chlorinated hydrocarbons


Summary: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.

Top Publications

  1. Turyk M, Anderson H, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky V. Organochlorine exposure and incidence of diabetes in a cohort of Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1076-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies should address the biological pathways by which DDE could affect glucose homeostasis. ..
  2. Itoh H, Iwasaki M, Hanaoka T, Kasuga Y, Yokoyama S, Onuma H, et al. Serum organochlorines and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:567-80 pubmed publisher
  3. Suzuki G, Nakano M, Nakano S. Distribution of PCDDs/PCDFs and Co-PCBs in human maternal blood, cord blood, placenta, milk, and adipose tissue: dioxins showing high toxic equivalency factor accumulate in the placenta. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1836-47 pubmed
    ..But, the concentrations and relative percentages of congeners differed among the various samples, suggesting that congeners showing high toxic equivalency factor accumulate in the placenta. ..
  4. Bradman A, Schwartz J, Fenster L, Barr D, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007;17:388-99 pubmed
    ..Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred before moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. ..
  5. Shen H, Main K, Virtanen H, Damggard I, Haavisto A, Kaleva M, et al. From mother to child: investigation of prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent bioaccumulating toxicants using breast milk and placenta biomonitoring. Chemosphere. 2007;67:S256-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, depending on the compound of interest, biomonitoring may be done in placenta only or in both matrices. ..
  6. Yang N, Matsuda M, Kawano M, Wakimoto T. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in edible fish and shellfish from China. Chemosphere. 2006;63:1342-52 pubmed
    ..9 ng/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The daily intake of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides ingested by people living in these cities in China through fish and shellfish was estimated and compared with those observed in other areas. ..
  7. Rylander L, Rignell Hydbom A, Hagmar L. A cross-sectional study of the association between persistent organochlorine pollutants and diabetes. Environ Health. 2005;4:28 pubmed
    ..In contrast, among the women the associations with p,p'-DDE were stronger than with CB-153. The study provides support that POP exposure might contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  8. Dods P, Birmingham E, Williams T, Ikonomou M, Bennie D, Elliott J. Reproductive success and contaminants in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding at a wastewater treatment plant. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:3106-12 pubmed
  9. Heilier J, Donnez J, Lison D. Organochlorines and endometriosis: a mini-review. Chemosphere. 2008;71:203-10 pubmed
    ..The type of control women, the nature of the chemicals measured, and the definition of the disease could modulate the ability to detect the possible relationship between endometriosis and organochlorine exposure. ..

More Information


  1. Jaraczewska K, Lulek J, Covaci A, Voorspoels S, Kaluba Skotarczak A, Drews K, et al. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human umbilical cord serum, maternal serum and milk from Wielkopolska region, Poland. Sci Total Environ. 2006;372:20-31 pubmed
    ..4), with BDE 47 being always the most abundant PBDE congener and, together with BDE 153, being present in all samples. In general, results found in the investigated group are at the low end of the concentration range measured in Europe. ..
  2. Lee D, Lee I, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker B, et al. A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1638-44 pubmed
    ..The strong graded association could offer a compelling challenge to future epidemiologic and toxicological research. ..
  3. Fürst P. Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50:922-33 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in contrast to PCB, PBDE show no significant correlation with PCDD/PCDF in human milk, which might be interpreted as an indication for another mode of human exposure. ..
  4. Glynn A, Aune M, Darnerud P, Cnattingius S, Bjerselius R, Becker W, et al. Determinants of serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Swedish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2007;6:2 pubmed
  5. Sagiv S, Tolbert P, Altshul L, Korrick S. Organochlorine exposures during pregnancy and infant size at birth. Epidemiology. 2007;18:120-9 pubmed
    ..No associations were found with p,p'-DDE or HCB for any measures of birth size. This study supports the growing literature that demonstrates at most a weak association between very low-level organochlorine exposure and birth size. ..
  6. Weiss J, Bauer O, Blüthgen A, Ludwig A, Vollersen E, Kaisi M, et al. Distribution of persistent organochlorine contaminants in infertile patients from Tanzania and Germany. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2006;23:393-9 pubmed
    ..The distribution of toxins between agricultural and industrial countries is different. Seminal plasma seems to be inert against chemicals. In patients with high serum concentrations of DDT and DDE pregnancy rates were impaired. ..
  7. Guo J, Zeng E, Wu F, Meng X, Mai B, Luo X. Organochlorine pesticides in seafood products from southern China and health risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007;26:1109-15 pubmed
    ..Therefore, continual monitoring of OCPs in various environment compartments, including biota and abiota, urgently is needed to mitigate effectively the impact of OCPs, particularly DDTs, on human health and the ecological environment. ..
  8. Cox S, Niskar A, Narayan K, Marcus M. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and exposure to organochlorine pesticides among Mexican Americans: Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey, 1982-1984. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1747-52 pubmed
    ..Additional studies with more extensive clinical assessment are needed to confirm this association. ..
  9. Montgomery M, Kamel F, Saldana T, Alavanja M, Sandler D. Incident diabetes and pesticide exposure among licensed pesticide applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993-2003. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:1235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular, organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes. ..
  10. Bloom M, Buck Louis G, Schisterman E, Kostyniak P, Vena J. Changes in maternal serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations across critical windows of human reproduction and development. Environ Res. 2009;109:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This underscores the importance of timing biospecimen collection to critical windows for development in the assessment of reproductive and/or developmental effects. ..
  11. Asawasinsopon R, Prapamontol T, Prakobvitayakit O, Vaneesorn Y, Mangklabruks A, Hock B. The association between organochlorine and thyroid hormone levels in cord serum: a study from northern Thailand. Environ Int. 2006;32:554-9 pubmed
    ..76, P = 0.019). These results therefore suggest that exposure to DDT and its metabolites during fetal development may cause some effects on thyroid hormonal status in infants. ..
  12. Jonsson B, Rylander L, Lindh C, Rignell Hydbom A, Giwercman A, Toft G, et al. Inter-population variations in concentrations, determinants of and correlations between 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE): a cross-sectional study of 3161 men and women from Inuit. Environ Health. 2005;4:27 pubmed
    ..Age and gender were consistent determinants of serum POPs; seafood was of importance only in the Inuit and Swedish populations. ..
  13. Barr D, Weihe P, Davis M, Needham L, Grandjean P. Serum polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine insecticide concentrations in a Faroese birth cohort. Chemosphere. 2006;62:1167-82 pubmed
  14. Purdue M, Hoppin J, Blair A, Dosemeci M, Alavanja M. Occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:642-9 pubmed
  15. Hue O, Marcotte J, Berrigan F, Simoneau M, Doré J, Marceau P, et al. Increased plasma levels of toxic pollutants accompanying weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet or by bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1145-54 pubmed
    ..Future research will have to determine if: 1) this pollutant concentration remains elevated over time and 2) there are long-term effects of this high concentration on health. ..
  16. Lee D, Lee I, Jin S, Steffes M, Jacobs D. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance among nondiabetic adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:622-8 pubmed
  17. Wang Y, Yang R, Jiang G. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in mollusks collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea from 2002 to 2004. Environ Pollut. 2007;146:100-6 pubmed
    ..Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used for determining the polluting characters existing in this selected field. ..
  18. Van den Steen E, Jaspers V, Covaci A, Dauwe T, Pinxten R, Neels H, et al. Variation, levels and profiles of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in great tit (Parus major) eggs from different types of sampling locations in Flanders (Belgium). Environ Int. 2008;34:155-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that the characteristics of a sampling location influence both the levels and profiles of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. ..
  19. Svendsen T, Vorkamp K, Rønsholdt B, Frier J. Organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in four geographically separated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Environ Monit. 2007;9:1213-9 pubmed
    ..The PBDE pattern changed between locations, with a significant separation of the fish from the freshwater and marine environment when analyzed using principal component analysis. ..
  20. Toft G, Axmon A, Giwercman A, Thulstrup A, Rignell Hydbom A, Pedersen H, et al. Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2005;4:26 pubmed
    ..In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy. ..
  21. Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Kurahashi N, Itoh H, Usuda M, et al. Plasma organochlorine levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Japanese women: a nested case-control study. Sci Total Environ. 2008;402:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data do not support the hypothesis that plasma levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB, and beta-HCH are associated with an overall increased risk of breast cancer among Japanese women. ..
  22. Biggs M, Davis M, Eaton D, Weiss N, Barr D, Doody D, et al. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2012-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy...
  23. Wallin E, Rylander L, Jönssson B, Lundh T, Isaksson A, Hagmar L. Exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE and bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:2085-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results did not provide any support for the hypothesis that the current exposure levels to POC constitute a hazard for impaired bone metabolism in the general Swedish population. ..
  24. Toft G, Rignell Hydbom A, Tyrkiel E, Shvets M, Giwercman A, Lindh C, et al. Semen quality and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants. Epidemiology. 2006;17:450-8 pubmed
    ..However, higher exposure may be associated with impaired sperm motility. ..
  25. Muñoz de Toro M, Beldoménico H, García S, Stoker C, De Jesús J, Beldomenico P, et al. Organochlorine levels in adipose tissue of women from a littoral region of Argentina. Environ Res. 2006;102:107-12 pubmed
    ..0003) and the age of the patient (p = 0.0002). The frequency and levels of OCCs found in our study population raise concerns regarding Argentinean exposure to these endocrine disruptors. ..
  26. Pearce E, Braverman L. Environmental pollutants and the thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Organochlorine pesticides and dioxins may decrease serum T(4) half-life by activating hepatic enzymes. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the risk posed by these and other potentially thyroid-disrupting compounds. ..
  27. Cho E, Senecal T, Kinzel T, Zhang Y, Watson D, Buchwald S. The palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl chlorides. Science. 2010;328:1679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also prepared all the putative intermediates in the catalytic cycle and demonstrated their viability in the process. ..
  28. Anglada A, Ortiz D, Urtiaga A, Ortiz I. Electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachates at pilot scale: evaluation of energy needs. Water Sci Technol. 2010;61:2211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The energy consumption needed was estimated at 54 kWh/m(3) and the formation of chlorination by-products appeared to be low as the maximum total trihalomethane concentration detected was 432 microg/L. ..
  29. Matsuda T, Takahashi Yanaga F, Yoshihara T, Maenaka K, Watanabe Y, Miwa Y, et al. Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factor-1 binds to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and inhibits its activity. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112:320-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the inhibition of mMDH activity by DIF-1 and 2-MIDIF-1 could be one of the mechanisms to induce anti-proliferative effects, independent of the inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  30. El Shahawi M, Hamza A, Bashammakh A, Al Saggaf W. An overview on the accumulation, distribution, transformations, toxicity and analytical methods for the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants. Talanta. 2010;80:1587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..A major focus revealed the need for low cost methods that can be implemented easily in developing countries such as electrochemical techniques. ..
  31. Wichmann H, Vogt R, Pontaka D, Wibowo A, Bahadir M. Congener specific analysis of polychlorinated terphenyls. Chemosphere. 2010;78:680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusion is drawn that this method is suitable for the analysis of PCT in different environmental samples. ..
  32. Tsatsakis A, Zafiropoulos A, Tzatzarakis M, Tzanakakis G, Kafatos A. Relation of PON1 and CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms to clinical findings in a cross-sectional study of a Greek rural population professionally exposed to pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2009;186:66-72 pubmed publisher
  33. Alvarez Pedrerol M, Guxens M, Ibarluzea J, Rebagliato M, Rodriguez A, Espada M, et al. Organochlorine compounds, iodine intake, and thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7909-15 pubmed publisher
    ..8). Iodine intake and UIC did not affect the association between OCs and thyroid hormones. Our results indicate that exposure to OCs during pregnancy can alter TH levels. ..
  34. Jenssen B, Aarnes J, Murvoll K, Herzke D, Nygård T. Fluctuating wing asymmetry and hepatic concentrations of persistent organic pollutants are associated in European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) chicks. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the effects of the PCBs on FA(WBL) may be due to effects of these compounds on bone growth and bone structure. FA(WBL) may have functional effects on the fitness if it persists after fledging. ..
  35. Wang D, Shelver W, Atkinson S, Mellish J, Li Q. Tissue distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and potential toxicity to Alaskan northern fur seals assessed using PCBs congener specific mode of action schemes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;58:478-88 pubmed publisher
  36. Gauthier L, Letcher R. Isomers of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America: temporal changes and spatial distribution. Chemosphere. 2009;75:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the past 25 years, it is clear that DP isomers have accumulated in the food web of female herring gulls with subsequent transfer during ovogenesis. ..
  37. Bidleman T, Helm P, Braune B, Gabrielsen G. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in polar environments--a review. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:2919-35 pubmed publisher
    ..PCNs accounted for <1% of total TEQ in ringed seal, Weddell seal, seabirds and polar bear, but up to 6-15% in beluga and pilot whale. TEQ due to PCNs were generally low in harbour seal, but up to 9% of total TEQ in some animals. ..
  38. Chao C, Huang H, Wang G, Wen Z, Wang W, Chen I, et al. Chlorosulfolipids and the corresponding alcohols from the octocoral Dendronephthya griffini. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:944-6 pubmed
    ..The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the NMR data with those of known compound 1. This type of compound was isolated for the first time from the soft corals. ..
  39. Kunisue T, Johnson Restrepo B, Hilker D, Aldous K, Kannan K. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. ..
  40. Hale S, Martin T, Goss K, Arp H, Werner D. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:2511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. ..
  41. Darbre P, Charles A. Environmental oestrogens and breast cancer: evidence for combined involvement of dietary, household and cosmetic xenoestrogens. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:815-27 pubmed
    ..If exposure to complex mixtures of oestrogenic chemicals in consumer products is a factor in breast cancer development, then a strategy for breast cancer prevention could become possible. ..
  42. Chou C, Kao T, Liou S, Chen H, Ku H, Chuang H, et al. Hematological abnormalities of acute exposure to hexachloroethane smoke inhalation. Inhal Toxicol. 2010;22:486-92 pubmed publisher
    ..All other hematological parameters remained unchanged at 72 weeks after the event. The authors concluded that inhalation of HC/ZnO smoke can induce acute, temporally related hematological abnormalities. ..
  43. Kasai N, Ikushiro S, Shinkyo R, Yasuda K, Hirosue S, Arisawa A, et al. Metabolism of mono- and dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins by Phanerochaete chrysosporium cytochromes P450. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:773-80 pubmed
    ..Although PcCYP11a3 showed no detectable activity toward 2,7-dichloro-dibenzop-dioxin and 2,3,7-trichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, PcCYP11a3 is promising as a template whose activity would be enhanced by site-directed mutagenesis...
  44. Hoh E, Lehotay S, Pangallo K, Mastovska K, Ngo H, Reddy C, et al. Simultaneous quantitation of multiple classes of organohalogen compounds in fish oils with direct sample introduction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:2653-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the commercial molecular distillation treatment used for removal of organic/inorganic toxic contaminants is only effective for the lighter organic contaminants. ..
  45. Xu X, Dailey A, Talbott E, Ilacqua V, KEARNEY G, Asal N. Associations of serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides with breast cancer and prostate cancer in U.S. adults. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further study is necessary to confirm these findings, these results suggest that OC pesticide exposures may have a significant effect on cancer risk. Efforts to reduce worldwide OC use are warranted. ..
  46. Furman O, Laine D, Blumenfeld A, Teel A, Shimizu K, Cheng I, et al. Enhanced reactivity of superoxide in water-solid matrices. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1528-33 pubmed
  47. Chia V, Li Y, Quraishi S, Graubard B, Figueroa J, Weber J, et al. Effect modification of endocrine disruptors and testicular germ cell tumour risk by hormone-metabolizing genes. Int J Androl. 2010;33:588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..With false discovery rate values >0.2, however, caution is advisable when interpreting the findings of this study. ..
  48. Samara F, Gullett B, Harrison R, Chu A, Clark G. Determination of relative assay response factors for toxic chlorinated and brominated dioxins/furans using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a chemically-activated luciferase gene expression cell bioassay (CALUX). Environ Int. 2009;35:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..69, and 2-Br-3,7,8-TriCDD at 0.72 (+/-0.02). Cross-reactivities were calculated using EIA for several PBDDs/Fs and PBCDDs. The highest percent cross-reactivity was found for 2,3,7,8-TBDD at 138 (+/-34%), and 2,3,7-TriBDD at 84 (+/-36%). ..
  49. Zhao L, Hou H, Zhou Y, Xue N, Li H, Li F. Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in surficial sediments from Haihe River and Haihe Estuary Area, China. Chemosphere. 2010;78:1285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..According to established sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), POPs in this area have potential ecological risk. ..
  50. Ackermann L, Kapdi A, Schulzke C. Air-stable secondary phosphine oxide or chloride (Pre)ligands for cross-couplings of unactivated alkyl chlorides. Org Lett. 2010;12:2298-301 pubmed publisher
  51. Doucet J, Tague B, Arnold D, Cooke G, Hayward S, Goodyer C. Persistent organic pollutant residues in human fetal liver and placenta from Greater Montreal, Quebec: a longitudinal study from 1998 through 2006. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the levels of some POPs [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs)] in these matrices have decreased after their ban, others [polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] have increased in recent years...
  52. Herrero Mercado M, Waliszewski S, Valencia Quintana R, Caba M, Hernández Chalate F, García Aguilar E, et al. Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women. ..
  53. Storelli M, Storelli A, Barone G, Franchini D. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide in pet cats and dogs: assessment of toxicological status. Sci Total Environ. 2009;408:64-8 pubmed publisher
    ..65 pg g(-1) lipid weight; dogs 0.29 pg g(-1) lipid weight) than in the other ones (cats: 0.12 pg g(-1) lipid weight; dogs: 0.001 pg g(-1) lipid weight). ..