuation of apoptosis of CD4+ T cells following in vivo exposure to two common environmental toxicants, trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate and trichloroacetic acid. J Autoimmun. 2004;23:211-20 pubmed
    ..was initiated to determine whether the major metabolites of TCE, trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate (TCAH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) could also mediate these immunoregulatory affects in vivo...
  3. Dailey R, Saulny S, Tower R. Treatment of multiple apocrine hidrocystomas with trichloroacetic acid. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21:148-50 pubmed
    ..gt;7 mm) periocular apocrine hidrocystomas by either chemical ablation of the cystic epithelium with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or surgical excision...
  4. Chen Z, Liang Q, Yu G. Establishment of a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea. 2011;30:1024-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) to study autologous submandibular gland transfer for treating severe KCS...
  5. Soliman M, Ramadan S, Bassiouny D, Abdelmalek M. Combined trichloroacetic acid peel and topical ascorbic acid versus trichloroacetic acid peel alone in the treatment of melasma: a comparative study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:89-94 pubmed
    ..Melasma is a common acquired hypermelanosis that is difficult to treat. Several chemical peeling agents were used in treatment of melasma. Topical vitamin C was also used with minimal side effects...
  6. Cortés Gutiérrez E, Witvrun Avila J, Sánchez Rodríguez G, Gaspar Belmonte J, Hernández Garza F, Cerda Flores R. [Molecular detection of human papillomavirus in women with cervical condylomas treated with trichloroacetic acid]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2005;73:111-6 pubmed
    1) To determinate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with cervical condylomas after the trichloroacetic acid application by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, and 2) to validate the colposcopy test versus the PCR (..
  7. Kim S, Kim D, Pollack G, Collins L, Rusyn I. Pharmacokinetic analysis of trichloroethylene metabolism in male B6C3F1 mice: Formation and disposition of trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative metabolites of TCE, such as dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are thought to be hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in mice...
  8. Kim S, Collins L, Boysen G, Swenberg J, Gold A, Ball L, et al. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis method for simultaneous detection of trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine. Toxicology. 2009;262:230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a new combination of methods for assessment of major TCE metabolites: dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl) glutathione (DCVG)...
  9. Yug A, Lane J, Howard M, Kent D. Histologic study of depressed acne scars treated with serial high-concentration (95%) trichloroacetic acid. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:985-90; discussion 990 pubmed
    ..Although multiple therapeutic modalities exist, treatment often remains inadequate. The use of high-concentration (95%) trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied focally to atrophic acne scars has been described.
  10. Singh J, Kuohung V, Palefsky J. Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases of AIN are intraanal, but few treatments for intraanal AIN are currently available. Topical 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is an inexpensive method used to treat perianal condyloma, a form of AIN 1, but its efficacy to treat ..
  11. Murao N, Ishigai M, Yasuno H, Shimonaka Y, Aso Y. Simple and sensitive quantification of bioactive peptides in biological matrices using liquid chromatography/selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry coupled with trichloroacetic acid clean-up. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:4033-8 pubmed
    ..The method employs protein precipitation with 4% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) using an immonium ion as the product ion...
  12. Selmin O, Thorne P, Caldwell P, Johnson P, Runyan R. Effects of trichloroethylene and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid on the expression of vimentin in the rat H9c2 cell line. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2005;21:83-95 pubmed
    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) are environmental contaminants with specific toxicity for the embryonic heart...
  13. Kumari R, Thappa D. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76:447 pubmed publisher
    ..Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory...
  14. Xie S, Li Y, Tan Y, Zheng D, Liu A, Xie H, et al. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China. Environ Res. 2011;111:295-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of exposure to DBPs on human male reproductive health in Chinese populations still warrants further investigations...
  15. Rajalingam D, Loftis C, Xu J, Kumar T. Trichloroacetic acid-induced protein precipitation involves the reversible association of a stable partially structured intermediate. Protein Sci. 2009;18:980-93 pubmed publisher
    Sample preparation for proteomic analysis involves precipitation of protein using 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid (TCA). In this study, we examine the mechanism of the TCA-induced protein precipitation reaction...
  16. Hong S, Han S, Choi S, Kim M, Won C, Lee M, et al. Split-face comparative study of 1550 nm fractional photothermolysis and trichloroacetic acid 15% chemical peeling for facial melasma in Asian skin. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2012;14:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..outcomes and safety of a single session of 1550-nm erbium-doped FP in Asian patients, compared with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel with a medium depth...
  17. El Domyati M, Attia S, Saleh F, Ahmad H, Uitto J. Trichloroacetic acid peeling versus dermabrasion: a histometric, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural comparison. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:179-88 pubmed
    b>Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemical peel and dermabrasion are beneficial methods for treatment of photoaged skin.
  18. Bull R, Sasser L, Lei X. Interactions in the tumor-promoting activity of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroacetate, and dichloroacetate in the liver of male B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology. 2004;199:169-83 pubmed
    ..The interactions may result in additive or inhibitory effects, but no significant evidence of synergy was observed...
  19. Kim S, Ko H, Oh C, Kwon K, Kim M. Trichloroacetic acid matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing toenails. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:973-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, permanent nail ablation by partial matricectomy is now accepted as the treatment of choice...
  20. Unsal Tuna E, Ozbek C, Koc C, Ozdem C. Evaluation of nasal symptoms and mucociliary function in patients with allergic rhinitis treated with chemosurgery using trichloroacetic acid. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29:37-41 pubmed
    We treated allergic rhinitis with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied to the inferior turbinates. Further clinical evaluations were made to determine the effect of TCA application on symptoms of allergic rhinitis...
  21. Celik I, Tuluce Y. Elevation protective role of Camellia sinensis and Urtica dioica infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats. Phytother Res. 2007;21:1039-44 pubmed
    ..UD), beverages used against chemical carcinogen trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-exposure in rats...
  22. Effron C, Briden M, Green B. Enhancing cosmetic outcomes by combining superficial glycolic acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) peels with nonablative lasers, intense pulsed light, and trichloroacetic acid peels. Cutis. 2007;79:4-8 pubmed
    Nonablative lasers, intense pulsed light (IPL), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peels are cosmetic rejuvenation techniques used to remodel skin and provide improved skin texture, firmness, and even pigmentation...
  23. Cho S, Park C, Chung W, Lee K, Lee J, Chung K. Histometric and histochemical analysis of the effect of trichloroacetic acid concentration in the chemical reconstruction of skin scars method. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:1231-6; discussion 1236 pubmed
    ..Atrophic scars can be induced by various causes, including severely inflamed acne, chicken pox, and trauma. Many treatment modalities are used for reconstructing and improving the appearance of scars with various treatment results...
  24. Seng J, Agrawal N, Horsley E, Leakey T, Scherer E, Xia S, et al. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;193:281-92 pubmed
    ..Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor ..
  25. Tao L, Li Y, Kramer P, Wang W, Pereira M. Hypomethylation of DNA and the insulin-like growth factor-II gene in dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid-promoted mouse liver tumors. Toxicology. 2004;196:127-36 pubmed
    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are mouse liver carcinogens. DNA hypomethylation is a common molecular event in cancer that is induced by DCA and TCA...
  26. Zhang W, Gabos S, Schopflocher D, Li X, Gati W, Hrudey S. Reliability of using urinary and blood trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to chlorinated drinking water disinfection byproducts. Biomarkers. 2009;14:355-65 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to analyse the reliability of using urinary and blood trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) as a biomarker of exposure...
  27. Chun E, Lee J, Lee K. Focal trichloroacetic acid peel method for benign pigmented lesions in dark-skinned patients. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:512-6; discussion 516 pubmed
    ..We suggest a technique consisting of focal trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel applied by pressing firmly onto the focal lesions.
  28. DeAngelo A, Daniel F, Wong D, George M. The induction of hepatocellular neoplasia by trichloroacetic acid administered in the drinking water of the male B6C3F1 mouse. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1056-68 pubmed publisher
    ..multiplicity (number of tumors per animal) of hepatocellular neoplasia in the male B6C3F1 mouse exposed to trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the drinking water were determined. Male mice were exposed to 0.05, 0...
  29. Xu Z, Xie Q, Zhou H. Trichloroacetic acid-induced molten globule state of aminoacylase from pig kidney. J Protein Chem. 2003;22:669-75 pubmed
    The trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced unfolding of aminoacylase was investigated by measurement of aggregation, enzyme activity, intrinsic fluorescence, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding, circular dichroism, and native ..
  30. Fung J, Sengelmann R, Kenneally C. Chemical injury to the eye from trichloroacetic Acid. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:609-10; discussion 610 pubmed
    b>Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is frequently utilized for chemical peeling by physicians practicing dermatologic surgery. Ocular complications from TCA have not been reported previously.
  31. Bull R, Orner G, Cheng R, Stillwell L, Stauber A, Sasser L, et al. Contribution of dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate to liver tumor induction in mice by trichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;182:55-65 pubmed
    ..These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that all liver tumors induced by TRI were produced by TCA...
  32. Froese K, Sinclair M, Hrudey S. Trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water: a human exposure trial in Adelaide, Australia. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:679-87 pubmed
    ..We evaluated urinary excretion of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) as an exposure biomarker using 10 volunteers who normally consume their domestic tap water...
  33. Lee J, Chung W, Kwahck H, Lee K. Focal treatment of acne scars with trichloroacetic acid: chemical reconstruction of skin scars method. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:1017-21; discussion 1021 pubmed
    ..We suggest a technique consisting of the focal application of higher trichloroacetic acid (TCA) concentrations by pressing hard on the entire depressed area of atrophic acne scars...
  34. Frazier C, Camacho A, Cockerell C. The treatment of eruptive syringomas in an African American patient with a combination of trichloroacetic acid and CO2 laser destruction. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:489-92 pubmed
    ..Many treatment modalities such as dermabrasion, electrodesiccation with curettage, and scissors excision have been tried with some success, but more recently lasers have provided good to excellent results...
  35. Tao L, Yang S, Xie M, Kramer P, Pereira M. Hypomethylation and overexpression of c-jun and c-myc protooncogenes and increased DNA methyltransferase activity in dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid-promoted mouse liver tumors. Cancer Lett. 2000;158:185-93 pubmed
    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are mouse liver carcinogens...
  36. Pereira M, Kramer P, Conran P, Tao L. Effect of chloroform on dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid-induced hypomethylation and expression of the c-myc gene and on their promotion of liver and kidney tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1511-9 pubmed
    Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are mouse liver carcinogens that are chlorine disinfection by-products found in drinking water...
  37. Gonzalez Leon A, Merdink J, Bull R, Schultz I. Effect of pre-treatment with dichloroacetic or trichloroacetic acid in drinking water on the pharmacokinetics of a subsequent challenge dose in B6C3F1 mice. Chem Biol Interact. 1999;123:239-53 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of TCA is not affected by pre-treatment with either DCA or TCA...
  38. Fisher J. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for trichloroethylene and its oxidative metabolites. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 2:265-73 pubmed
    ..This article briefly reviews selected published compartmental and PBPK models for TCE. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is considered a principle metabolite responsible for TCE-induced liver cancer in mice...
  39. Ge R, Yang S, Kramer P, Tao L, Pereira M. The effect of dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid on DNA methylation and cell proliferation in B6C3F1 mice. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2001;15:100-6 pubmed
    The chlorine disinfection by-products, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are carcinogenic in mouse liver. We have previously reported that DCA and TCA induced DNA hypomethylation in mouse liver...
  40. Fisher J, Channel S, Eggers J, Johnson P, MacMahon K, Goodyear C, et al. Trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid: do they affect fetal rat heart development?. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20:257-67 pubmed
    Trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) are commonly found as groundwater contaminants in many regions of the United States...
  41. Jacobs D, van Rijssen M, van der Heijden R, Verpoorte R. Sequential solubilization of proteins precipitated with trichloroacetic acid in acetone from cultured Catharanthus roseus cells yields 52% more spots after two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteomics. 2001;1:1345-50 pubmed
    ..evaluated a sequential solubilization procedure for the solubilization of proteins after precipitation in trichloroacetic acid and acetone...
  42. Lumpkin M, Bruckner J, Campbell J, Dallas C, White C, Fisher J. Plasma binding of trichloroacetic acid in mice, rats, and humans under cancer bioassay and environmental exposure conditions. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31:1203-7 pubmed
    b>Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a mouse liver carcinogen, is a drinking water contaminant and a metabolite of solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene...
  43. Nandakumar M, Shen J, Raman B, Marten M. Solubilization of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitated microbial proteins via naOH for two-dimensional electrophoresis. J Proteome Res. 2003;2:89-93 pubmed
    In preparing intracellular microbial samples for one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation is frequently used to remove interfering compounds...
  44. Bull R. Mode of action of liver tumor induction by trichloroethylene and its metabolites, trichloroacetate and dichloroacetate. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 2:241-59 pubmed
    ..Higher exposures to TCE could affect sensitive populations. Sensitivity could be based on different metabolic capacities for TCE or its metabolites or result from certain chronic diseases that have a genetic basis...
  45. De Wever H, Cole J, Fettig M, Hogan D, Tiedje J. Reductive dehalogenation of trichloroacetic acid by Trichlorobacter thiogenes gen. nov., sp. nov. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:2297-301 pubmed
    ..In view of its unique physiological characteristics, the name Trichlorobacter thiogenes is suggested for strain K1...
  46. Calafat A, Kuklenyik Z, Caudill S, Ashley D. Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water, in a human reference population. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:151-4 pubmed
    b>Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), a known mouse liver carcinogen and a possible human carcinogen, is found in chlorinated drinking water...
  47. Pfahler V, Dürr Auster T, Tamburini F, Bernasconi M, Frossard E. 18O enrichment in phosphorus pools extracted from soybean leaves. New Phytol. 2013;197:186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The leaf blades were extracted with 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and with 10 M nitric acid...
  48. Huang H, Møller I, Song S. Proteomics of desiccation tolerance during development and germination of maize embryos. J Proteomics. 2012;75:1247-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that desiccation-tolerant embryos make more economical use of their resources to accumulate protective molecules and antioxidant systems to deal with maturation drying and desiccation treatment. ..
  49. Singh M, Kaur M, Singh B, Singh K, Singh A, Kaur A. Role of trichloroacetic acid and gelfoam in closure of tympanic membrane perforations. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:1233-1236 pubmed publisher
  50. Auada Souto M, Velho P. Low-strength trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1443-5 pubmed
  51. Vavouli C, Katsambas A, Gregoriou S, Teodor A, Sălăvăstru C, Alexandru A, et al. Chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid for infraorbital dark circles. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2013;12:204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of trichloroacetic TCA 3.75% and lactic acid 15% showed encouraging results on improving periorbital hyperpigmentation. ..
  52. Xiao S, Anderson S, Swanson C, Bahnemann R, Voss K, Stauber A, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha enhances apoptosis in the mouse liver. Toxicol Sci. 2006;92:368-77 pubmed
  53. Rebouche C, Wilcox C, Widness J. Microanalysis of non-heme iron in animal tissues. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2004;58:239-51 pubmed
    ..In this assay, tissue homogenates are treated with hydrochloric acid and trichloroacetic acid and heated at 95 degrees C. Non-heme iron is released and protein is precipitated...
  54. Chen Y, Hagerman A. Quantitative examination of oxidized polyphenol-protein complexes. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:6061-7 pubmed
    ..We used trichloroacetic acid to isolate the PGG-BSA products after oxidation for radiochemical quantitation. NaIO(4) and ABTS...
  55. Tu W, Lei J, Ju H. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with water-insoluble porphyrin in ionic liquid: direct electrochemistry and highly sensitive amperometric biosensing for trichloroacetic acid. Chemistry. 2009;15:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..glassy carbon electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in neutral media due to the synergic effect among SWNTs, [BMIM][PF(6)], and porphyrin, which led to a ..
  56. Avery J. Genital injuries expensive. J Ark Med Soc. 2004;101:173-4 pubmed
  57. Toledo Grijalba M, Cheron M, Borowski E, Bolard J, Schreier S. Modulation of polyene antibiotics self-association by ions from the Hofmeister series. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:973-9 pubmed
  58. Breci L, Haynes P. Two-dimensional nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of proteins extracted from rice leaves and roots. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;355:249-66 pubmed
    ..In addition to the detailed protocol, we also present the results of a representative experiment showing the identification of more than 1000 distinct proteins from rice leaf and root samples in two Mupdit experiments...
  59. Tantipaiboonwong P, Sinchaikul S, Sriyam S, Phutrakul S, Chen S. Different techniques for urinary protein analysis of normal and lung cancer patients. Proteomics. 2005;5:1140-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, there are alternative choices for urine sample preparation for studying the urinary proteome and identifying urinary protein markers important for further preclinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications...
  60. Baumann K, Kowalczyk D, Kunz H. Total synthesis of the glycopeptide recognition domain of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:3445-9 pubmed publisher