Summary: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Lee D, Lee I, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker B, et al. A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1638-44 pubmed
    ..The strong graded association could offer a compelling challenge to future epidemiologic and toxicological research. ..
  2. Alegria H, Bidleman T, Figueroa M. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Pollut. 2006;140:483-91 pubmed
  3. Purdue M, Engel L, Langseth H, Needham L, Andersen A, Barr D, et al. Prediagnostic serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings suggest that exposure to organochlorine (OC) compounds, chlordanes and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in particular, may increase the risk of developing testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)...
  4. Hardell L, van Bavel B, Lindstrom G, Carlberg M, Dreifaldt A, Wijkstrom H, et al. Increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes in mothers of men with testicular cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:930-4 pubmed
    ..1 (95% CI, 1.5-11); for cis-nonachlordane, OR = 3.1 (95% CI, 1.2-7.8); and for sum of chlordanes, OR = 1.9 (95% CI, 0.7-5.0). No consistent different risk pattern was found for seminoma or nonseminoma testicular cancer. ..
  5. Bidleman T, Jantunen L, Helm P, Brorström Lundén E, Juntto S. Chlordane enantiomers and temporal trends of chlordane isomers in arctic air. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:539-44 pubmed
    ..Identification of nonracemic (mean EFs = 0.662-0.703) heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX) at the four air stations further exemplifies contributions of soil emissions to long-range transport of chlordane-related compounds. ..
  6. Murayama H, Takase Y, Mitobe H, Mukai H, Ohzeki T, Shimizu K, et al. Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan. Chemosphere. 2003;52:683-94 pubmed
    ..A peculiar observation is that beta-HCH concentration measured in our study showed large temperature dependence, indicating there could be a source of contamination in the surrounding areas. ..
  7. Malarvannan G, Kunisue T, Isobe T, Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Prudente M, et al. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from mothers living in Payatas and Malate, the Philippines: levels, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:1924-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A few individuals accumulated CHLs close to or even higher than the tolerable daily intake guidelines proposed by Health Canada. ..
  8. Huang D, Wang S, Chen H. Effects of the endocrine disrupter chemicals chlordane and lindane on the male green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). Chemosphere. 2004;57:1621-7 pubmed
    ..An endocrine disruption effect on N. denticulata was demonstrated, and may apply to other organochlorine pesticides or endocrine disruption chemicals. ..
  9. Greig D, Ylitalo G, Wheeler E, Boyd D, Gulland F, Yanagida G, et al. Geography and stage of development affect persistent organic pollutants in stranded and wild-caught harbor seal pups from central California. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:3537-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data illustrate the important influence of life stage, nutritional status, and location on blubber contaminant levels, and thus the need to consider these factors when interpreting single sample measurements in marine mammals. ..

More Information


  1. Lo A, Tsai W, Lo K. The impact of chlordane and dieldrin contamination of well water on cancer rates in North Stamford, Connecticut. Conn Med. 2011;75:517-21 pubmed
    ..Chlordane and dieldrin contamination of the well water of homes in North Stamford may not be associated with a higher incidence of cancer. ..
  2. Zhang J, Liu F, Chen R, Feng T, Dong S, Shen H. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in edible shellfish from Xiamen (China) and estimation of human dietary intake. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the high carcinogenic risk of aldrin and dieldrin were found in the measured shellfish species. p,p'-DDD, p'p-DDT, ?-HCH and ?-HCH in certain species should also be concerned for their potential carcinogenic risks. ..
  3. Eitzer B, Mattina M, Iannucci Berger W. Compositional and chiral profiles of weathered chlordane residues in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:2198-204 pubmed
    ..Using the method described, several patterns in the long-term weathering of technical chlordane in soil are observed. ..
  4. Stansley W, Roscoe D, Hawthorne E, Meyer R. Food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001;40:285-91 pubmed
    ..We suggest that high concentrations in three of the bats caused debility or abnormal behavior that may have precipitated submission for rabies testing. ..
  5. Yang L, Li X, Crusius J, Jans U, Melcer M, Zhang P. Persistent chlordane concentrations in Long Island Sound sediment: implications from chlordane, 210Pb, and 137Cs profiles. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7723-9 pubmed
    ..S. Continued chlordane input and significant sediment mixing may have contributed to the persistent chlordane concentrations in surficial sediment, which poses long-term threats to benthic organisms in LIS. ..
  6. Lewis M, Dantin D, Chancy C, Abel K, Lewis C. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: a comparative survey for chemical quality. Environ Pollut. 2007;146:206-18 pubmed
    ..Spatial, interspecific and tissue differences were usually an order of magnitude or less. ..
  7. Manar R, Bessi H, Vasseur P. Reproductive effects and bioaccumulation of chlordane in Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:2150-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a crucial role of the invertebrates in transfer of chlordane in aquatic food webs and can be used to derive a freshwater guideline for environmental protection accounting for bioaccumulation. ..
  8. Reed A, Dzon L, Loganathan B, Whalen M. Immunomodulation of human natural killer cell cytotoxic function by organochlorine pesticides. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004;23:463-71 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence of relative toxic potential for the 11 compounds and their immunomodulatory effects on other mononuclear cells (such as T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes) as well as NK lymphocyte function. ..
  9. Manar R, Vasseur P, Bessi H. Chronic toxicity of chlordane to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia: a comparative study. Environ Toxicol. 2012;27:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the usefulness of prolonging the exposure time of the reproduction test in C. dubia from 7 to 14 days to increase the performances of the reproduction test on C. dubia for assessing chronic toxicity of POPs. ..
  10. Hunt C, Slone E. Long-term monitoring using resident and caged mussels in Boston Harbor yield similar spatial and temporal trends in chemical contamination. Mar Environ Res. 2010;70:343-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed trends also demonstrate broad scale improvements to the quality of Boston Harbor and expand understanding of the response of coastal systems to interventions that reduce the load of chemicals to the ocean. ..
  11. Lopez J, Boyd D, Ylitalo G, Littnan C, Pearce R. Persistent organic pollutants in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the main Hawaiian Islands. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:2588-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Determining initial ranges of POPs is an important step towards assessing one of the many potential health threats to this critically endangered species. ..
  12. Li P, Wang Y, Huang W, Yao H, Xue B, Xu Y. Sixty-year sedimentary record of DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and endosulfan from emerging development gulfs: a case study in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;92:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, CC was found to be degraded faster than TC under anaerobic conditions in sediments from the Beibu Gulf. ..
  13. Steffen C, Borgå K, Skaare J, Bustnes J. The occurrence of organochlorines in marine avian top predators along a latitudinal gradient. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:5139-46 pubmed
  14. Yamada S, Naito Y, Funakawa M, Nakai S, Hosomi M. Photodegradation fates of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and heptachlor in ethanol. Chemosphere. 2008;70:1669-75 pubmed
    ..Reactivities at various positions in these compounds were predicted on the basis of bond dissociation energies calculated by nonempirical molecular orbital calculation (Gaussian 98W). ..
  15. Zhang L, Huang Y, Dong L, Shi S, Zhou L, Zhang T, et al. Levels, seasonal patterns, and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;61:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Coal combustion, waste incineration, and fuel combustion were assumed to be the potential HCB emission sources. Significant input of either of these OCPs during our study period was considered very unlikely. ..
  16. Shi J, Li Y, Liang H, Zheng G, Wu Y, Liu W. OCPs and PCBs in marine edible fish and human health risk assessment in the eastern Guangdong, China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;64:632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a few fish samples exceed the maximum levels established by the European Union. Daily fish consumption from this region can be of serious concern, and lifetime cancer risk remains a possibility in the studied area. ..
  17. Fuentes M, Colin V, Amoroso M, Benimeli C. Selection of an actinobacteria mixed culture for chlordane remediation. Pesticide effects on microbial morphology and bioemulsifier production. J Basic Microbiol. 2016;56:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study on the effects that chlordane exerts on microbe morphology and emulsifier production for a defined mixed culture of Streptomyces with ability to remediate the pesticide. ..
  18. Tryphonas H, Bondy G, Hodgen M, Coady L, Parenteau M, Armstrong C, et al. Effects of cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor and chlordane on the immune system of Sprague-Dawley rats following a 28-day oral (gavage) treatment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:107-18 pubmed
    ..Therefore, an evaluation of the risk these chlorinated compounds may pose to human health should consider the potential effects different chlordane compounds may have on the immune system. ..
  19. Verreault J, Bech C, Letcher R, Ropstad E, Dahl E, Gabrielsen G. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones. Environ Pollut. 2007;145:138-45 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. ..
  20. Xu Y, Wang Y, Li J, Liu X, Zhang R, Guo S, et al. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;76:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominant ?-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area. ..
  21. Rudge C, Sandanger T, Röllin H, Calderon I, Volpato G, Silva J, et al. Levels of selected persistent organic pollutants in blood from delivering women in seven selected areas of São Paulo State, Brazil. Environ Int. 2012;40:162-169 pubmed publisher
    ..An association between levels of some contaminants and maternal age and parity was also found. ..
  22. Coumoul X, Diry M, Barouki R. PXR-dependent induction of human CYP3A4 gene expression by organochlorine pesticides. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:1513-9 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that chronic exposure to OCP could alter a major metabolite pathway in human liver and putatively modify the pharmacokinetics of drugs and pollutants. ..
  23. Ekram Azim M, Letchumanan M, Abu Rayash A, Shimoda Y, Bhavsar S, Arhonditsis G. Detection of temporal trends of ?- and ?-chlordane in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:1107-21 pubmed publisher
  24. Liu X, Zhang G, Li J, Yu L, Xu Y, Li X, et al. Seasonal patterns and current sources of DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and endosulfan in the atmosphere of 37 Chinese cities. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1316-21 pubmed
    ..Samples with higher endosulfan concentrations occurred in the cotton production areas, indicating its major use in killing cotton pests. ..
  25. Ross J, Plummer S, Rode A, Scheer N, Bower C, Vogel O, et al. Human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) support the hypertrophic but not the hyperplastic response to the murine nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens phenobarbital and chlordane in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:452-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, all parameters investigated to date suggest that much of their functionality is maintained. ..
  26. O Hara T, Krahn M, Boyd D, Becker P, Philo L. Organochlorine contaminant levels in Eskimo harvested bowhead whales of arctic Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 1999;35:741-52 pubmed
    ..However, investigation of low level chronic exposure effects and a more rigorous assessment of histopathology, biomarkers, and immune status in the bowhead whale would be required to conclude "no effect" with more certainty. ..
  27. Mattina M, White J, Eitzer B, Iannucci Berger W. Cycling of weathered chlordane residues in the environment: compositional and chiral profiles in contiguous soil, vegetation, and air compartments. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002;21:281-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first comprehensive report of enantioselective processes into and through plant tissues for a variety of field-grown food crops. The selectivity will be related to observed insect toxicities of the enantiomers. ..
  28. Hardell L, Lindstrom G, van Bavel B. Is DDT exposure during fetal period and breast-feeding associated with neurological impairment?. Environ Res. 2002;88:141-4 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential of fetal and breast-feeding exposure of the son. Neurodevelopmental impairment has been reported for dioxins and PCBs, but DDT seems to have been less investigated in this respect. ..
  29. Koblizkova M, Genualdi S, Lee S, Harner T. Application of sorbent impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers for investigating organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers at the global scale. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:391-6 pubmed publisher
  30. Nakata H, Hirakawa Y, Kawazoe M, Nakabo T, Arizono K, Abe S, et al. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China. Environ Pollut. 2005;133:415-29 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. ..
  31. Ulrich E, Foreman W, Van Metre P, Wilson J, Rounds S. Enantiomer fractions of chlordane components in sediment from U.S. Geological Survey sites in lakes and rivers. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:5884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..66), were indicative of substantial biotic processing, and followed reported EF trends. ..
  32. Guler G, Cakmak Y, Dagli Z, Aktumsek A, Ozparlak H. Organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat from Konya region, Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1218-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Since most of the samples have been found to be contaminated with residues and some residues exceed EC MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat is necessary. ..
  33. Li X, Yang L, Jans U, Melcer M, Zhang P. Lack of enantioselective microbial degradation of chlordane in Long Island Sound sediment. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:1635-40 pubmed
  34. Valles S, Woodson W. Group effects on insecticide toxicity in workers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:769-74 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of insecticide transfer from insecticide-treated to untreated termites are discussed. ..
  35. Osbrink W, Lax A. Effect of tolerance to insecticides on substrate penetration by Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol. 2002;95:989-1000 pubmed
    ..The opposite was true in the case of permethrin and bendiocarb. More tolerance C. formosanus displayed decreased mortality in the presence of chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, and fipronil. The opposite was true for permethrin. ..
  36. Pfaffenberger B, Hardt I, Hühnerfuss H, Konig W, Rimkus G, Glausch A, et al. Enantioselective degradation of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and cyclodiene insecticides in roe-deer liver samples from different regions of Germany. Chemosphere. 1994;29:1543-54 pubmed
  37. Sudaryanto A, Kunisue T, Kajiwara N, Iwata H, Adibroto T, Hartono P, et al. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk. Environ Pollut. 2006;139:107-17 pubmed
    ..Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. ..
  38. Fridén U, Jansson B, Parlar H. Photolytic clean-up of biological samples for gas chromatographic analysis of chlorinated paraffins. Chemosphere. 2004;54:1079-83 pubmed
    ..GC-ECD gave a detection limit of 20 ng CPs/g fresh muscle tissue. The recovery of CPs from a spiked moose liver sample was estimated to 94%. ..
  39. Hedley A, Hui L, Kypke K, Malisch R, van Leeuwen F, Moy G, et al. Residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk in Hong Kong. Chemosphere. 2010;79:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous monitoring of POPs in human milk, especially beta-HCH, is needed for surveillance and interpretation of time trends, and for linkage to strict enforcement of agricultural regulations. ..
  40. Jaspers V, Dietz R, Sonne C, Letcher R, Eens M, Neels H, et al. A screening of persistent organohalogenated contaminants in hair of East Greenland polar bears. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:5613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research with larger sample weights and sizes is therefore necessary to draw more definitive conclusions on the usefulness of hair for biomonitoring OHCs in polar bears and other fur mammals. ..
  41. Mattina M, Isleyen M, Eitzer B, Iannucci Berger W, White J. Uptake by cucurbitaceae of soil-Bome contaminants depends upon plant genotype and pollutant properties. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:1814-21 pubmed
    ..Such data will provide insight into transport mechanisms of highly hydrophobic organic contaminants, as well as heavy metal contaminants, in the soil/plant system...
  42. Hardell E, Carlberg M, Nordstrom M, van Bavel B. Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Sweden during 1993-2007 and relation to age, gender, body mass index, breast-feeding and parity. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:4412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Parity with >2 children yielded statistically significantly lower sum of PCBs. All the studied POPs decreased during the time period, probably due to restrictions of their use. ..
  43. Moriwaki H, Yamaguchi M, Hashimoto H, Arakawa R. Detection of technical chlordane by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:225-7 pubmed
  44. Dvorska A, Sir M, Honzajková Z, Komprda J, Cupr P, Petrlík J, et al. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment--an Armenian case study. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:1944-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Multi-stakeholder cooperation proved to be successful in identifying such sites suspected to be significant sources of persistent organic pollutants. ..
  45. Phillips P, Nowell L, Gilliom R, Nakagaki N, Murray K, VanAlstyne C. Composition, distribution, and potential toxicity of organochlorine mixtures in bed sediments of streams. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:594-606 pubmed publisher
  46. Hung C, Gong G, Chen H, Hsieh H, Santschi P, Wade T, et al. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan. Environ Pollut. 2007;148:546-54 pubmed
  47. Purdue M, Hoppin J, Blair A, Dosemeci M, Alavanja M. Occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:642-9 pubmed
  48. Kuhnlein H, Chan H. Environment and contaminants in traditional food systems of northern indigenous peoples. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-626 pubmed
    ..The dilemma faced by indigenous peoples in weighing the multiple nutritional and socioeconomic benefits of traditional food use against risk of contaminants in culturally important food resources is described. ..
  49. Borgå K, Hop H, Skaare J, Wolkers H, Gabrielsen G. Selective bioaccumulation of chlorinated pesticides and metabolites in Arctic seabirds. Environ Pollut. 2007;145:545-53 pubmed
    ..Kittiwake showed higher accumulation of persistent CP and metabolites than auks, whereas accumulation of less recalcitrant CPs was low. ..
  50. Hardell L, van Bavel B, Lindstrom G, Björnfoth H, Orgum P, Carlberg M, et al. Adipose tissue concentrations of p,p'-DDE and the risk for endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;95:706-11 pubmed
    ..3, 95% CI = 0.6-8.6. The results suggest an interaction between p,p'-DDE and estrogen replacement drugs in the etiology of endometrial cancer, although no significant associations were found. ..
  51. Howell G, Mangum L. Exposure to bioaccumulative organochlorine compounds alters adipogenesis, fatty acid uptake, and adipokine production in NIH3T3-L1 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the current data suggest that exposure to these compounds, especially DDE, may promote some aspects of adipocyte dysfunction that are commonly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  52. Shen L, Reiner E, Macpherson K, Kolic T, Helm P, Richman L, et al. Dechloranes 602, 603, 604, Dechlorane Plus, and Chlordene Plus, a newly detected analogue, in tributary sediments of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, CP was detected in technical products of chlordene and chlordane, and it was found in higher concentrations in sediments near urban areas, possibly related to past chlordane use in home termite control. ..
  53. Moradas G, Auresenia J, Gallardo S, Guieysse B. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of trans-chlordane photochemical treatment. Chemosphere. 2008;73:1512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..trans-Chlordane removal was well described by a first order kinetic model at a rate of 0.21±0.01h(-1) at the 95% confidence interval. ..