phloretin

Summary

Summary: A natural dihydrochalcone found in apples and many other fruits.

Top Publications

  1. Kobori M, Iwashita K, Shinmoto H, Tsushida T. Phloretin-induced apoptosis in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells and HL60 human leukemia cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999;63:719-25 pubmed
    The dihydrochalcone phloretin induced apoptosis in B16 mouse melanoma 4A5 cells and HL60 human leukemia cells. Phloretin was suggested to induce apoptosis in B16 cells mainly through the inhibition of glucose transmembrane transport...
  2. Lee J, Regmi S, Kim J, Cho M, Yun H, Lee C, et al. Apple flavonoid phloretin inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and ameliorates colon inflammation in rats. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E...
  3. Jugdé H, Nguy D, Moller I, Cooney J, Atkinson R. Isolation and characterization of a novel glycosyltransferase that converts phloretin to phlorizin, a potent antioxidant in apple. FEBS J. 2008;275:3804-14 pubmed publisher
    The dihydrochalcone phlorizin (phloretin 2'-glucoside) contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apple fruit and processed products...
  4. Stangl V, Lorenz M, Ludwig A, Grimbo N, Guether C, Sanad W, et al. The flavonoid phloretin suppresses stimulated expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and reduces activation of human platelets. J Nutr. 2005;135:172-8 pubmed
    ..Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. Phloretin is a plant-derived phytochemical that is mainly present in apples...
  5. Stojanov K, de Vries E, Hoekstra D, van Waarde A, Dierckx R, Zuhorn I. [18F]FDG labeling of neural stem cells for in vivo cell tracking with positron emission tomography: inhibition of tracer release by phloretin. Mol Imaging. 2012;11:1-12 pubmed
    ..Efflux of [18F]-FDG from NSCs can be effectively reduced by phloretin in vitro, but inhibition of tracer release is insufficient in vivo for accurate monitoring of stem cell ..
  6. Shin J, Kundu J, Surh Y. Phloretin inhibits phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in mouse skin: extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-?B as potential targets. J Med Food. 2012;15:253-7 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated the effect of phloretin [2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propiophenone] on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and tumor promotion in mouse skin ..
  7. Gitzinger M, Kemmer C, El Baba M, Weber W, Fussenegger M. Controlling transgene expression in subcutaneous implants using a skin lotion containing the apple metabolite phloretin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of the TtgR operon, we have engineered a hybrid P. putida-mammalian genetic unit responsive to phloretin. This flavonoid is contained in apples, and, as such, or as dietary supplement, regularly consumed by humans...
  8. Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino P, Law R, Yatskayer M, Foltis P, et al. Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effects of a topical antioxidant mixture consisting of vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin on attenuating the harmful effects of UV irradiation on normal healthy volunteers were studied using biomarkers ..
  9. Bala S, Kombrabail M, Prabhananda B. Effect of phloretin on ionophore mediated electroneutral transmembrane translocations of H(+), K(+) and Na(+) in phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1510:258-69 pubmed
    ..transports through channels could either increase or decrease or change negligibly on adding the polar molecule phloretin to the membrane. The changes depend on pH, the concentration and choice of M(+) and choice of ionophore/channel...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hoa N, Zhang J, Delgado C, Myers M, Callahan L, Vandeusen G, et al. Human monocytes kill M-CSF-expressing glioma cells by BK channel activation. Lab Invest. 2007;87:115-29 pubmed
    ..Forced BK channel opening within the glioma cells by BK channel activators (phloretin or pimaric acid) induced U251 glioma cell swelling and vacuolization occurred within 30 min...
  2. Lairion F, Disalvo E. Effect of phloretin on the dipole potential of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol monolayers. Langmuir. 2004;20:9151-5 pubmed
    The effect of phloretin on the potential of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE,) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) monolayers below and above the phase transition in mixtures of different PC/PE ratios with and without ..
  3. Fenton R, Chou C, Stewart G, Smith C, Knepper M. Urinary concentrating defect in mice with selective deletion of phloretin-sensitive urea transporters in the renal collecting duct. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7469-74 pubmed
    ..In isolated perfused IMCDs from UT-A1/3(-/-) mice, there was a complete absence of phloretin-sensitive or vasopressin-stimulated urea transport...
  4. Chung M, Sohng J, Choi D, Park Y. Inhibitory effect of phloretin and biochanin A on IgE-mediated allergic responses in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Life Sci. 2013;93:401-8 pubmed publisher
    Anti-allergic effects and action mechanism of phloretin (Phl) and biochanin A (BioA) on the IgE-antigen complex-mediated allergic responses in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells were investigated...
  5. Chang W, Huang W, Liou C. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin and phlorizin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. Food Chem. 2012;134:972-9 pubmed publisher
    Many reports suggest that phloretin and phlorizin have antioxidant properties and can inhibit glucose transportation, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of phloretin and phlorizin remain unclear...
  6. Hassan M, El Yazidi C, Landrier J, Lairon D, Margotat A, Amiot M. Phloretin enhances adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:208-13 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that phloretin, a dietary flavonoid, enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by increased triglyceride ..
  7. Pohl P, Rokitskaya T, Pohl E, Saparov S. Permeation of phloretin across bilayer lipid membranes monitored by dipole potential and microelectrode measurements. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1323:163-72 pubmed
    The transmembrane diffusion of phloretin across planar bilayer lipid membranes is studied under steady-state conditions. Diffusion restrictions and adsorption related effects are measured independently...
  8. Bonen A, Luiken J, Liu S, Dyck D, Kiens B, Kristiansen S, et al. Palmitate transport and fatty acid transporters in red and white muscles. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:E471-8 pubmed
    ..All of the palmitate taken up was recovered as unesterified palmitate. Palmitate uptake was reduced by phloretin (-50%), sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (-43%), anti-plasma membrane-bound FABP (FABPpm, -30%), trypsin (-45%), and ..
  9. Zhang S, Morris M. Effects of the flavonoids biochanin A, morin, phloretin, and silymarin on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1258-67 pubmed
    ..breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA435/LCC6 and examined the effects of the flavonoids biochanin A, morin, phloretin, and silymarin on daunomycin (DNM) accumulation and doxorubicin cytotoxicity...
  10. Hassan M, El Yazidi C, Malezet Desmoulins C, Amiot M, Margotat A. Gene expression profiling of 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to phloretin. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the dietary flavonoid phloretin enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression at least in part through PPAR gamma ..
  11. Rezk B, Haenen G, van der Vijgh W, Bast A. The antioxidant activity of phloretin: the disclosure of a new antioxidant pharmacophore in flavonoids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:9-13 pubmed
    b>Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid that displays a potent antioxidant activity in peroxynitrite scavenging and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation...
  12. Valenta C, Nowak M, Hadgraft J. Influence of phloretin and 6-ketocholestanol on the permeation of progesterone through porcine skin. Int J Pharm. 2001;217:79-86 pubmed
    In this study the effect of phloretin (PH) and 6-ketocholestanol (KC) on the permeation of progesterone through porcine skin has been examined...
  13. Shao X, Bai N, He K, Ho C, Yang C, Sang S. Apple polyphenols, phloretin and phloridzin: new trapping agents of reactive dicarbonyl species. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:2042-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that both phloretin and its glucoside, phloridzin, the major bioactive apple polyphenols, could efficiently trap reactive MGO or GO ..
  14. Ullen A, Fauler G, Bernhart E, Nusshold C, Reicher H, Leis H, et al. Phloretin ameliorates 2-chlorohexadecanal-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1770-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the compounds tested, phloretin almost completely abrogated 2-ClHDA-induced BMVEC barrier dysfunction and cell death...
  15. Vasantha Rupasinghe H, Yasmin A. Inhibition of oxidation of aqueous emulsions of omega-3 fatty acids and fish oil by phloretin and phloridzin. Molecules. 2010;15:251-7 pubmed publisher
    The antioxidant properties of two apple dihydrochalcones, namely phloretin and phloridzin, were evaluated and compared with those of alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)...
  16. Kim M, Kwon J, Kang N, Lee K, Lee H. Phloretin induces apoptosis in H-Ras MCF10A human breast tumor cells through the activation of p53 via JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the possible antiproliferative effects of the naturally occurring dihydrochalcone phloretin [2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propiophenone] on H-Ras-transformed MCF10A human breast epithelial (H-..
  17. Wu C, Ho Y, Tsai C, Wang Y, Tseng H, Wei P, et al. In vitro and in vivo study of phloretin-induced apoptosis in human liver cancer cells involving inhibition of type II glucose transporter. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2210-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Phloretin (Ph), a natural product found in apples and pears with glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitory activity, exerts antitumor effects. However, little is known about its effects on human liver cancer...
  18. Park S, Kim E, Shin H, Kwon D, Kim M, Surh Y, et al. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by phloretin. J Med Food. 2007;10:581-6 pubmed
    b>Phloretin, which is present in apples and pears, has been found to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells and induce apoptosis of B16 melanoma and HL60 human leukemia cells...
  19. Yang Y, Lii C, Lin A, Yeh Y, Yao H, Li C, et al. Induction of glutathione synthesis and heme oxygenase 1 by the flavonoids butein and phloretin is mediated through the ERK/Nrf2 pathway and protects against oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:2073-81 pubmed publisher
    Butein and phloretin are chalcones that are members of the flavonoid family of polyphenols. Flavonoids have well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
  20. Pandey R, Li T, Kim E, Yamaguchi T, Park Y, Kim J, et al. Enzymatic synthesis of novel phloretin glucosides. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:3516-21 pubmed publisher
    A UDP-glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was exploited for the glycosylation of phloretin. The in vitro glycosylation reaction confirmed the production of five phloretin glucosides, including three novel glucosides...
  21. Crespy V, Aprikian O, Morand C, Besson C, Manach C, Demigne C, et al. Bioavailability of phloretin and phloridzin in rats. J Nutr. 2001;131:3227-30 pubmed
    b>Phloretin is a flavonoid found exclusively in apples and in apple-derived products where it is present as the glucosidic form, namely, phloridzin (phloretin 2'-O-glucose)...
  22. Auner B, O Neill M, Valenta C, Hadgraft J. Interaction of phloretin and 6-ketocholestanol with DPPC-liposomes as phospholipid model membranes. Int J Pharm. 2005;294:149-55 pubmed
    b>Phloretin and 6-ketocholestanol are penetration enhancers for percutaneous delivery of certain topically applied drugs...
  23. Huber V, Tsujita M, Yamazaki M, Sakimura K, Nakada T. Identification of arylsulfonamides as Aquaporin 4 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:1270-3 pubmed
    ..AZA was found to have an IC50 against AQP4 of 0.9 microM. Phloretin was inactive under the same conditions.
  24. Lu X, Zeng Y, Ye Y, Zhou Y, Mu J, Zhao X. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect of phloretin. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009;44:480-5 pubmed
    This study investigated the effect of phloretin (Ph) on the proliferation, activation, and cell-cycle distribution of mouse T lymphocytes and NO production and phagocytosis of macrophages...
  25. Sukhorukov V, Kürschner M, Dilsky S, Lisec T, Wagner B, Schenk W, et al. Phloretin-induced changes of lipophilic ion transport across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Biophys J. 2001;81:1006-13 pubmed
    ..Similar single-cell electrorotation experiments were performed to examine the effect of phloretin, a dipolar molecule known to influence the dipole potential of membranes, on the transport of [W(CO)(5)CN](-) ..
  26. Crespy V, Morand C, Besson C, Manach C, Demigne C, Remesy C. Comparison of the intestinal absorption of quercetin, phloretin and their glucosides in rats. J Nutr. 2001;131:2109-14 pubmed
    ..in rats after in situ perfusion of jejunum plus ileum (15 nmol/min) for 30 min and compared with those of phloretin and phloridzin (phloretin 2'-O-glucose)...
  27. Gao S, Chen X, Zhu R, Choi B, Kim S, Kim B. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1. Biofactors. 2012;38:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), ..
  28. Fan H, Morishima S, Kida H, Okada Y. Phloretin differentially inhibits volume-sensitive and cyclic AMP-activated, but not Ca-activated, Cl(-) channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;133:1096-106 pubmed
    ..However, effects on the channel of the bisphenol phloretin, which is a known blocker of glucose uniport and anion antiport, have not been examined...
  29. An R, Park E, Jeong G, Sohn D, Kim Y. Cytoprotective constituent of Hoveniae Lignum on both Hep G2 cells and rat primary hepatocytes. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:674-7 pubmed
    A phytochemical investigation of the EtOH extract of Hoveniae Lignum yielded four phenolic compounds, phloretin (1), 5-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone (2), (-)-epiafzelechin (3), and maesopsin (4)...
  30. Müller Lucks A, Gena P, Frascaria D, Altamura N, Svelto M, Beitz E, et al. Preparative scale production and functional reconstitution of a human aquaglyceroporin (AQP3) using a cell free expression system. N Biotechnol. 2013;30:545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of hAQP3-6His was further confirmed by the strong inhibition of the glycerol and water permeability by phloretin and HgCl2, respectively, two blockers of AQP3...
  31. Camacho A, Montiel T, Massieu L. The anion channel blocker, 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid prevents neuronal death and excitatory amino acid release during glycolysis inhibition in the hippocampus in vivo. Neuroscience. 2006;142:1005-17 pubmed
    ..The VSOAC blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and phloretin had no effect either on EAA efflux or neuronal damage...
  32. Lin Y, Hsu F, Chen C, Chern J, Lee M. Constituents from the Formosan apple reduce tyrosinase activity in human epidermal melanocytes. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:1189-99 pubmed
    ..Thus, 3-hydroxyphloretin (7) and catechol (9) were the most active constituents from the Formosan apple; they exhibited anti-oxidant and tyrosinase reducing activities, suggesting their possible use as cosmetic agents. ..
  33. Werner S, Morgan J. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis. J Biotechnol. 2009;142:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was ..
  34. Valenta C, Cladera J, O Shea P, Hadgraft J. Effect of phloretin on the percutaneous absorption of lignocaine across human skin. J Pharm Sci. 2001;90:485-92 pubmed
    The potential use of phloretin, a polyphenolic compound, as a penetration enhancer in the transdermal delivery of lignocaine hydrochloride (L-HCl) has been investigated...
  35. Vardhana P, Illsley N. Transepithelial glucose transport and metabolism in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. Placenta. 2002;23:653-60 pubmed
    ..Experiments involving stimulation and inhibition of cellular glucose consumption demonstrated that there is a single intracellular glucose pool in BeWo cells, supplying both metabolism and transcellular transport...
  36. Ida Yonemochi H, Nakatomi M, Harada H, Takata H, Baba O, Ohshima H. Glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 1 is essential for early tooth morphogenesis and size determination of murine molars. Dev Biol. 2012;363:52-61 pubmed publisher
    ..development using immunohistochemistry and an in vitro organ culture experiment with an inhibitor of GLUTs1/2, phloretin, and Glut1 and Glut2 short interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  37. Cartron J, Ripoche P. Urea transport and Kidd blood groups. Transfus Clin Biol. 1995;2:309-15 pubmed
    ..All these findings provide evidence that the Kidd locus encodes for the human erythrocyte urea transporter, offering new prospects for biological study of urea transporters and their tissue-specific regulation. ..
  38. Braun M, Perry S. Ammonia and urea excretion in the Pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii: Evidence for the involvement of Rh and UT proteins. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010;157:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, when the rate of urea excretion was reduced in the presence of 0.1 mM phloretin, ammonia excretion was significantly elevated...
  39. Auner B, Valenta C, Hadgraft J. Influence of lipophilic counter-ions in combination with phloretin and 6-ketocholestanol on the skin permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Int J Pharm. 2003;255:109-16 pubmed
    ..counter-ions on the permeation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with skin impregnation by phloretin and 6-ketocholestanol was evaluated...
  40. Stevenson D, Cooney J, Jensen D, Zhang J, Wibisono R. Comparison of the relative recovery of polyphenolics in two fruit extracts from a model of degradation during digestion and metabolism. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:939-45 pubmed
    ..Hydrophobic compounds like phloretin and quercetin were extensively glucuronidated, whereas caffeic acid and caffeoyl quinate were not...
  41. De La Torre Sanchez J, Preis K, Seidel G. Metabolic regulation of in-vitro-produced bovine embryos. I. Effects of metabolic regulators at different glucose concentrations with embryos produced by semen from different bulls. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2006;18:585-96 pubmed
    ..Phenazine ethosulfate (PES), phloretin (PL), pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and sodium azide (NaN3) were evaluated at four doses each in factorial ..
  42. Aharon R, Bar Shavit Z. Involvement of aquaporin 9 in osteoclast differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19305-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we examined the effect of phloretin, an AQP9 inhibitor, on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation...
  43. Higgins B, Kane M. Inositol transport in mouse embryonic stem cells. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2005;17:633-9 pubmed
    ..These characteristics indicate that myo-inositol transport in mouse ES cells occurs by a sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter protein. ..
  44. Do C, Lu W, Mitchell C, Civan M. Inhibition of swelling-activated Cl- currents by functional anti-ClC-3 antibody in native bovine non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:948-55 pubmed
    ..stimulated outwardly rectifying I(Cl,swell), which was reversibly inhibited by the Cl(-) channel blockers, phloretin (300 microM) or 5-nitro-2-(phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB, 100 microM)...
  45. Jung M, Triebel S, Anke T, Richling E, Erkel G. Influence of apple polyphenols on inflammatory gene expression. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:1263-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the dihydrochalcone aglycone phloretin and the dimeric flavan-3-ol procyanidin B(1 )significantly inhibited proinflammatory gene expression and ..
  46. Asandei A, Mereuta L, Luchian T. Influence of membrane potentials upon reversible protonation of acidic residues from the OmpF eyelet. Biophys Chem. 2008;135:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results come to support the paradigm according to which transmembrane and dipole potentials are critical parameters for the titration behavior of protein sites embedded lipid membranes. ..
  47. Antonenko Y, Rokitskaya T, Kotova E. Effect of dipole modifiers on the kinetics of sensitized photoinactivation of gramicidin channels in bilayer lipid membranes. Membr Cell Biol. 1999;13:111-20 pubmed
    ..Addition of phloretin, which is known to decrease the dipole potential drop, slows down the kinetics, whereas the addition of RH421 or ..
  48. Konno N, Hyodo S, Matsuda K, Uchiyama M. Arginine vasotocin promotes urea permeability through urea transporter expressed in the toad urinary bladder cells. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;152:281-5 pubmed
    ..b>Phloretin, a urea transport inhibitor, fully blocked the increase of urea uptake...
  49. Stewart G, King S, Potter E, Smith C. Acute regulation of mUT-A3 urea transporter expressed in a MDCK cell line. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1157-63 pubmed
    Renal facilitative urea transporters play a vital role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. UT-A3 is a phloretin-sensitive urea transporter that in the mouse is expressed on the basolateral membrane of renal inner medullary collecting ..
  50. Silberstein C, Zotta E, Ripoche P, Ibarra C. Characterization of urea transport in Bufo arenarum oocytes. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2003;298:10-5 pubmed
    ..3 x 10(-6) cm/s, which was significantly inhibited by the incubation with phloretin. The urea uptake in these oocytes was also inhibited by mercurial reagents, and high-affinity urea analogues...
  51. Choi B, Chen X, Gao S, Zhu R, Kim B. Anti-apoptotic effect of phloretin on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:708-16 pubmed
    ..The present study examined the effects of phloretin, a natural polyphenolic compound found in apples and pears, on cisplatin-induced apoptosis...
  52. Hakata T, Ito K, Horie T. Enhanced absorption of 3-O-methyl glucose following gastrointestinal injury induced by repeated oral administration of 5-FU in mice. J Pharm Sci. 2005;94:1713-22 pubmed
    ..8-fold, while the carrier-independent absorption assessed by L-glucose transport was not affected. Phloretin, a glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) inhibitor, completely abolished the absorption of 3-OMG in both control and 5-..
  53. Rasola A, Galietta L, Barone V, Romeo G, Bagnasco S. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a GABA/betaine transporter from human kidney. FEBS Lett. 1995;373:229-33 pubmed
    ..At 500 microM the GABA transport was inhibited by various compounds with the following potency order: quinidine > verapamil > phloretin > betaine.