terphenyl compounds


Summary: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.

Top Publications

  1. Kutzki O, Park H, Ernst J, Orner B, Yin H, Hamilton A. Development of a potent Bcl-x(L) antagonist based on alpha-helix mimicry. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:11838-9 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the inhibitor is binding in the same hydrophobic cleft as the Bak- and Bad-peptides. ..
  2. Che Y, Brooks B, Marshall G. Protein recognition motifs: design of peptidomimetics of helix surfaces. Biopolymers. 2007;86:288-97 pubmed
    ..This change in rotamer orientation complicates mimicry of the helix surface. ..
  3. Yin H, Lee G, Sedey K, Kutzki O, Park H, Orner B, et al. Terphenyl-Based Bak BH3 alpha-helical proteomimetics as low-molecular-weight antagonists of Bcl-xL. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:10191-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells with terphenyl derivatives resulted in the disruption of the binding of Bcl-x(L) to Bax in intact cells. ..
  4. Maity P, Konig B. Synthesis and structure of 1,4-dipiperazino benzenes: chiral terphenyl-type peptide helix mimetics. Org Lett. 2008;10:1473-6 pubmed publisher
  5. El Elimat T, Figueroa M, Raja H, Graf T, Adcock A, Kroll D, et al. Benzoquinones and terphenyl compounds as phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors from a fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445). J Nat Prod. 2013;76:382-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The putative binding mode of 1-3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities were correlated. ..
  6. Yanagiba Y, Ito Y, Yamanoshita O, Zhang S, Watanabe G, Taya K, et al. Styrene trimer may increase thyroid hormone levels via down-regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) target gene UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:740-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although ST-1 treatment might cause an increase in AhR levels in the nucleus by inhibiting AhR export, this chemical down-regulated AhR mRNA, thus leading to down-regulation of AhR target genes and an increase in plasma T(4) levels. ..
  7. Nehrbass Stuedli A, Boykin D, Tidwell R, Brun R. Novel diamidines with activity against Babesia divergens in vitro and Babesia microti in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and/or 25 mg/kg of body weight given by the subcutaneous route for 4 days. The best antibabesial properties were exhibited by terphenyls, benzimidazoles, diphenyl furans, pentamidine, and pentamidine analogues. ..
  8. Bu X, Skrdla P, Dormer P, Bereznitski Y. Separation of triphenyl atropisomers of a pharmaceutical compound on a novel mixed mode stationary phase: a case study involving dynamic chromatography, dynamic NMR and molecular modeling. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:7255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatographic kinetic data were complemented with variable-temperature NMR and molecular modeling studies, which provided additional support and insights into the energetics of the interconversion process. ..
  9. Goel A, Singh F, Kumar V, Reichert M, Gulder T, Bringmann G. Synthesis, optical resolution, and configurational assignment of novel axially chiral quateraryls. J Org Chem. 2007;72:7765-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Voudouris P, Gomopoulos N, Le Grand A, Hadjichristidis N, Floudas G, Ediger M, et al. Does Brillouin light scattering probe the primary glass transition process at temperatures well above glass transition?. J Chem Phys. 2010;132:074906 pubmed publisher
    ..In OTP the alpha-relaxation process assumes a virtually single exponential decay at high temperatures well above the glass transition temperature, in clear contrast with the case of the amorphous bulk polymers. ..
  2. Connally R, Veal D, Piper J. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy using an improved europium chelate BHHST for the in situ detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;64:312-22 pubmed
    ..The storage half-life of both immunoconjugates is extended more than 20-fold when compared to immunoconjugates prepared with BHHCT...
  3. Tai Y, Shaporenko A, Eck W, Grunze M, Zharnikov M. Depth distribution of irradiation-induced cross-linking in aromatic self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir. 2004;20:7166-70 pubmed
    ..Generally, the results suggest the importance of relaxation processes for the response of self-assembled monolayers to ionizing radiation. ..
  4. Cho S, Ahn Y, Maiti K, Dinish U, Fu C, Thoniyot P, et al. Combinatorial synthesis of a triphenylmethine library and their application in the development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010;46:722-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three novel SERS reporters (B2, B7, and C7) with higher signal intensity than that of commonly used crystal violet (CV). These reporters may find potential applications in developing sensitive SERS based biosensors. ..
  5. Nagasawa I, Kaneko A, Suzuki T, Nishio K, Kinoshita K, Shiro M, et al. Potential anti-angiogenesis effects of p-terphenyl compounds from Polyozellus multiplex. J Nat Prod. 2014;77:963-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The quinone moiety within these molecules possibly contributes to their antiangiogenesis activity. ..
  6. Pizzirani D, Roberti M, Grimaudo S, Di Cristina A, Pipitone R, Tolomeo M, et al. Identification of biphenyl-based hybrid molecules able to decrease the intracellular level of Bcl-2 protein in Bcl-2 overexpressing leukemia cells. J Med Chem. 2009;52:6936-40 pubmed publisher
    With the aim of enhancing the structural complexity and diversity of an existing collection of bi- and terphenyl compounds, we synthesized hybrid molecules comprising of spirocyclic ketones (a complexity-bearing core) and bi/terphenyls (..
  7. Sakamoto A, Harada T, Tonegawa N. A new approach to the spectral study of unstable radicals and ions in solution by the use of an inert gas glovebox system: observation and analysis of the infrared spectra of the radical anion and dianion of p-terphenyl. J Phys Chem A. 2008;112:1180-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Galloway W, Hodgkinson J, Welch M, Spring D. Mastering the chemical language of bacteria. Chem Biol. 2009;16:913-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Onose J, Yoshioka Y, Ye Y, Sugaya K, Yajima A, Taniguchi K, et al. Inhibitory effects of vialinin A and its analog on tumor necrosis factor-? release and production from RBL-2H3 cells. Cell Immunol. 2012;279:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The potent inhibitory activities of vialinins against TNF-? production and release suggest promising new candidate pathways for anti-inflammatory agents. ..
  10. Anjaneyulu O, Maddileti D, Kumara Swamy K. Structural motifs in phenylbismuth heterocyclic carboxylates--secondary interactions leading to oligomers. Dalton Trans. 2012;41:1004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..TGA studies are consistent with the presence of Bi-Ph groups in all of the compounds, except 7, as indicated by their formulae. ..
  11. Yamazoe A, Hayashi K, Kepinski S, Leyser O, Nozaki H. Characterization of terfestatin A, a new specific inhibitor for auxin signaling. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:779-89 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that TrfA acts as a modulator of Aux/IAA stability and thus provides a new tool for dissecting auxin signaling. ..
  12. Pandey S, Suryawanshi S, Gupta S, Srivastava V. Synthesis and antileishmanial profile of some novel terpenyl pyrimidines. Eur J Med Chem. 2004;39:969-73 pubmed
    ..The pyrimidine derivatives were screened for in-vivo antilesihmanial activity. The compounds 2d, 2e, 6a and 6b showed promising in-vivo antileishmanial activity. ..
  13. Haraguchi K, Kubota Y, Tanaka H. Ring opening of nucleoside 1',2'-epoxides with organoaluminum reagents: stereoselective entry to ribonucleosides branched at the anomeric position. J Org Chem. 2004;69:1831-6 pubmed
    ..A possible explanation for the observed stereochemical outcome is presented. A similar strategy was found to be applicable to the synthesis of 1'-branched adenosine analogues, which include protected angustmycin C (37). ..
  14. Lakowicz J, Gryczynski I, Malak H, Gryczynski Z. Two-color two-photon excitation of fluorescence. Photochem Photobiol. 1996;64:632-5 pubmed
    ..The amplitude of the signal depended on the polarization of each beam. 2C2P excitation can have applications in fluorescence microscopy and elsewhere when spatially localized excitation is desirable. ..
  15. Dring A, Anderson L, Qamar S, Stoner M. Rational quantitative structure-activity relationship (RQSAR) screen for PXR and CAR isoform-specific nuclear receptor ligands. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:512-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. ..
  16. Yen G, Chang Y, Sheu F, Chiang H. Isolation and characterization of antioxidant compounds from Aspergillus candidus broth filtrate. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:1426-31 pubmed
    ..Safety studies showed that these three compounds were neither cyto- nor geno-toxic toward human intestine 407 (INT 407) cells, nor mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. ..
  17. Velian A, Lin S, Miller A, Day M, Agapie T. Synthesis and C-C coupling reactivity of a dinuclear Ni(i)-Ni(i) complex supported by a terphenyl diphosphine. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:6296-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactions of an o,o'-biphenyldiyl dinickel complex with CO and dichloroalkanes lead to fluorene derivatives, indicating the formation of carbon-carbon bonds at a bimetallic moiety. ..
  18. Tian S, Pu X, Luo G, Zhao L, Xu L, Li W, et al. Isolation and characterization of new p-Terphenyls with antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities from halophilic actinomycete Nocardiopsis gilva YIM 90087. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:3006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The superoxide anion radical scavenging assay suggested that 4 exhibited 77.9% superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity at 2 mg/mL. N. gilva YIM 90087 is a new resource for novobiocin 4. ..
  19. Kamruzzaman S, Yayeh T, Ji H, Park J, Kwon Y, Lee I, et al. p-Terphenyl curtisian E inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation via cAMP elevation and VASP phosphorylation. Vascul Pharmacol. 2013;59:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89) markedly inhibited p-VASP(157) protein expression, suggesting that cAMP-PKA-VASP(157) pathway may mediate its anti-platelet effect and thus CE could be considered as a potential anti-thrombotic agent. ..
  20. Herbert D, Lara N, Agapie T. Arene C-H amination at nickel in terphenyl-diphosphine complexes with labile metal-arene interactions. Chemistry. 2013;19:16453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrogen-atom abstraction from a Ni(I)-amide (9) and the resulting nitrene transfer supports the viability of Ni-imide intermediates in the reaction of 1 with 1-azido-arenes. ..
  21. Wang L, Li M, Tang J, Lin Y, Sidthipong K, Sumida N, et al. Novel p-terphenyl glycoside with a rare 2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose moiety from Actinomycete strain SF2911 that inhibits cancer cell migration. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2017;70:987-990 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found to inhibit cellular migration of breast carcinoma cells as well as NO production. We herein report the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities of this new compound. ..
  22. Xie C, Koshino H, Esumi Y, Takahashi S, Yoshikawa K, Abe N. Vialinin A, a novel 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger from an edible mushroom in China. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:2326-32 pubmed
    ..0 microM). A radical scavenging experiment using 1 and DPPH radicals indicated that 1 donated two hydrogen atoms to two molecules of the DPPH radical under hydrophobic conditions. ..
  23. Connally R, Jin D, Piper J. High intensity solid-state UV source for time-gated luminescence microscopy. Cytometry A. 2006;69:1020-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the spiked emission of the LED enabled removal of spectral filters from the microscope to significantly improve efficiency of fluorescence excitation and capture. ..
  24. Abbondanzi F, Cachada A, Campisi T, Guerra R, Raccagni M, Iacondini A. Optimisation of a microbial bioassay for contaminated soil monitoring: bacterial inoculum standardisation and comparison with Microtox assay. Chemosphere. 2003;53:889-97 pubmed
    ..fluorescens is as sensitive as Microtox culture (V. fischeri), for some of the metal ions. With reference to organic compounds, the lower sensitivity of P. fluorescens to phenol makes its use difficult in organic polluted samples. ..
  25. Onose J, Xie C, Ye Y, Sugaya K, Takahashi S, Koshino H, et al. Vialinin A, a novel potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha production from RBL-2H3 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:831-3 pubmed
    ..25+/-0.03 nM). The potent inhibitory activities of these compounds against TNF-alpha production indicate promising new candidates for anti-allergic agents. ..
  26. Tojo S, Fujitsuka M, Majima T. Mesolysis of radical anions of tetra-, penta-, and hexaphenylethanes. J Org Chem. 2013;78:1887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The mesolysis of Ph(n)E•- is discussed in terms of charge delocalization in the intramolecular dimer radical anions and the central C–C ? bond as well as bond dissociation energy of the central C–C ? bond of Ph(n)E•-. ..
  27. Parys S, Kehraus S, Krick A, Glombitza K, Carmeli S, Klimo K, et al. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the compounds were shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 1A activity with IC(50) values in the range of 17.9-33 microg/ml, and aromatase (Cyp19) activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-5.6 microg/ml...
  28. Zheng Y, Zhao Z, Kim H, Wang M, Ghosh K, Pollock J, et al. Coordination-driven self-assembly of truncated tetrahedra capable of encapsulating 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:10238-40 pubmed publisher
  29. Yandulov D, Schrock R. Reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a well-protected reaction site in a molybdenum triamidoamine complex. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:6252-3 pubmed
  30. Ngoc Quang D, Hashimoto T, Hitaka Y, Tanaka M, Nukada M, Yamamoto I, et al. Thelephantins D-H: five p-terphenyl derivatives from the inedible mushroom Thelephora aurantiotincta. Phytochemistry. 2003;63:919-24 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated by high-resolution MS, 2D NMR, IR and UV spectroscopic analysis. ..
  31. Kaewchuay N, Yakushiji Y, Fukushi K, Saito K, Hirokawa T. A novel hybrid mode of sample injection to enhance CZE sensitivity for simultaneous determination of a pyridine-triphenylborane anti-fouling agent and its degradation products. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:1486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..9-11, 4.3-9.2, and 0.34-0.66% for peak area, peak height, and migration time, respectively. The HSIM is a simple and promising procedure useful for enhancing the sensitivity for both low-and high-mobility ions in CZE. ..
  32. Miguez J, Adrio L, Sousa Pedrares A, Vila J, Hii K. A practical and general synthesis of unsymmetrical terphenyls. J Org Chem. 2007;72:7771-4 pubmed
    ..Using this methodology, parallel synthesis of 32 unsymmetrical o-, m-, and p-terphenyl compounds was accomplished in good to excellent overall yields.
  33. Hayashi K, Yamazoe A, Ishibashi Y, Kusaka N, Oono Y, Nozaki H. Active core structure of terfestatin A, a new specific inhibitor of auxin signaling. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:5331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure-activity relationships revealed the essential active core structure of TrfA, 3-butoxy-4-methylbiphenyl-2,6-diol, which will lead to the design of biotin-tagged active TrfA. ..
  34. Schenk S, Le Guennic B, Kirchner B, Reiher M. First-principles investigation of the Schrock mechanism of dinitrogen reduction employing the full HIPTN3N ligand. Inorg Chem. 2008;47:3634-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the [Mo](NNH 3) (+) complex easily loses ammonia even in the absence of a reductant. For some complexes, spin states with higher multiplicity are the ground state instead of those with lower spin multiplicity. ..
  35. Spirk S, Belaj F, Nieger M, Köfeler H, Rechberger G, Pietschnig R. Exploring the anion-cation interaction in m-terphenyltetrafluorosilicates by using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ICR-FT-MS. Chemistry. 2009;15:9521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ESIMS also reveals the existence of dimeric species of the type [M(DmpSiF(4))(2)](-) (Dmp = 2,6-dimesitylphenyl), the stability of which was determined by normalized collision energy experiments. ..
  36. Bergamini G, Ceroni P, Balzani V, Villavieja M, Kandre R, Zhun I, et al. A photophysical study of terphenyl core oligosulfonimide dendrimers exhibiting high steady-state anisotropy. Chemphyschem. 2006;7:1980-4 pubmed
    ..01) and in rigid matrix (0.33). Both the n-octyl chains and the sulfonimide branches play important roles to slow down the molecular rotation. ..
  37. Granchi C, Caligiuri I, Bertelli E, Poli G, Rizzolio F, Macchia M, et al. Development of terphenyl-2-methyloxazol-5(4H)-one derivatives as selective reversible MAGL inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017;32:1240-1252 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this compound showed antiproliferative activities against two different cancer cell lines that overexpress MAGL...
  38. Kisova A, Zerzankova L, Habtemariam A, Sadler P, Brabec V, Kasparkova J. Differences in the cellular response and signaling pathways between cisplatin and monodentate organometallic Ru(II) antitumor complexes containing a terphenyl ligand. Mol Pharm. 2011;8:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence complex 1 may provide an alternative therapy in patients with acquired cisplatin resistance, particularly with respect to its very low mutagenicity and different mode of action compared to platinum antitumor drugs in clinical use. ..
  39. Williams J, Bugarcic T, Habtemariam A, Giles K, Campuzano I, Rodger P, et al. Isomer separation and gas-phase configurations of organoruthenium anticancer complexes: ion mobility mass spectrometry and modeling. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Excellent agreement was observed between the experimentally and theoretically derived measurements. ..
  40. Sturaro A, Rella R, Parvoli G, Ferrara D, Tisato F. Contamination of dry foods with trimethyldiphenylmethanes by migration from recycled paper and board packaging. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:431-6 pubmed
    ..Since trimethyldiphenylmethanes are found in solid food together with diisopropylnaphthalenes, and considering their similar chemical character, they may follow the same migration pathway as one another. ..
  41. Mesa J, Velázquez Palenzuela A, Brillas E, Coll J, Torres J, Julia L. Preparation and characterization of persistent maltose-conjugated triphenylmethyl radicals. J Org Chem. 2012;77:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their oxidant activity is in close relation with their reduction potentials. Therefore, while 2 is reduced by ascorbic acid, 1 remains unaltered. ..
  42. Xiao J, Liu S, Liu Y, Ji L, Liu X, Zhang H, et al. Synthesis, structure, and physical properties of 5,7,14,16-tetraphenyl-8:9,12:13-bisbenzo-hexatwistacene. Chem Asian J. 2012;7:561-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, organic light-emitting devices using TBH as emitter have been fabricated. The results revealed that TBH is a promising red light-emitting candidate for applications in organic light-emitting diodes. ..
  43. Kaneko A, Tsukada M, Fukai M, Suzuki T, Nishio K, Miki K, et al. KDR Kinase Inhibitor Isolated from the Mushroom Boletopsis leucomelas. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    Three novel p-terphenyl compounds, named boletopsins A (1), B (2), and C (3), and four known analogues (4-7) were isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletopsis leucomelas...
  44. Trofymluk O, Levchenko A, Navrotsky A. Interfacial effects on vitrification of confined glass-forming liquids. J Chem Phys. 2005;123:194509 pubmed
    ..The hydrogen bonding with silica surface silanols dominates the glass transition trends observed in salol and glycerol. ..
  45. Huang H, Hau C, Law C, Wong H. Hydroxytetraphenylenes, a new type of self-assembling building block and chiral catalyst. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will serve as a preview of the chemistry of the tetraphenylene family that hopefully has the potential to emerge. ..
  46. Rosenfelder N, Vetter W. A calculation mode for the correct GC/ECNI-MS-SIM determination of polychlorinated terphenyls in the presence of high excesses of polychlorinated biphenyls. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404:2105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel calculation method used in combination with GC/ECNI-MS-SIM is suitable to analyze PCTs in environmental and food samples. However, it can also be applied to GC/EI-MS measurements. ..
  47. Yashima E, Maeda K, Furusho Y. Single- and double-stranded helical polymers: synthesis, structures, and functions. Acc Chem Res. 2008;41:1166-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only do we better understand the principle underlying the generation of helical conformations, but we have also used the knowledge of these unique helical structures to develop novel helical polymers with specific functions. ..
  48. Saneyoshi H, Ochikubo T, Mashimo T, Hatano K, Ito Y, Abe H. Triphenylphosphinecarboxamide: an effective reagent for the reduction of azides and its application to nucleic acid detection. Org Lett. 2014;16:30-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The TPPc derivatives were also applied to nucleic acid sensing using a RhAz-oligonucleotide conjugate in a DNA-templated fluorogenic reaction. ..
  49. Li P, Egerton R. Radiation damage in coronene, rubrene and p-terphenyl, measured for incident electrons of kinetic energy between 100 and 200 kev. Ultramicroscopy. 2004;101:161-72 pubmed
    ..Therefore even relatively radiation-resistant organic materials may undergo some form of damage when examined in a low-energy electron microscope or a low-voltage SEM. ..
  50. Chai J, Yu S, Jiang S. [Determination of hydrogenated terphenyls by ultraviolet spectrophotometer in the air of work place]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004;33:499-500 pubmed
    ..6% - 2.3%. The sampling efficiency was 97.3%. The samples were stable for 7 days. It was proved that the method was fast, simple and accurate. It was suitable for the determination of hydrogenated terphenyls in the air of work place. ..
  51. Ye Y, Koshino H, Onose J, Yoshikawa K, Abe N, Takahashi S. First total synthesis of vialinin A, a novel and extremely potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha production. Org Lett. 2007;9:4131-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, the related synthetic studies also suggest the necessity for structural revision of ganbajunin C, a positional isomer of vialinin A. ..
  52. Marschall M, Reichert J, Seufert K, Auwärter W, Klappenberger F, Weber Bargioni A, et al. Supramolecular organization and chiral resolution of p-terphenyl-m-dicarbonitrile on the Ag(111) surface. Chemphyschem. 2010;11:1446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Following thermal quenching (down to 6 K) we find extended supramolecular ribbons stabilised again by attractive and directional noncovalent interactions, the formation of which reflects a chiral resolution of trans-species. ..
  53. Smythe N, Schrock R, Muller P, Weare W. Synthesis of [(HIPTNCH2CH2)3N]Cr Compounds (HIPT = 3,5-(2,4,6-i-Pr3C6H2)2C6H3) and an evaluation of chromium for the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. Inorg Chem. 2006;45:7111-8 pubmed
    ..8 equiv) of ammonia, which suggests that some ammonia is formed from the nitride but none is formed from dinitrogen. ..