bromthymol blue


Summary: A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.

Top Publications

  1. Erk N. Spectrophotometric determination of indinavir in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using bromocresol purple and bromothymol blue. Pharmazie. 2004;59:183-6 pubmed
    ..The developed method was applied successfully for the determination of IND in pharmaceutical formulations. The data obtained were compared the data given by first derivative spectrophotometry. No differences were found. ..
  2. Abdellatef H. Extractive-spectrophotometric determination of disopyramide and irbesartan in their pharmaceutical formulation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;66:1248-54 pubmed
    ..The validity was assessed by applying the standard addition technique. The results were compared statistically with the official or reference methods showing a good agreement with high precision and accuracy. ..
  3. Cardoso S, Ieggli C, Pomblum S. Spectrophotometric determination of carvedilol in pharmaceutical formulations through charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions. Pharmazie. 2007;62:34-7 pubmed
    ..The proposed methods were applied for the determination of CAR in tablets and compounded capsules. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by an established UV spectrophotometric method. ..
  4. Zaporozhets O, Tsyukalo L. Determination of fluoride and oxalate using the indicator reaction of Zr(IV) with methylthymol blue adsorbed on silica gel. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;597:171-7 pubmed
    ..The proposed methods were applied to the analysis of mineral water, toothpaste and biological fluids. ..
  5. Aydogmus Z, Inanli I. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for determination of zolmitriptan in tablets. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:1237-41 pubmed
    ..Statistical comparison of the results with those obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography method showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant differences in accuracy and precision. ..
  6. Luvisetto S, Cola C, Conover T, Azzone G. Tracking of proton flow during transition from anaerobiosis to steady state in rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1018:77-90 pubmed
    1) The hydrophobic pH indicator Bromthymol blue and the hydrophilic pH indicator Phenol red have been used to follow the redox-pump-linked proton flows during transition from anaerobiosis to static head...
  7. Citron D, Baron E, Finegold S, Goldstein E. Short prereduced anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) biochemical scheme for identification of clinical isolates of bile-resistant Bacteroides species. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:2220-3 pubmed
    ..activity on arabinose, trehalose, rhamnose, and/or xylan that included the postincubation addition of bromthymol blue for visual pH determination...
  8. McGifford R, Seen A, Haddad P. Direct colorimetric detection of copper(II) ions in sampling using diffusive gradients in thin-films. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;662:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was shown to be a potential replacement for binding phases based on Chelex 100 where a colorimetric response to a specific metal is desired. ..
  9. Suzuki Y. Influence of pH for the determination of serum albumin by a dye-binding method in the presence of a detergent. Anal Sci. 2008;24:1061-4 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of pH(UL) in the reactions of the four dyes indicated good agreement with that obtained by a calculation. ..

More Information


  1. Erk N. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for determination of lercanidipine. Pharmazie. 2003;58:801-3 pubmed
    ..2-58.0 microg x ml(-1) of LER. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets. Results of analysis were validated. No interferences were observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. ..
  2. Yue Q, Cheng J, Li G, Zhang K, Zhai Y, Wang L, et al. Fluorescence property of ZnO nanoparticles and the interaction with bromothymol blue. J Fluoresc. 2011;21:1131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the fluorescence of ZnO QDs can be quenched by bromothymol blue, and the quenching mechanism was proposed in a dynamic quenching mode. ..
  3. Jung S. The microwave-assisted photo-catalytic degradation of organic dyes. Water Sci Technol. 2011;63:1491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..When H(2)O(2) was added under simultaneous use of photo-catalysis and microwave irradiation, however, considerably higher degradation reaction rates were observed. ..
  4. Turina A, Nolan M, Zygadlo J, Perillo M. Natural terpenes: self-assembly and membrane partitioning. Biophys Chem. 2006;122:101-13 pubmed
    ..The relative contribution of each experimental, theoretical and structural property to determine MTs' effects on membrane dynamics were evaluated by a principal component analysis. ..
  5. Bochkova O, Mustafina A, Mukhametshina A, Burilov V, Skripacheva V, Zakharova L, et al. The interfacial interactions of Tb-doped silica nanoparticles with surfactants and phospholipids revealed through the fluorescent response. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;92:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The displacement of dye anions from the interfacial surfactant adlayer by anionic surfactants and phospholipids is accompanied by the "off-on" switching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. ..
  6. Luvisetto S, Cola C, Schmehl I, Azzone G. Tracking of proton flow during transition from anaerobiosis to steady state. 2. Effect of cation uptake on the response of a hydrophobic membrane bound pH indicator. Eur J Biochem. 1991;202:121-30 pubmed
    ..Computer simulations of the dye response, based on the conversion of a kinetic model into an electrical network and closely reproducing the experimental observations, are reported...
  7. Tay S, Na S, Tajuddin T. Natural occurrence and growth reaction on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar of non-neoformans Cryptococcus spp. in Malaysia. Mycoses. 2008;51:515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..laurentii isolates demonstrated the closest match (99%) with that of C. laurentii CBS 7140. This study demonstrated the diverse environmental niche of C. albidus and C. laurentii in Malaysia. ..
  8. Yang C, Liu W, Zhao Z, Wu H. [Determination of the content of serum calcium with methylthymol blue as chromogenic reagent]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1998;18:485-7 pubmed
    ..7 and 590.0nm, respectively. No masking reagent was necessary in the analysis. The average recovery and RSD of calcium are 98.98% and 0.81%, respectively. Compared with titration, this method is rapid, simple and precise. ..
  9. Sanchez M, Rocha F. Liquid-liquid microextraction without phase separation in a multicommuted flow system for diltiazem determination in pharmaceuticals. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;694:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..About 30 ?g of bromothymol blue was consumed and the waste volume was 380 ?L per determination. The results for pharmaceutical samples agreed with those obtained by the reference procedure at the 95% confidence level. ..
  10. Wilson S, Wilson H. A method for the estimation of traces of chlorhexidine in water. J Oral Rehabil. 1993;20:225-31 pubmed
    ..The extracted complex has good colour stability, and the method is accurate, reproducible, and very sensitive, with concentrations of chlorhexidine down to 0.05 micrograms ml-1 measurable. ..
  11. Ho T, Pedersen Bjergaard S, Rasmussen K. Experiences with carrier-mediated transport in liquid-phase microextraction. J Chromatogr Sci. 2006;44:308-16 pubmed
    ..Several carriers are found to be compatible with human plasma samples, and bromthymol blue is particularly efficient in combination with these protein-containing matrices...
  12. Marona H, Schapoval E. Spectrophotometric determination of sparfloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations using bromothymol blue. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001;26:501-4 pubmed
    ..It was also found that the excipients in the commercial tablet preparation did not interfere with the assay. ..
  13. Schubert R. The use of arginine brilliantgreen glucose peptone broth (ABGP medium) as a primary culture medium for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B. 1989;187:266-8 pubmed
    ..The indicators used for this purpose are bromothymol blue and cresol red. The medium may be used with either the membrane filter or the liquid enrichment technique. Incubation is at 37 degrees C for 24 or 48 h. ..
  14. Magae Y, Akahane K, Nakamura K, Tsunoda S. Simple colorimetric method for detecting degenerate strains of the cultivated basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6388-9 pubmed
    ..The ability of a strain to develop normal mushrooms could be determined by the color of the medium. ..
  15. Passamonti S, Sottocasa G. The sulfhydryl groups responsible for bilitranslocase transport activity respond to the interaction of the carrier with bilirubin and functional analogues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1021:9-12 pubmed
    ..The effect brought about by remarkably low concentrations of bilirubin is in line with the physiological function of bilitranslocase as a bilirubin carrier. ..
  16. Maruyama H, Arai F, Fukuda T. On-chip pH measurement using functionalized gel-microbeads positioned by optical tweezers. Lab Chip. 2008;8:346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We succeeded in measuring the local pH value using the pH-sensing gel-microbead by manipulating and positioning it at the desired point in the microchip. ..
  17. Park C, Clark D. Sol-gel encapsulated enzyme arrays for high-throughput screening of biocatalytic activity. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;78:229-35 pubmed
    ..Twenty different lipases and proteases were also used to prepare a hydrolase array, for which bromthymol blue served as a generic indicator of activity...
  18. Kuswandi B, Fikriyah C, Gani A. An optical fiber biosensor for chlorpyrifos using a single sol-gel film containing acetylcholinesterase and bromothymol blue. Talanta. 2008;74:613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9869, n=6). The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.04mg/L. The results of the analysis of 0.5-1.5mg/L of chlorpyrifos using this optical biosensor agreed well with chromatographic method. ..
  19. Sudhir Kumar R, Manjunatha D, Shaikh S, Seetharamappa J, Harikrishna K. Sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of trazodone hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:968-71 pubmed
    ..No interference was observed from common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods are simple, accurate and suitable for quality control applications. ..
  20. Onal A, Kepekci S, Cetin S, Erturk S. Spectrophotometric determination of certain antidepressants in pharmaceutical preparations. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:966-71 pubmed
    ..The results were compared statistically with those obtained from reported high-performance liquid chromatography methods. ..
  21. Jurcic K, Nesbitt C, Yeung K. Characterization of discontinuous buffer junctions using pH indicators in capillary electrophoresis for protein preconcentration. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1134:317-25 pubmed
    ..In fact, external applied pressure can be used to control the migration of the pH junction without compromising the protein preconcentration. ..
  22. Balderas Hernández P, Ramírez Silva M, Romero Romo M, Palomar Pardavé M, Roa Morales G, Barrera Diaz C, et al. Experimental correlation between the pKa value of sulfonphthaleins with the nature of the substituents groups. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2008;69:1235-45 pubmed
    ..044. During the second stage, a study was conducted on the effect of the substituents present in the indicators to determine the effect of different functional groups on the pK(a) value corresponding to the last indicator's dissociation. ..
  23. de Melo N, Lacaz C, Charbel C, Pereira A, Heins Vaccari E, França Netto A, et al. [Cryptococcus neoformans chemotyping. Review of the literature. New epidemiologic data on cryptococcosis. Our experience with the use of C.G.B. media in the study of this yeast]. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1993;35:469-78 pubmed
    ..G.B. medium in the typing of C. neoformans in its two varieties. Also, it is of relevant importance the demonstration that some species of eucalyptus may act as "host-trees" of C. neoformans var. gattii. ..
  24. Klak M, Lefebvre E, Rémy L, Agniel R, Picard J, Giraudier S, et al. Gelatin-alginate gels and their enzymatic modifications: controlling the delivery of small molecules. Macromol Biosci. 2013;13:687-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative influence of ionic interactions and diffusional constraints on the delivery of small charged molecules is explored, and a solution for controlling diffusion is proposed for any situation. ..
  25. Alamelu S, Rao K. Studies on the carboxymethyl chitosan-containing liposomes for their stability and controlled release of dapsone. J Microencapsul. 1991;8:505-19 pubmed
    ..The release data of dapsone also confirmed the results of the stability studies on liposomes. CMC-dapsone conjugate released the dapsone much slower in all three media than did PCCMC and PCCMC-coat liposomes. ..
  26. Sasaki S, Takagi T, Suzuki M. Cyclical changes in pH in bovine developing enamel as sequential bands. Arch Oral Biol. 1991;36:227-31 pubmed
    ..Neutral bands corresponded to red stripes of glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil) staining and acidic bands to unstained ones, suggested a correlation of the acidic and neutral stripes with the zones of ruffle-ended and smooth-ended ameloblasts. ..
  27. Polomik M, Sober M, Pleho A, Nikolin B. [Spectrophotometric determination of atropine-sulfate in eyedrops using bromthymol blue]. Med Arh. 1993;47:25-7 pubmed
    ..The described method is more convenient for routine analysis then non aqueous titration described in various Pharmacopeas. ..
  28. Nakamura Y, Kano R, Sato H, Watanabe S, Takahashi H, Hasegawa A. Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A and D developed on canavanine-glycine-bromthymol blue medium. Mycoses. 1998;41:35-40 pubmed
    ..serotype A and one isolate of serotype D from pigeon droppings were found to grow on canavanine-glycine-bromthymol blue (CGB) medium, when the Japanese isolates of Cr...
  29. Rahman N, Hejaz Azmi S. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for determination of diltiazem HCl in pharmaceutical formulations using bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and bromocresol green. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2000;24:33-41 pubmed
    ..5-12.5 microg ml(-1) with BTB, BPB and BCG, respectively. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets and capsules. Results of analysis were validated statistically and through recovery studies. ..
  30. Price J. A colorimetric assay for measuring phospholipase A2 degradation of phosphatidylcholine at physiological pH. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2007;70:441-4 pubmed
    ..A reaction using bromothymol blue was developed that meets all these requirements. ..
  31. Mogensen K, El Ali J, Wolff A, Kutter J. Integration of polymer waveguides for optical detection in microfabricated chemical analysis systems. Appl Opt. 2003;42:4072-9 pubmed
    ..Two chemical absorbance cells with optical path lengths of 100 and 1000 microm were furthermore fabricated and characterized in terms of coupling loss, sensitivity, and limit of detection for measurements of the dye bromothymol blue. ..
  32. Kucherenko I, Rozanova E. [Effect of cryoprotectors on binding of bromthymol blue by bovine methemoglobin]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2001;73:65-8 pubmed
    Spectrophotometric method was used for study the binding of bromthymol blue dye (BTB) with bovine methemoglobin in 15% solutions of ethanol, glycerol and polyethylene glycol with molecular mass of 1.5 kDa (PEG-1500)...
  33. Cot M, Gineste B, Barro D, Roisin A, Yada A, Carnevale P. [Comparison of 2 field methods for urinary assay of chloroquine]. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1991;71:17-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, this method is faster to perform, easier to use and cheaper, making it the method of choice for field assay of chloroquine in urine. ..
  34. Walde P, Sunamoto J, O Connor C. The mechanism of liposomal damage by taurocholate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;905:30-8 pubmed
  35. Themelis D, Tzanavaras P, Trellopoulos A, Sofoniou M. Direct and selective flow-injection method for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of calcium and magnesium in red and white wines using online dilution based on "Zone Sampling". J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:5152-5 pubmed
    ..The application of the method to the direct analysis of red, rose, and white wines yielded excellent results compared with those obtained by using FAAS as a reference method (e(r) < 2.8%). ..
  36. Al Ghannam S. A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of beta-blockers in dosage forms. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;40:151-6 pubmed
    ..The proposed method was then applied to dosage-forms the percentage recoveries ranges from 99.12-100.95, and the results obtained were compared favorably with those given with the official methods. ..
  37. Ulu S. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of finasteride in tablets. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;67:778-83 pubmed
    ..Results obtained from the analysis of commercial preparations with the proposed methods are in good agreement with those obtained with the official HPLC method. ..
  38. Irokanulo E, Akueshi C, Makinde A. Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine medium. Br J Biomed Sci. 1994;51:100-3 pubmed
    ..Serotypes B and C caused a slight greening of the medium. The reaction of the four serotypes of C. neoformans on CDBT medium is considered useful in the differentiation of the closely related serotype A and D. ..
  39. Nopwinyuwong A, Trevanich S, Suppakul P. Development of a novel colorimetric indicator label for monitoring freshness of intermediate-moisture dessert spoilage. Talanta. 2010;81:1126-32 pubmed publisher
  40. Valdes P, Ziobro G, Ferrera R. Use of urease-bromothymol blue-agar method for large-scale testing of urine on grain and seeds. J AOAC Int. 1996;79:866-73 pubmed
    ..The modified method was used to analyze urea on seeds and grains of 24 plants from 4 families. The method has a limit of detection of one seed contaminated with 1 microgram urea. ..
  41. Gorbenko G. Bromothymol blue as a probe for structural changes of model membranes induced by hemoglobin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1370:107-18 pubmed
    ..It is assumed that methemoglobin affects the structural and physicochemical parameters of lipid-water interface. ..
  42. Kara D, Alkan M. Determination of acidity constants of acid-base indicators by second-derivative spectrophotometry. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2000;56:2753-61 pubmed
  43. Lin J, Idee J, Port M, Diai A, Berthommier C, Robert M, et al. Interference of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents with the serum calcium measurement technique using colorimetric reagents. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999;21:931-43 pubmed
    ..The decomplexation of Gd-DTPA BMA in the presence of OCP can probably be explained by the weaker thermodynamic stability of Gd-DTPA BMA compared to that of Gd-DOTA and Gd DTPA. ..
  44. Klein K, Hall L, Deml S, Rysavy J, Wohlfiel S, Wengenack N. Identification of Cryptococcus gattii by use of L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue medium and DNA sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3669-72 pubmed publisher
    ..gattii from C. neoformans. We describe how CGB agar and D2 sequencing have been incorporated into the yeast identification algorithm in our laboratory. ..
  45. Rahman N, Ahmad Khan N, Hejaz Azmi S. Extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of nifedipine in pharmaceutical formulations using bromocresol green, bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue and eriochrome black T. Farmaco. 2004;59:47-54 pubmed
    ..No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. ..
  46. Li X, Chen Z, Wang S, Tang J, Liu C, Zou M. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of TRODAT-1 hydrochloride in lyophilized kit. Pharmazie. 2008;63:638-40 pubmed
    ..The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of TRODAT-1 hydrochloride in lyophilized kit. No interference with pharmaceutical excipients was observed. ..
  47. Wu Y, Li J, Garidi -. [Determination of trace manganese in Mongolian medicine by methylthymol blue-Mn(II)-H2O2 catalytic system]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2004;24:1652-4 pubmed
    ..24 kJ x mol(-1) and 5.62 x 10(-4) x s(-1), respectively, and the detection limit was 6.4 x 10(-10) g x mL(-1). The method has been used to determine trace manganese in Mongolian medicine with satisfactory result. ..
  48. Luo Z, Zhang K, Cui Y, Dong F. [Spectrophotometric study on the interaction of protein with acid dye]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:251-3 pubmed
    ..The linear relationship holds between the reduced or added absorptivity of dye and the optimum concentration range of protein. The interaction mechanism of protein and dye has been discussed tentatively. ..
  49. Francis C, Lockley A, Sartory D, Watkins J. A simple modified membrane filtration medium for the enumeration of aerobic spore-bearing bacilli in water. Water Res. 2001;35:3758-61 pubmed
    ..The modified technique was found to be satisfactory with spore suspensions of Bacillus globigii and B. cereus as well as with samples of surface water, settled water and drinking water. ..
  50. Themelis D, Tzanavaras P, Papadimitriou J. Flow injection manifold for the direct spectrophotometric determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical products using Methylthymol Blue as a chromogenic reagent. Analyst. 2001;126:247-50 pubmed
    ..75%) and was evaluated by comparison of the results obtained with those claimed by the manufacturers. The method was found to be adequately selective, considering the ions that the samples contain. ..
  51. Poncelet D, Alexakis T, Poncelet de Smet B, Neufeld R. Microencapsulation within crosslinked polyethyleneimine membranes. J Microencapsul. 1994;11:31-40 pubmed
    ..The mass of membrane was seen to be independent of the reaction time (1-4 min), insensitive to the PEI concentration and proportional to the concentration of crosslinking agent. ..
  52. Gubash S, Anand C, Stokman M. Inhibition of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 by bromthymol blue. J Clin Microbiol. 1988;26:2248-9 pubmed
    b>Bromthymol blue, at a concentration of 0.1% in tryptose-glucose broth, inhibited growth of 98.4% of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 isolates but only 0.8% of E. coli non-O157:H7 isolates after an overnight incubation at 44...
  53. Fernandez Andreu C, Martinez Machin G, Menéndez de San Pedro J, Oramas Rodríguez B. [Identification of varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans by the use of culture media]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1991;43:100-3 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in the two mediums were not totally coincidental. The possible causes and the specificity of these mediums for identifying C. neoformans varieties are discussed. ..