aldrin

Summary

Summary: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Jorgenson J. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109 Suppl 1:113-39 pubmed
    ..This review is a detailed examination of 2 of the 12 POPs, aldrin and dieldrin, and how scientific groups identify and measure their effects...
  2. Chatterjee S, Ray A, Ghosh S, Bhattacharya K, Pakrashi A, Deb C. Effect of aldrin on spermatogenesis, plasma gonadotrophins and testosterone, and testicular testosterone in the rat. J Endocrinol. 1988;119:75-81 pubmed
    ..FSH and LH), testosterone and testicular testosterone were performed in Wistar rats following treatment with aldrin (polycyclic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide) for approximately one (13 days) or two cycles (26 days) of the ..
  3. Stevenson D, Walborg E, North D, Sielken R, Ross C, Wright A, et al. Monograph: reassessment of human cancer risk of aldrin/dieldrin. Toxicol Lett. 1999;109:123-86 pubmed
    In 1987, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified aldrin and dieldrin as category B2 carcinogens, i.e. probable human carcinogens, based largely on the increase in liver tumors in mice fed either organochlorine insecticide...
  4. de Jong G, Swaen G, Slangen J. Mortality of workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: a retrospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 1997;54:702-7 pubmed
    To investigate the occurrence of long term health effects in humans exposed to aldrin and dieldrin, with an update of an earlier retrospective cohort mortality study...
  5. Williams D, Woodhouse K. Age-related changes in O-deethylase and aldrin epoxidase activity in mouse skin and liver microsomes. Age Ageing. 1996;25:377-80 pubmed
    ..The substrates chosen were aldrin (AE), 7-ethoxycoumarin (EOC), and 7-ethoxyresorufin (EOR)...
  6. Castro V, Bernardi M, Palermo Neto J. Evaluation of prenatal aldrin intoxication in rats. Arch Toxicol. 1992;66:149-52 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal exposure to low doses of aldrin on physical and behavioral developments of rats (1-21 days old)...
  7. Li X, Dai X, Yin X, Li M, Zhao Y, Zhou J, et al. Impurity analysis of pure aldrin using heart-cut multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1277:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A method for the determination of related-structure impurity in pure aldrin sample has been developed by using heart-cut multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC/MS)...
  8. Kessabi M, Elhraiki A, Nader B. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. Sci Total Environ. 1988;71:209-14 pubmed
    ..Hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin and heptachlor were frequently encountered...
  9. Kusvuran E, Erbatur O. Degradation of aldrin in adsorbed system using advanced oxidation processes: comparison of the treatment methods. J Hazard Mater. 2004;106:115-25 pubmed
    ..In this study, Fenton, UV/Fenton, UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+ advanced oxidation processes have been applied for degradation of aldrin adsorbed on Na-montmorillonitte and activated carbon...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Waliszewski S, Pardio V, Waliszewski K, Chantiri J, Infanzon R, Rivera J. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk. Food Addit Contam. 1996;13:231-5 pubmed
    ..The results obtained for mean DDT and HCH levels were 0.057 and 0.098 mg/kg respectively expressed on fat basis and are within FAO tolerances and similar to those found in other tropical countries. ..
  2. Swaen G, de Jong G, Slangen J, van Amelsvoort L. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: an update. Toxicol Ind Health. 2002;18:63-70 pubmed
    ..in particular carcinogenic effects, of occupational exposure to the organochlorine insecticides dieldrin and aldrin. We updated an earlier cohort mortality study of 570 employees involved in the production of these insecticides...
  3. Chopra A, Sharma M, Chamoli S. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;173:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others...
  4. Satyanarayan S, Ramakant -, Satyanarayan A. Bioaccumulation studies of organochlorinated pesticides in tissues of Cyprinus carpio. J Environ Sci Health B. 2005;40:397-412 pubmed
    ..The pesticides used were Aldrin, Dieldrin, BHC, and DDT. The bioaccumulation of Dieldrin was maximum of 85...
  5. Castro V, Palermo Neto J. Effect of a specific stress (aldrin) on rat progeny behavior. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22:979-82 pubmed
    The effect of dam exposure to aldrin, an organochlorinated compound (1.0 mg/kg, sc, daily), during pregnancy or lactation was studied in young rat pups (11, 15, 18 and 22 days of age) and in adult animals (90 days of age)...
  6. Buser H, Müller M, Buerge I, Poiger T. Composition of aldrin, dieldrin, and photodieldrin enantiomers in technical and environmental samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7445-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldrin and dieldrin belong to the group of polycyclic chlorinated insecticides that are banned under the Stockholm Convention (POP Convention)...
  7. Carvalho W, Matos G, Cruz S, Rodrigues D. [Acute poisoning by aldrin: relationship between serum levels and toxic effects in humans]. Rev Saude Publica. 1990;24:39-46 pubmed
    In the attempt to correlate clinical findings with serum levels of aldrin, sixteen patients were followed-up after acute intoxication by this agent...
  8. Huang L, Xi Y, Zha C, Zhao L. Effect of aldrin on life history characteristics of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus pallas. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:524-8 pubmed
    The organochlorine insecticide aldrin is commonly used in intensive agriculture, and demonstrates estrogenic activity...
  9. Williman C, Munitz M, Montti M, Medina M, Navarro A, Ronco A. Pesticide survey in water and suspended solids from the Uruguay River Basin, Argentina. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:259 pubmed publisher
    ..Detected concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, 4,4'-DDT, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methyl-..
  10. Eun J, Ryu S, Noh J, Lee M, Jang J, Ryu J, et al. Discriminating the molecular basis of hepatotoxicity using the large-scale characteristic molecular signatures of toxicants by expression profiling analysis. Toxicology. 2008;249:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Male C3H/He mice were dosed with two hepatocarcinogens (vinyl chloride (VC, 50-25 mg/kg), aldrin (AD, 0.8-0...
  11. Furusawa N, Morita Y. In vitro hepatic biotransformation of aldrin and dieldrin in food-producing animals. Acta Vet Hung. 2001;49:349-53 pubmed
    The hepatic biotransformation of aldrin (AD) and dieldrin (DD) was studied in liver post-mitochondrial supernatants (S-9s) from laying hens, female cattle and swine. S-9s were incubated with 0.03 nmol of AD or DD for 1 h...
  12. Rowland G, Bausch A, Grannas A. Photochemical processing of aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions under arctic field conditions. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:1076-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Photochemical degradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin, in frozen aqueous solution made from MilliQ water, 500 ?M hydrogen peroxide solution or locally-..
  13. Liu W, He W, Qin N, Kong X, He Q, Ouyang H, et al. Residues, distributions, sources, and ecological risks of OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu, China. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:897697 pubmed publisher
    ..The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99?ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs...
  14. Falandysz J. [Dietary intake of dieldrin and aldrin in Poland]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 1999;50:391-401 pubmed
    Dieldrin and aldrin exposure from a particular food items in Poland in 1970-1996 was calculated by multiplying its annualized mean consumption rates by residue concentration in the food...
  15. Khan M, Qadri S, Tomar S, Fish D, Gururajan L, Poria M. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450 by phenobarbital in semi-aquatic frog (Rana pipiens). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:737-44 pubmed
    ..The activity of PB-induced P450 (2B1) towards aldrin and pentoxyresorufin increases respectively by about 2- and 10-fold...
  16. Norli H, Christiansen A, Deribe E. Application of QuEChERS method for extraction of selected persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:7234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The recovery of aldrin increases significantly from 55% to over 80%...
  17. Wang Y, Murphy M, Lam J, Jiao L, Wong C, Yeung L, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: risk assessment to local waterbirds. Chemosphere. 2011;83:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the ..
  18. Zhang L, Liu X, Wang C, Liu X, Cheng G, Wu Y. Expression, purification and direct eletrochemistry of cytochrome P450 6A1 from the house fly, Musca domestica. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;71:74-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of CYP6A1 in a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DSAB) film on an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPG) has been obtained and the catalytic activity of the enzyme to aldrin has been demonstrated by the cyclic voltammetry.
  19. Kitamura S, Mita M, Shimizu Y, Sugihara K, Ohta S. Conversion of dieldrin to aldrin by intestinal bacteria in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999;22:880-2 pubmed
    The present study provides the evidence that dieldrin is reductively metabolized to aldrin by intestinal bacteria in rats...
  20. Casteel S, Satalowich F, Kendall J, Rottinghaus G, Gosser H, Schneider N. Aldrin intoxication and clearance of associated dieldrin residues in a group of feedlot cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;202:83-5 pubmed
    ..4 and 20.6 micrograms of aldrin/g of ingesta, respectively...
  21. Jamaluddin S, Poddar M. Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and locomotor activity: effect of long-term aldrin exposure. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003;55:371-82 pubmed
    b>Aldrin-induced stimulation of locomotor activity (LA) under nontolerant conditions was restored to control value after 20 or more consecutive days of aldrin administration...
  22. Chatterjee S, Ray A, Deb C, Gosh S, Kabir S, Pakrashi A. Effect of aldrin on accessory sex glands and plasma testosterone levels in rats. Andrologia. 1988;20:472-6 pubmed
    The effects of aldrin, an organochlorine insecticide, on accessory sex glands and plasma testosterone levels in rats were studied. The aldrin was administered i.p. for 13 days and 26 days at a dose of 150 micrograms/kg...
  23. Thomas M, Lazartigues A, Banas D, Brun Bellut J, Feidt C. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and fish from freshwater cultured fish ponds in different agricultural contexts in north-eastern France. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;77:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..isomers, sulfate endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, chlorothalonil, alachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, oxychlordane, chlordane with ?- and ? isomers, p,p'-dicofol and o,p'-dicofol) and ..
  24. Carvalho W, Matos G, Cruz S, Rodrigues D. Human aldrin poisoning. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1991;24:883-7 pubmed
    Sixteen patients acutely poisoned with aldrin were examined to evaluate a possible correlation between serum aldrin and dieldrin levels and clinical complaints...
  25. Kastner M, Schulz Schalge T, Neubert D. Purification and properties of cytochrome P-450 from liver microsomes of phenobarbital-treated marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). Toxicol Lett. 1989;45:261-70 pubmed
    ..By contrast, aldrin epoxidation as catalyzed by this cytochrome is about three times as high as that obtained from the rat.
  26. Malik A, Singh K, Ojha P. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Gomti river, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;78:335-40 pubmed
    ..66 +/- 5.60 ng g(-1)). Neither spatial nor temporal trends could be observed in distribution of the OCPs. Aldrin was the predominant OCP, whereas, HCB and methoxychlor could not be detected...
  27. Fonseca R, Resende L, Silva M, Camargo A. Chronic motor neuron disease possibly related to intoxication with organochlorine insecticides. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993;88:56-8 pubmed
    ..Measurements of aldrin, lindane and heptachlor confirmed the intoxication...
  28. Edwards J, Priestly B. Effect of occupational exposure to aldrin on urinary D-glucaric acid, plasma dieldrin, and lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1994;66:229-34 pubmed
    The effects of exposure to the chlorinated cyclodiene termiticide aldrin was evaluated in pest control workers potentially exposed to this material. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were not elevated in workers handling aldrin...
  29. Alonso Hernández C, Gómez Batista M, Cattini C, Villeneuve J, Oh J. Organochlorine pesticides in green mussel, Perna viridis, from the Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:995-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The organochlorine pesticides (i.e. DDT, Dieldrin, Chlordane, Endosulfan, HCB, Aldrin, Heptachlor and Lindane) were quantified by gas chromatography. The sum of all organochlorine pesticides in P...
  30. Xu R, Wu J, Liu Y, Zhao R, Chen B, Yang M, et al. Analysis of pesticide residues using the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) pesticide multiresidue method in traditional Chinese medicine by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Chemosphere. 2011;84:908-12 pubmed publisher
    ..hexachloride (BHC, including ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC), hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT, mirex, endrin, dieldrin...
  31. Kampire E, Kiremire B, Nyanzi S, Kishimba M. Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow's milk from Kampala markets. Chemosphere. 2011;84:923-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five organochlorine pesticides, namely; aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, lindane, DDT and its metabolites were detected in the milk samples and confirmed with a gas ..
  32. van Amelsvoort L, Slangen J, Tsai S, de Jong G, Kant I. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: over 50 years of follow up. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82:217-25 pubmed publisher
    Dieldrin and aldrin, pesticides widely used until the 1970s, have been under suspicion of being carcinogenic...
  33. Jamaluddin S, Poddar M. Role of brain regional GABA: aldrin-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rat. Neurochem Res. 2001;26:439-51 pubmed
    b>Aldrin, a chlorinated hydrocarbon group of pesticide, is a well known central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The CNS stimulating effect of aldrin is manifested in the form of an increase in locomotor activity (LA) of animals...
  34. Borlakoglu J, John P. Cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics. A comparative study of rat hepatic and plant microsomal metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989;94:613-7 pubmed
    ..P-450 linked enzyme activities were 1765-fold and 25-fold greater when compared with plant microsomes using aldrin and biphenyl as substrates, respectively. 4...
  35. Gomez L, Campos N, Ramirez G. [Accumulation and depuration of aldrin in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (Colombian Caribbean)]. Rev Biol Trop. 1995;43:161-72 pubmed
    ..salinities (35, 26 and 17/1000) to determine accumulation and depuration rates of the organochlorine compound aldrin by the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (Colombian Caribbean)...
  36. MacPherson S, Scott R, Williams F. Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of aldrin by rat skin in diffusion cells. Arch Toxicol. 1991;65:599-602 pubmed
    ..The pesticide aldrin was absorbed through the skin into ethanol/water but not the aqueous receptor fluids...
  37. Wu T, Rainwater T, Platt S, McMurry S, Anderson T. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize. Chemosphere. 2000;40:671-8 pubmed
    ..7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others)...
  38. Paton M, Petterson D. Absorption by sheep of dieldrin from contaminated soil. Aust Vet J. 1997;75:441-5 pubmed
    ..were divided into four groups (one control sheep only) and fed water-soluble dieldrin or soil contaminated with aldrin and dieldrin at varying intervals in the first study...
  39. Baek S, Choi S, Chang Y. Three-year atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar regions and the South Pacific. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the entire sampling period, a decreasing trend of HCHs (?- and ?-HCH) and an increasing trend of endosulfan-I were observed at the Ny-Ålesund sites. ..
  40. Tully D, Cox V, Mumtaz M, Davis V, Chapin R. Six high-priority organochlorine pesticides, either singly or in combination, are nonestrogenic in transfected HeLa cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2000;14:95-102 pubmed
    ..these concerns, we have evaluated the ability of six organochlorine pesticides (4, 4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin, all classified high priority by ATSDR) to modulate transcriptional activation of an estrogen-..
  41. Helvig C, Tijet N, Feyereisen R, Walker F, Restifo L. Drosophila melanogaster CYP6A8, an insect P450 that catalyzes lauric acid (omega-1)-hydroxylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:1495-502 pubmed
    ..CYP6A2 has been shown to catalyze the metabolism of several insecticides including aldrin and heptachlor. CYP6A8 is expressed at many developmental stages as well as in adult life...
  42. de Brito Gitirana L, Miguel N. Electron microscopical investigation on aldrin-induced hepatocyte pathology in Rana catesbeiana, with special emphasis on peroxisomes. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2000;52:339-47 pubmed
    We examined the effect of aldrin on hepatocyte ultrastructure in liver of Rana catesbeiana. The frogs were experimentally exposed to chemical substance and liver fragments processed for routine transmission electron microscopy...
  43. Balasubramaniam E, Paul V, Kazi M. Cyclodiene insecticides-induced changes in the central depressive effect of chlorpromazine in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995;39:231-6 pubmed
    ..sleep were tested in rats treated orally for 90 days with tolerated doses of the cyclodiene insecticides, aldrin (1 mg/kg) and endosulfan (2 mg/kg)...
  44. Bandala E, Andres Octaviano J, Pastrana P, Torres L. Removal of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide using activated carbon and/or Pseudomonas fluorescens free cell cultures. J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41:553-69 pubmed
    Degradation of aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5-8-dimethanonaphthalene), heptachlor (1H-1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano indene), dieldrin (1aalpha,2beta,2aalpha,3beta,6beta,6aalpha,..
  45. Park E, Lees E. Determination of oxidative metabolism in Collembolan Proisotoma minuta (Tullberg). J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41:57-65 pubmed
    An oxidative metabolism of Collembolan Proisotoma minuta was determined with a model compound of aldrin and dieldrin in this paper. The seven-day LD(50) values for aldrin, dieldrin, and piperonyl butoxide in salt solution were 0.496, 0...
  46. Yang D, Li X, Tao S, Wang Y, Cheng Y, Zhang D, et al. Enantioselective behavior of alpha-HCH in mouse and quail tissues. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:1854-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The enantioselective transport across the blood-brain barrier was the primary cause for the enantioenrichment of (+)-alpha-HCH in the brain tissues. ..
  47. Furusawa N. Decreasing half-life of dieldrin in egg yolk following a single oral administration of aldrin to laying hens. Acta Vet Hung. 2001;49:465-72 pubmed
    Laying hens were treated orally with a single dose of aldrin (AD) 1 mg/kg body weight...
  48. Nojima K, Miyamae H, Yamaashi Y. Studies on photochemical reactions of air pollutants. XV. Photoreactivity of heptachloro-3'-cyclopentenyldioxy heptachloro-2-cyclopentene formed by exposure of hexachlorocyclopentadiene to ultraviolet light in air. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:338-43 pubmed
    Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCP, 1), one of the starting materials in the synthesis of aldrin (3), was found to be able to epoxidize aldrin (3) to give dieldrin (4) when exposed to artificial light at wavelengths longer than 290 nm...
  49. Zhang A, Fang L, Wang J, Liu W, Yuan H, Jantunen L, et al. Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the concentration levels of endosulfans and chlordane, which are currently used, and the never used aldrin and dieldrin in the province of Zhejiang, a rainy, and hilly tea-growing province in eastern China...
  50. Reddy M, Rao K. Aldrin and lindane impact on acid and alkaline phosphatase activities of prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros: in vitro study. Biochem Int. 1990;22:1033-40 pubmed
    ..of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros were studied after in vitro addition of different concentrations of aldrin and lindane, the organochlorine insecticides...
  51. Kennedy D, Aust S, Bumpus J. Comparative biodegradation of alkyl halide insecticides by the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM-F-1767). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990;56:2347-53 pubmed
    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade six alkyl halide insecticides (aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, and mirex) in liquid and soil-corncob matrices was compared by using 14C-labeled compounds...
  52. Ali M, Gani K, Kazmi A, Ahmed N. Degradation of aldrin and endosulfan in rotary drum and windrow composting. J Environ Sci Health B. 2016;51:278-86 pubmed publisher
    Removal efficiencies, kinetics and degradation pathways of aldrin, endosulfan ? and endosulfan ? in vegetable waste were evaluated during rotary drum and conventional windrow composting...
  53. Lebovits A, Levin S. Correlates of a residential pesticide contamination in a self-selected sample. J Psychol. 1992;126:189-205 pubmed