Summary: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. de las Heras A, De Lorenzo V. Cooperative amino acid changes shift the response of the ???-dependent regulator XylR from natural m-xylene towards xenobiotic 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1248-59 pubmed publisher
  2. Moreno R, Fonseca P, Rojo F. The Crc global regulator inhibits the Pseudomonas putida pWW0 toluene/xylene assimilation pathway by repressing the translation of regulatory and structural genes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This ensures a rapid inhibitory response that reduces the expression of the toluene/xylene degradation proteins when preferred carbon sources become available...
  3. Koutinas M, Lam M, Kiparissides A, Silva Rocha R, Godinho M, Livingston A, et al. The regulatory logic of m-xylene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 exposed by dynamic modelling of the principal node Ps/Pr of the TOL plasmid. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:1705-18 pubmed publisher
  4. Unsworth C, Graham E, Delivopoulos E, Dragunow M, Murray A. First human hNT neurons patterned on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates: Combining an accessible cell line and robust patterning technology for the study of the pathological adult human brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;194:154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, using a combined technology such as this will facilitate the detailed study of the pathological human brain at both the single cell and network level. ..
  5. Higashioka Y, Kojima H, Fukui M. Temperature-dependent differences in community structure of bacteria involved in degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community involved in anaerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon under low- and moderate-temperature conditions...
  6. Unsworth C, Delivopoulos E, Gillespie T, Murray A. Isolating single primary rat hippocampal neurons & astrocytes on ultra-thin patterned parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates. Biomaterials. 2011;32:2566-74 pubmed publisher
  7. Unsworth C, Holloway H, Delivopoulos E, Murray A, SIMPSON M, Dickinson M, et al. Patterning and detailed study of human hNT astrocytes on parylene-C/silicon dioxide substrates to the single cell level. Biomaterials. 2011;32:6541-50 pubmed publisher
  8. Zhang C, Dai Z, Cai Q. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Sipunculus nudus L. extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:1177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..24% in hot plate test. The water extract from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus possesses excellent anti-inflammatory activity as well as peripheral and central analgesic properties. ..
  9. Silva Rocha R, De Lorenzo V. A composite feed-forward loop I4-FFL involving IHF and Crc stabilizes expression of the XylR regulator of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 from growth phase perturbations. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:2982-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This device thus endows xylR expression with a degree of robustness in respect to the growth phase that could hardly be achieved with e.g. a simple constitutive promoter. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Li Y, Xian Y, Ip S, Su Z, Su J, He J, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of patchouli alcohol isolated from Pogostemonis Herba in animal models. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:1295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PA possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, which may be mediated, at least in part, by down-regulating the mRNA expression of a panel of inflammatory mediators including TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and COX-2...
  2. Yu Q, Li Y, Ma A, Liu W, Wang H, Zhuang G. An efficient design strategy for a whole-cell biosensor based on engineered ribosome binding sequences. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2891-8 pubmed publisher
    ..biosensor, three Escherichia coli-based biosensors that respond to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes (BTEX) were constructed; the three biosensors have the same Pu promoter and xylR regulator from the Pseudomonas ..
  3. Scheepers P, Konings J, Demirel G, Gaga E, Anzion R, Peer P, et al. Determination of exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in Turkish primary school children by analysis of breath and by environmental passive sampling. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:4863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..End-exhaled concentrations of benzene were also higher in children living in a residence with an attached garage (p<0.05). These exposure modifying factors were not identified when using the results obtained with diffusive samplers. ..
  4. Young C, Menegazzo N, Riley A, Brons C, DiSanzo F, Givens J, et al. Infrared hollow waveguide sensors for simultaneous gas phase detection of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in field environments. Anal Chem. 2011;83:6141-7 pubmed publisher
    Simultaneous and molecularly selective parts-per-billion detection of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) using a thermal desorption (TD)-FTIR hollow waveguide (HWG) trace gas sensor is demonstrated here for the first time combining ..
  5. Silva Rocha R, Tamames J, dos Santos V, De Lorenzo V. The logicome of environmental bacteria: merging catabolic and regulatory events with Boolean formalisms. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:2389-402 pubmed publisher
    ..On this basis, we argue that still with a limited volume of data binary formalisms allow us to penetrate the raison d'être of extant regulatory and metabolic architectures. ..
  6. Caselli M, De Gennaro G, Marzocca A, Trizio L, Tutino M. Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy). Chemosphere. 2010;81:306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The same concentration pattern and the correlation among BTEX levels in all sites confirmed the presence of a single source, the vehicular traffic, having a strong impact on air quality. ..
  7. Nguyen B, Matsumoto K, Shimoyama I. Tensile film stress of parylene deposited on liquid. Langmuir. 2010;26:18771-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The tensile film stress and its effect on the droplet shape also have implications in the fabrication and operation of Parylene microdevices that have encapsulated liquid structures such as microlens or micropumps. ..
  8. Silva Rocha R, De Jong H, Tamames J, De Lorenzo V. The logic layout of the TOL network of Pseudomonas putida pWW0 plasmid stems from a metabolic amplifier motif (MAM) that optimizes biodegradation of m-xylene. BMC Syst Biol. 2011;5:191 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis made sense of the specific regulatory topology out on the basis of an unprecedented network motif around which the entire genetic circuit for m-xylene catabolism gravitates...
  9. Li W, Huang H, Zhang Y, Fan T, Liu X, Xing W, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of tetrahydrocoptisine from Corydalis impatiens is a function of possible inhibition of TNF-?, IL-6 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages through inhibiting NF-?B activation and MAPK pathwa. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;715:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that THC is an active anti-inflammatory constituent by inhibition of TNF-?, IL-6 and NO production possibly via down-regulation of NF-?B activation, phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-p38MAPK signal pathways...
  10. Wright D, Rajalingam B, Selvarasah S, Dokmeci M, Khademhosseini A. Generation of static and dynamic patterned co-cultures using microfabricated parylene-C stencils. Lab Chip. 2007;7:1272-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, this method is a promising approach to engineering the complexity of cell-cell interactions in tissue culture in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. ..
  11. Ramos J, Marques S, Timmis K. Transcriptional control of the Pseudomonas TOL plasmid catabolic operons is achieved through an interplay of host factors and plasmid-encoded regulators. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1997;51:341-73 pubmed
    The xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid that specify catabolism of toluene and xylenes are organized in four transcriptional units: the upper-operon xylUWCAMBN for conversion of toluene/xylenes into benzoate/alkylbenzoates; the ..
  12. Liu J, Mu Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Atmospheric levels of BTEX compounds during the 2008 Olympic Games in the urban area of Beijing. Sci Total Environ. 2009;408:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The extremely high ratios of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylene (E/X) were mainly observed at noontime in haze days, indicating that photochemical reactions were highly active under these typical days. ..
  13. Nakagawa T, Sato S, Fukui M. Anaerobic degradation of p-xylene in sediment-free sulfate-reducing enrichment culture. Biodegradation. 2008;19:909-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The crude oil-degrading consortium prepared with marine sediment revealed that toluene, and xylenes among the fraction of alkylbenzene in the crude oil were consumed during the incubation...
  14. Kum C, Sekkin S, Kiral F, Akar F. Effects of xylene and formaldehyde inhalations on renal oxidative stress and some serum biochemical parameters in rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 2007;23:115-20 pubmed
    ..05). The present study indicates but not statistically confirms the renal toxicity of the exposures to xylene, HCHO and a mixture of them. ..
  15. Kokosa J, Przyjazny A. Headspace microdrop analysis--an alternative test method for gasoline diluent and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in used engine oils. J Chromatogr A. 2003;983:205-14 pubmed
    ..analysis yields results comparable to those obtained using the ASTM method, with the added benefit that it allows the quantification of individual volatile diluent components, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes.
  16. Morasch B, Schink B, Tebbe C, Meckenstock R. Degradation of o-xylene and m-xylene by a novel sulfate-reducer belonging to the genus Desulfotomaculum. Arch Microbiol. 2004;181:407-17 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain OX39 affiliates with the gram-positive endospore-forming sulfate reducers of the genus Desulfotomaculum and is the first hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacterium in this genus...
  17. Bono R, Scursatone E, Schilirò T, Gilli G. Ambient air levels and occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, and xylenes in northwestern Italy. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2003;66:519-31 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine benzene, toluene, and xylenes air pollution in two cities in Italy (Biella and Torino) having different traffic intesities and to investigate whether new environmental conditions occurred ..
  18. Adami G, Larese F, Venier M, Barbieri P, Lo Coco F, Reisenhofer E. Penetration of benzene, toluene and xylenes contained in gasolines through human abdominal skin in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:1321-30 pubmed
    ..This work is focused on the in vitro skin penetration of benzene (carcinogenic substance), toluene and xylenes. We examined three commercial gasolines using the Franz diffusion cells and human abdominal full thickness skin...
  19. Alexopoulos E, Chatzis C, Linos A. An analysis of factors that influence personal exposure to toluene and xylene in residents of Athens, Greece. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:50 pubmed
    ..Groups who may be subject to higher exposures (e.g. those who spent more time outdoors because of occupational activities) need to be surveyed and protected against possible adverse health effects. ..
  20. Delivopoulos E, Murray A, Macleod N, Curtis J. Guided growth of neurons and glia using microfabricated patterns of parylene-C on a SiO2 background. Biomaterials. 2009;30:2048-58 pubmed publisher
  21. Sroka Bartnicka A, Olejniczak S, Ciesielski W, Nosal A, Szymanowski H, Gazicki Lipman M, et al. Solid state NMR study and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of structure and dynamics of poly(p-xylylenes). J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:5464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of all of the above measurements, new insight into the mechanism of thermal phase transition from the alpha to the beta polymorph of poly(p-xylylene) is presented. ..
  22. Esteve Turrillas F, Ly Verdú S, Pastor A, de la Guardia M. Development of a versatile, easy and rapid atmospheric monitor for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes determination in air. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:8549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In short, the developed sampling system and analytical strategy provides a versatile, easy and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM). ..
  23. Leung P, Harrison R. Evaluation of personal exposure to monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55:249-57 pubmed
    To evaluate the personal exposure of members of the general public to atmospheric benzene, toluene, and the xylenes, excluding exposure from active smoking...
  24. Rotaru A, Probian C, Wilkes H, Harder J. Highly enriched Betaproteobacteria growing anaerobically with p-xylene and nitrate. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010;71:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolite analysis identified (4-methylbenzyl)succinate and (4-methylphenyl)itaconate, suggesting addition to fumarate as an initial activation reaction...
  25. Ortiz E, Alemón E, Romero D, Arriaga J, Olaya P, Guzman F, et al. Personal exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in different microenvironments at the Mexico City metropolitan zone. Sci Total Environ. 2002;287:241-8 pubmed
    ..From our results, we expect to generate useful information to evaluate the health effects of these VOCs on exposed people. ..
  26. Przyjazny A, Kokosa J. Analytical characteristics of the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in water by headspace solvent microextraction. J Chromatogr A. 2002;977:143-53 pubmed
    ..This paper presents analytical characteristics of HSM as applied to the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in water.
  27. Zhang L, Hu J, Lin J, Fang W, Du G. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B. Clarke) Höeck. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:510-4 pubmed publisher
  28. Al Ghamdi S, Raftery M, Yaqoob M. Acute solvent exposure induced activation of cytochrome P4502E1 causes proximal tubular cell necrosis by oxidative stress. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:335-41 pubmed
    ..4+/-0.7, TL+DSF 6.6+/-1.3) in XY and TL treated cells. This study confirms the pivotal role of CYP2E1 in solvent-induced oxidative stress and necrosis in proximal tubular cells after exposure to solvent at 5 mM for 48 h. ..
  29. Karlowatz M, Kraft M, Mizaikoff B. Simultaneous quantitative determination of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water using mid-infrared evanescent field spectroscopy. Anal Chem. 2004;76:2643-8 pubmed
  30. Lee M, Chang C, Dou J. Determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes in water at sub-ng l-1 levels by solid-phase microextraction coupled to cryo-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chemosphere. 2007;69:1381-7 pubmed
    A trace analytical method of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in water has been developed by using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to cryo-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
  31. Al Ghamdi S, Raftery M, Yaqoob M. Toluene and p-xylene induced LLC-PK1 apoptosis. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2004;27:425-32 pubmed
    ..These data indicates that long-term exposure to organic solvents is associated with proximal tubule cell apoptosis, which may be the mechanism of progressive renal fibrosis and renal failure in patients with high solvent exposure. ..
  32. Domínguez Cuevas P, González Pastor J, Marques S, Ramos J, De Lorenzo V. Transcriptional tradeoff between metabolic and stress-response programs in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 cells exposed to toluene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11981-91 pubmed
    ..putida KT2440 as a stressor rather than as a nutrient and that the inhibition by the aromatic compounds of many functions we tested is the tradeoff for activating stress tolerance genes at a minimal cost in terms of energy. ..
  33. Takeuchi S, Ziegler D, Yoshida Y, Mabuchi K, Suzuki T. Parylene flexible neural probes integrated with microfluidic channels. Lab Chip. 2005;5:519-23 pubmed
    ..We were able to insert the probe into a rat's brain and measure the neural signals with the electrode. ..
  34. Delivopoulos E, Murray A, Curtis J. Effects of parylene-C photooxidation on serum-assisted glial and neuronal patterning. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;94:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010. ..
  35. Xu Z, Mulchandani A, Chen W. Detection of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) using toluene dioxygenase-peroxidase coupling reactions. Biotechnol Prog. 2003;19:1812-5 pubmed
    ..developed a simple, whole-cell bioassay for the detection of bioavailable benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and similar compounds. A genetically engineered E...
  36. Topp R, Cyrys J, Gebefugi I, Schnelle Kreis J, Richter K, Wichmann H, et al. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of BTEX and NO2: correlation of repeated measurements. J Environ Monit. 2004;6:807-12 pubmed
  37. Hendrickx B, Dejonghe W, Boënne W, Brennerova M, Cernik M, Lederer T, et al. Dynamics of an oligotrophic bacterial aquifer community during contact with a groundwater plume contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes: an in situ mesocosm study. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that communities with long-term stability in their structures follow the contamination plume and rapidly colonize downstream areas upon contamination. ..
  38. Kelessis A, Petrakakis M, Zoumakis N. Determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in urban air of Thessaloniki, Greece. Environ Toxicol. 2006;21:440-3 pubmed
    ..of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes were carried out by means of an automatic gas chromatograph (GC-PID analyzer), in the urban air of Thessaloniki, ..
  39. Chang T, Yadav V, De Leo S, Mohedas A, Rajalingam B, Chen C, et al. Cell and protein compatibility of parylene-C surfaces. Langmuir. 2007;23:11718-25 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results indicate that parylene-C, along with its surface-treated variants, could potentially be a useful material for fabricating cell-based microdevices. ..
  40. Li Q, Ma X, Yuan D, Chen J. Evaluation of the solid-phase microextraction fiber coated with single walled carbon nanotubes for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes in aqueous samples. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:2191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..it was applied in the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from water sample and quantification by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID)...
  41. Higashioka Y, Kojima H, Nakagawa T, Sato S, Fukui M. A novel n-alkane-degrading bacterium as a minor member of p-xylene-degrading sulfate-reducing consortium. Biodegradation. 2009;20:383-90 pubmed publisher
    ..2008). The novel strain PL12 might have been utilizing metabolites of p-xylene...
  42. Schmidt E, Bak M, Christensen P. Laser exposure of Parylene-C insulated microelectrodes. J Neurosci Methods. 1995;62:89-92 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the use of an ultraviolet laser system to micromachine Parylene-C insulation with photoablation to precisely expose an arbitrary shape recording or stimulating surface. ..
  43. Haddad S, Beliveau M, Tardif R, Krishnan K. A PBPK modeling-based approach to account for interactions in the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Toxicol Sci. 2001;63:125-31 pubmed
    ..The approaches developed in the present study permit, for the first time, the consideration of the impact of multichemical pharmacokinetic interactions at a quantitative level in mixture risk assessments. ..
  44. Xiu F, Qi Y, Wang S, Nie W, Weng H, Chen M. Application of critical water-alcohol composite medium to treat waste printed circuit boards: Oil phase products characteristic and debromination. J Hazard Mater. 2018;344:333-342 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that the additional value of the oil phase products derived from waste PCBs can be greatly improved by this new process. ..
  45. Li L, Sun Z, Li H, Keener T. Effects of activated carbon surface properties on the adsorption of volatile organic compounds. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2012;62:1196-202 pubmed
  46. da Silva S, Chiavone Filho O, de Barros Neto E, Nascimento C. Integration of processes induced air flotation and photo-Fenton for treatment of residual waters contaminated with xylene. J Hazard Mater. 2012;199-200:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Process integration was adequate with 100% organic load removal in 20 min. The results of the integration of the IAF with the photo-Fenton allowed to meet the effluent limits established by Brazilian legislation for disposal. ..
  47. Su J, Tan L, Lai P, Liang H, Qin Z, Ye M, et al. Experimental study on anti-inflammatory activity of a TCM recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of Chrysanthemum indicum, Patchouli Oil and Zedoary Turmeric Oil in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:608-14 pubmed publisher
  48. Sekiguchi K, Noshiroya D, Handa M, Yamamoto K, Sakamoto K, Namiki N. Degradation of organic gases using ultrasonic mist generated from TiO2 suspension. Chemosphere. 2010;81:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we propose a mechanism for the degradation of organic gaseous pollutants on the surface of mist particles. ..
  49. Ribeiro R, de Nardi I, Fernandes B, Foresti E, Zaiat M. BTEX removal in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor under denitrifying conditions. Biodegradation. 2013;24:269-78 pubmed publisher
    Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and ethanol are important contaminants present in Brazilian gasoline, it is essential to develop technology that can be used in the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated ..
  50. Yu F, Ma J, Wu Y. Adsorption of toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene on multi-walled carbon nanotubes with different oxygen contents from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater. 2011;192:1370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, more oxygen content leads to the decrease in maximum adsorption capacity. The decrease indicates that the formation of water clusters plays a more important role than the better dispersion of MWCNTs for TEX adsorption. ..
  51. Fuente A, McPherson B, Hood L. Hearing loss associated with xylene exposure in a laboratory worker. J Am Acad Audiol. 2012;23:824-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results found in this patient are in agreement with animal data indicating xylene-induced ototoxicity. Xylene-exposed individuals should be audiologically monitored on a regular basis. ..
  52. Martos J, Bassotto A, González Rodríguez M, Ferrer Luque C. Dissolving efficacy of eucalyptus and orange oil, xylol and chloroform solvents on different root canal sealers. Int Endod J. 2011;44:1024-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Xylol was the most effective solvent followed by the chloroform and the essential oils (eucalyptol and orange oil). Orange oil behaved in a similar way to eucalyptus oil. ..
  53. Metallo C, White R, Trimmer B. Flexible parylene-based microelectrode arrays for high resolution EMG recordings in freely moving small animals. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;195:176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, using the same fabrication protocol but different design parameters, the microdevice presented here can be easily implemented to study motor control and motor coordination in a vast range of small animals. ..