Summary: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.

Top Publications

  1. Tomlinson A, Blades K, Pearce E. What does the phenol red thread test actually measure?. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:142-6 pubmed
  2. Bindal R, Carlson K, Katzenellenbogen B, Katzenellenbogen J. Lipophilic impurities, not phenolsulfonphthalein, account for the estrogenic activity in commercial preparations of phenol red. J Steroid Biochem. 1988;31:287-93 pubmed
    ..that the receptor binding and growth promoting activity does not correspond to the indicator dye itself (phenolsulfonphthalein), but rather to more lipophilic impurities present in these preparations...
  3. Zmajević M, Klarica M, Varda R, Kudelić N, Bulat M. Elimination of phenolsulfonphthalein from the cerebrospinal fluid via capillaries in central nervous system in cats by active transport. Neurosci Lett. 2002;321:123-5 pubmed
    It was recently proposed that organic anions, such as cerebral acidic metabolites and phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), are eliminated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by diffusion into the central nervous system (CNS) and further by active ..
  4. Wesierska Gadek J, Schreiner T, Maurer M, Waringer A, Ranftler C. Phenol red in the culture medium strongly affects the susceptibility of human MCF-7 cells to roscovitine. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2007;12:280-93 pubmed
    ..We observed that phenol red added to the culture medium strongly promoted the cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of human cells expressing the estrogen receptor, and affected their susceptibility to chemotherapy. ..
  5. Ernst M, Schmid C, Froesch E. Phenol red mimics biological actions of estradiol: enhancement of osteoblast proliferation in vitro and of type I collagen gene expression in bone and uterus of rats in vivo. J Steroid Biochem. 1989;33:907-14 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we show that Phenol Red stimulates bone cells and, therefore, is likely to interfere at least in experiments designed to investigate estrogen effects on osteoblasts. ..
  6. Berthois Y, Katzenellenbogen J, Katzenellenbogen B. Phenol red in tissue culture media is a weak estrogen: implications concerning the study of estrogen-responsive cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:2496-500 pubmed
    ..The estrogenic activity of phenol red should be considered in any studies that utilize estrogen-responsive cells in culture. ..
  7. Yao W, Byrne R. Spectrophotometric determination of freshwater pH using bromocresol purple and phenol red. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:1197-201 pubmed
    ..5 < or =pH < or =8.5. The precision of pH measurements using phenol red in well-buffered freshwaters is on the order of +/-0.001 or better. ..
  8. Lorenzo M, Moldes D, Rodríguez Couto S, Sanroman A. Improving laccase production by employing different lignocellulosic wastes in submerged cultures of Trametes versicolor. Bioresour Technol. 2002;82:109-13 pubmed
    ..Grape stalk and barley bran cultures showed the highest ability to decolourise the dye, attaining a percentage of decolourisation of around 60% in 72 h. ..
  9. Still K, Reading L, Scutt A. Effects of phenol red on CFU-f differentiation and formation. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73:173-9 pubmed
    ..This indicates that phenol red itself can affect the differentiation of BMC by a mechanism not previously described. ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wesierska Gadek J, Schreiner T, Gueorguieva M, Ranftler C. Phenol red reduces ROSC mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:1367-79 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the exposure of cancer patients to the estrogen mimics should be avoided at least during chemotherapy by CDK inhibitors. ..
  2. Kachur A, Popov A, Karp J, Delikatny E. Direct fluorination of phenolsulfonphthalein: a method for synthesis of positron-emitting indicators for in vivo pH measurement. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013;66:1-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a reaction of direct electrophilic fluorination of phenolsulfonphthalein at mild conditions. This reaction affords the synthesis of novel positron-emitting (18)F-labeled pH indicators...
  3. Bochkova O, Mustafina A, Mukhametshina A, Burilov V, Skripacheva V, Zakharova L, et al. The interfacial interactions of Tb-doped silica nanoparticles with surfactants and phospholipids revealed through the fluorescent response. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;92:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The displacement of dye anions from the interfacial surfactant adlayer by anionic surfactants and phospholipids is accompanied by the "off-on" switching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence. ..
  4. Nishida K, Honda T, Nakashima M, Sasaki H, Nakamura J. Influence of liver disease on phenolsulfonphthalein absorption from liver surface to examine possibility of direct liver surface application for drug targeting. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:988-93 pubmed
    ..In the liver-intoxicated rats, about 90% of a low molecular weight drug, phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), as a model was absorbed from the liver surface in 6 h, similar to the normal rats (no treatment)...
  5. Lee W, Lee S. Effect of gelatin on the drug release behaviors for the organic hybrid gels based on N-isopropylacrylamide and gelatin. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:1089-96 pubmed
    ..The drug released from the gels crosslinked with genipin was significantly smaller than that released from the gels crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. ..
  6. Lysdahl H, Baatrup A, Nielsen A, Foldager C, Bunger C. Phenol red inhibits chondrogenic differentiation and affects osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Stem Cell Rev. 2013;9:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results indicate that PR should be removed from the culture media when differentiating hMSCs into chondrogenic and osteogenic directions due to the effects on these differentiation pathways. ..
  7. Nishida K, Fujiwara R, Kodama Y, Fumoto S, Mukai T, Nakashima M, et al. Regional delivery of model compounds and 5-Fluorouracil to the liver by their application to the liver surface in rats: its implication for clinical use. Pharm Res. 2005;22:1331-7 pubmed
    ..b>Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (MW 4400, FD-4) as model compounds or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ..
  8. Nishida K, Kuma A, Fumoto S, Nakashima M, Sasaki H, Nakamura J. Absorption characteristics of model compounds from the small intestinal serosal surface and a comparison with other organ surfaces. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:1073-7 pubmed
    We examined the absorption of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD-4, MW 4400; FD-10, MW 9500; FD-40, MW 40 500) as model compounds through the small intestinal serosal surface...
  9. Fujimoto S, Kishida T, Sagawa T, Negishi H, Okuyama K, Hareyama H, et al. Clinical usefulness of the dye-injection method for diagnosing premature rupture of the membranes in equivocal cases. J Obstet Gynaecol (Tokyo 1995). 1995;21:215-20 pubmed
    ..001). Using the PSP test in combination with amnioscopy, we have established a method of differentially diagnosing PROM. We have reconfirmed the clinical efficacy of the PSP test in 64 equivocal PROM cases. ..
  10. Kristanti R, Fikri Ahmad Zubir M, Hadibarata T. Biotransformation studies of cresol red by Absidia spinosa M15. J Environ Manage. 2016;172:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..6 min and m/z 136) and benzoic acid (tR 5.7 min and m/z 122). Laccase showed the significant activity (133.8 U/L) in biomass obtained at the end of experiment demonstrates role of the enzyme in the decolorization process. ..
  11. Saito A, Izumisawa Y, Yamashita K, Kotani T. The effect of third eyelid gland removal on the ocular surface of dogs. Vet Ophthalmol. 2001;4:13-8 pubmed
    ..Surgical excision of the third eyelid in Beagle dogs influenced tear quality level and affected the stability of the tear layer, and at 1 year there was evidence of microinjury to the keratoconjunctival epithelium...
  12. Paye J, Akers R, Huckle W, Forsten Williams K. Autocrine production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) affects paracellular transport across epithelial cells in vitro. Cell Commun Adhes. 2007;14:85-98 pubmed
  13. Moldes D, Fernández Fernández M, Sanroman M. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:398725 pubmed publisher
    ..versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. ..
  14. Xin F, Geng A. Utilization of horticultural waste for laccase production by Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;163:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..79% in 72 h of incubation. By far, this is the first report on the optimization of laccase production by T. versicolor under solid-state fermentation using horticultural waste as the substrate. ..
  15. Bhunia S, Saha D, Koner S. MCM-41-supported oxo-vanadium(IV) complex: a highly selective heterogeneous catalyst for the bromination of hydroxy aromatic compounds in water. Langmuir. 2011;27:15322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The immobilized complex does not leach or decompose during the catalytic reactions, showing practical advantages over the free metal complex. ..
  16. Dixit P, Jain D, Dumbwani J. Standardization of an ex vivo method for determination of intestinal permeability of drugs using everted rat intestine apparatus. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2012;65:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed method can be used in all kinds of drug absorption studies, especially biopharmaceutical investigations studying absorption enhancement strategies. ..
  17. Soares K, Blackmon N, Shun T, Shinde S, Takyi H, Wipf P, et al. Profiling the NIH Small Molecule Repository for compounds that generate H2O2 by redox cycling in reducing environments. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2010;8:152-74 pubmed publisher
  18. Xavier M, Vallejo B, Marazuela M, Moreno Bondi M, Baldini F, Falai A. Fiber optic monitoring of carbamate pesticides using porous glass with covalently bound chlorophenol red. Biosens Bioelectron. 2000;14:895-905 pubmed
  19. Mary P, Rao J. Phenol red inhibits uptake of phosphate by the everted gut sacs of mice. Kobe J Med Sci. 2002;48:59-62 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that entry of phenol red into gut tissue from the serosal side interferes with the mucosal uptake of phosphate by the everted intestinal sacs of mice. ..
  20. Hashimoto N, Ohyanagi H. Effect of acute portal hypertension on gut mucosa. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:1567-70 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we evaluated the intestinal permeability by using the phenolsulfonphthalein test...
  21. Bennink R, de Jonge W, Symonds E, van den Wijngaard R, Spijkerboer A, Benninga M, et al. Validation of gastric-emptying scintigraphy of solids and liquids in mice using dedicated animal pinhole scintigraphy. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:1099-104 pubmed
    ..The technique enables sequential and serial measurement within 1 subject and is thus useful for follow-up investigations, which can be performed even after invasive procedures that require anesthesia. ..
  22. Tan S, Liu C, Wang C, Wang D, Zhang Y, Lin N. [Valuation on analgesic, expectorant and antitussive effects of compatible use of Aconiti radix cocta and Fritillaria cirrhosa or Fritillaria thunbergii]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:2706-13 pubmed
    ..thunbergii shows no effect on the antitussive effect of F. thunbergii. This study provides experimental basis for in-depth studies on the combined effect of Aconiti Radix Cocta and Fritillaria--two of eighteen incompatible pairs. ..
  23. Yu Z, Pan J, Zhou H. A direct continuous pH-spectrophotometric assay for arginine kinase activity. Protein Pept Lett. 2002;9:545-52 pubmed
    ..For this condition, one activity unit of arginine kinase was defined as 1 micromol H+ produced in 1 minute in the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by arginine kinase. ..
  24. Ensafi A, Rezaei B, Nouroozi S. Highly selective spectrophotometric flow-injection determination of trace amounts of bromide by catalytic effect on the oxidation of m-cresolsulfonephthalein by periodate. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2004;60:2053-7 pubmed
    ..1%. The influence of potential interfering ions on the selectivity was studied. The method successes to measure bromide in the presence of other halide ions. The method was used to measure bromide in river water and tap water. ..
  25. de Monchy I, Gendron G, Miceli C, Pogorzalek N, Mariette X, Labetoulle M. Combination of the Schirmer I and phenol red thread tests as a rescue strategy for diagnosis of ocular dryness associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be more widely used in daily clinical practice, aside from the Schirmer I test, to optimize the work-up of patients presenting with dry-eye subjective signs. ..
  26. Oh J, Lee J, Han D, Cho S, Lee Y. Circadian Clock Is Involved in Regulation of Hepatobiliary Transport Mediated by Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106:2491-2498 pubmed publisher
    ..Circadian variation of hepatobiliary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein, a model substrate of Mrp2, was also investigated in mice...
  27. MORIS VARAS F, Shah A, Aikens J, Nadkarni N, Rozzell J, Demirjian D. Visualization of enzyme-catalyzed reactions using pH indicators: rapid screening of hydrolase libraries and estimation of the enantioselectivity. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999;7:2183-8 pubmed
    ..The method has been tested to quickly evaluate the enantioselectivity of a lipase towards a set of ester substrates and applied to the hierarchical screening of a library of thermophilic esterases. ..
  28. Kaminska R, Mörtenhumer M. Allergic contact dermatitis from phenolsulfonphthalein in chlorhexidine solution. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;56:358-60 pubmed
  29. Richards J, Imagawa W, Balakrishnan A, Edery M, Nandi S. The lack of effect of phenol red or estradiol on the growth response of human, rat, and mouse mammary cells in primary culture. Endocrinology. 1988;123:1335-40 pubmed
    ..This work supports the idea that the effect of estrogens on growth in vivo may be mediated through some other factor(s). ..
  30. Lewis S. Assessing epithelial cell confluence by spectroscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2002;188:329-36 pubmed
  31. Matsumoto K, Kimura H, Tashima K, Uchida M, Horie S. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:1917-22 pubmed
    ..This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically. ..
  32. Collado P, Munoz M, Garcia Pardo L, Gonzalez J. Postnatal development of the hepatobiliary transport of phenolsulfonphthalein in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1989;93:403-6 pubmed
    1. The postnatal development of the biliary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) was studied in male Wistar rats. 2. Following i.v...
  33. Nigg H, Schumann R, Yang J, Yang L, Simpson S, Etxeberria E, et al. Quantifying individual fruit fly consumption with Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:1850-60 pubmed
    ..This technique could be applied to studies of tephritid consumption, to the consumption of other insects, and to regurgitation studies. ..
  34. Brown D, MacLellan W, Wu B, Beygui R. Analysis of pH gradients resulting from mass transport limitations in engineered heart tissue. Ann Biomed Eng. 2007;35:1885-97 pubmed
  35. Hur O, Niks D, Casino P, Dunn M. Proton transfers in the beta-reaction catalyzed by tryptophan synthase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9991-10001 pubmed
    ..The mechanistic and conformational implications of this transformation are discussed. ..
  36. Kosrirukvongs P, Chirapapaisan N, Visuthisakchai S, Issaragrisil S, Gonggetyai V. Sjögren-like syndrome after bone marrow transplantation. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:1739-47 pubmed
    ..4% in the controls (p < 0.001). Trend of dry eye in patients with BMT and GVHD were higher than no-GVHD group. Doctors should be aware of ocular symptoms and signs of dry eye in patients with BMT and follow-up for proper management. ..
  37. Korohoda W, Madeja Z, Sroka J. Diverse chemotactic responses of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae in the developing (temporal) and stationary (spatial) concentration gradients of folic acid, cAMP, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2002;53:1-25 pubmed
    ..None of the tested inhibitors causes inhibition of cell random movement, when applied in isotropic solution. Also EDTA and EGTA up to 50 mM concentration did not inhibit locomotion of amoebae in control isotropic solutions. ..
  38. Borowiec A, Hague F, Harir N, Guénin S, Guerineau F, Gouilleux F, et al. IGF-1 activates hEAG K(+) channels through an Akt-dependent signaling pathway in breast cancer cells: role in cell proliferation. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:690-701 pubmed
    ..Since a hEAG channel is necessary for cell proliferation, its regulation by IGF-1 may thus play an important role in IGF-1 signaling to promote a mitogenic effect in breast cancer cells. ..
  39. Johnston P, Soares K, Shinde S, Foster C, Shun T, Takyi H, et al. Development of a 384-well colorimetric assay to quantify hydrogen peroxide generated by the redox cycling of compounds in the presence of reducing agents. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2008;6:505-18 pubmed publisher
  40. Sindak N, Kandemir L, Yertürk M, Biricik H. Measurement of phenol red thread tear test in Arabian and throughbred horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2010;13:219-21 pubmed publisher
    ..PRT can be used in equine ophthalmology on a routine basis to the measurement of tear production. These normal PRT values help diagnosis keratoconjunctivitis sicca in horses. ..
  41. Gaowa A, Motohashi H, Katsura T, Inui K. Effects of metabolic acidosis on expression levels of renal drug transporters. Pharm Res. 2011;28:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease of renal excretion of anionic drugs during metabolic acidosis might be partly due to a reduction in the level of OAT3 protein. ..
  42. Porat Y, Mazor Y, Efrat S, Gazit E. Inhibition of islet amyloid polypeptide fibril formation: a potential role for heteroaromatic interactions. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14454-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide further experimental support for the potential role of aromatic interactions in amyloid formation and establish a novel approach for its inhibition. ..
  43. Darwish T, Brahma A, Efron N, O Donnell C. Subbasal nerve regeneration after LASEK measured by confocal microscopy. J Refract Surg. 2007;23:709-15 pubmed
    ..Subbasal nerves were injured by LASEK and had not returned to preoperative levels 6 months after surgery. Corneal sensitivity was reduced after LASEK and returned to normal levels 3 months after surgery. ..
  44. Jarrett J, Choi C, Matthews R. Changes in protonation associated with substrate binding and Cob(I)alamin formation in cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. Biochemistry. 1997;36:15739-48 pubmed
    ..In contrast, binding methyltetrahydrofolate to the enzyme does not result in proton uptake, suggesting that the proton destined for the product tetrahydrofolate is already present on the free methylcobalamin enzyme. ..
  45. Zakeri Milani P, Valizadeh H, Tajerzadeh H, Azarmi Y, Islambolchilar Z, Barzegar S, et al. Predicting human intestinal permeability using single-pass intestinal perfusion in rat. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2007;10:368-79 pubmed
    ..It may also be used as a reliable technique to predict the fraction of dose absorbed following oral administration of drug in solution or regular release dosage form in human. ..
  46. Welshons W, Jordan V. Adaptation of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells to low estrogen (phenol red-free) culture. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1987;23:1935-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, maintenance of estrogen-dependent cells in low estrogen media may convert them to dependence on factors which are not currently understood. This may ultimately increase their value as models of hormone action. ..
  47. Bukovsky A, Cekanova M, Caudle M, Wimalasena J, Foster J, Henley D, et al. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:13 pubmed
    ..This mechanism, however, may not operate in abnormal placentae, which show a lack of ER-alpha expression...
  48. Easley R, Byrne R. Spectrophotometric calibration of pH electrodes in seawater using purified m-cresol purple. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:5018-24 pubmed publisher
    ..One-point determinations of intercept potential should be undertaken frequently (?daily) to monitor for stable electrode behavior and ensure accurate potentiometric pH determinations. ..
  49. Martinez J, Carroll G, Tschirret Guth R, Altenhoff G, Little R, Butler A. On the regiospecificity of vanadium bromoperoxidase. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:3289-94 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of a regiospecific bromination by a vanadium haloperoxidase and further extends their usefulness as catalysts. ..
  50. Jeevarajan A, Vani S, Taylor T, Anderson M. Continuous pH monitoring in a perfused bioreactor system using an optical pH sensor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;78:467-72 pubmed
    ..06 pH unit and for the fiber optically coupled Shimadzu spectrophotometer against the blood gas analyzer was +/-0.05 pH unit. The pH sensor system performed well without need of recalibration for 124 days. ..
  51. Craig J, Tomlinson A, Patterson N, Reid V, McFadyen A. Tear production measurement, basal or reflex assessment?. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;506:1159-63 pubmed
  52. Gerenday A, Fallon A. Ecdysone-induced accumulation of mosquito cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:831-8 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the decrease in the proportion of cells in S and G2, western blots show that levels of cyclin A, which is required during the S phase of the cycle, decreased in 20E-treated cells. ..
  53. Faxén K, Gilderson G, Adelroth P, Brzezinski P. A mechanistic principle for proton pumping by cytochrome c oxidase. Nature. 2005;437:286-9 pubmed
    ..This scenario suggests a principle by which redox-driven proton pumps might operate and puts considerable constraints on possible molecular mechanisms by which CytcO translocates protons. ..
  54. Labbe A, Pauly A, Liang H, Brignole Baudouin F, Martin C, Warnet J, et al. Comparison of toxicological profiles of benzalkonium chloride and polyquaternium-1: an experimental study. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22:267-78 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare, in vivo on a rat model, two different preservatives- benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1)-using new experimental approaches...
  55. Rajagopal M, Fischer H, Widdicombe J. Hormonal and purinergic stimulation of bicarbonate secretion in oviducts of rhesus monkey. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the midcycle increase in the HCO(3)(-) concentration of oviductal liquid may be mediated by the effects of estradiol on purinergic pathways or on ATP secretion. ..
  56. Higaki K, Takechi N, Kato M, Hashida M, Sezaki H. Effect of medium-chain glycerides on the intestinal absorption of phenol red: studies on mechanisms of the promoting effect. J Pharm Sci. 1990;79:334-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the promotion of intestinal absorption is related to the absorption kinetics of MCG itself, but not directly to the level of mucosal GSH. ..
  57. Lôbo de Araújo A, Radvanyi F. Determination of phospholipase A2 activity by a colorimetric assay using a pH indicator. Toxicon. 1987;25:1181-8 pubmed
    ..This very simple test is rapid, sensitive and especially useful for assaying numerous samples. For quantitative results in absolute units it must be considered that the pH indicator may inhibit some phospholipases. ..
  58. Behnia K, Bhatia S, Jastromb N, Balis U, Sullivan S, Yarmush M, et al. Xenobiotic metabolism by cultured primary porcine hepatocytes. Tissue Eng. 2000;6:467-79 pubmed
    ..Our study indicated that porcine hepatocytes in vitro maintain many important liver-specific functions including detoxification (steady state and inducibility). ..
  59. Manji S, Ishihara A. Screening of tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin-degrading fungi capable of producing extracellular peroxidases under various conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:438-44 pubmed
    ..strain MS325 on a practical scale in the environment has several advantages over many white rot fungi, which produce extracellular peroxidases only under specific conditions such as nutrient limitation. ..
  60. Mukai T, Mera K, Nishida K, Nakashima M, Sasaki H, Nakamura J. Pharmacokinetics of phenol red in rat models of liver damage prepared by liver targeting of carbon tetrachloride. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:595-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the rat model of liver damage prepared by liver surface application of CCl(4) is useful to investigate the effects of hepatic disorder on the pharmacokinetics of drugs. ..
  61. Nishida K, Nose S, Kuma A, Mukai T, Nakashima M, Sasaki H, et al. Absorption of phenolsulfonphthalein as a model across the mesenteric surface in rats to determine the drug absorption route after intraperitoneal administration. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004;56:683-7 pubmed
    ..Absorption of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) as a model after application to the mesenteric surface was investigated in rats by employing a ..
  62. Nishida K, Kamenosono M, Kuma A, Fumoto S, Mukai T, Nakashima M, et al. Delivery advantage to the unilateral kidney by direct drug application to the kidney surface in rats and pharmacokinetic verification based on a physiological model. J Drug Target. 2005;13:215-23 pubmed
    ..d. 6 mm, area 0.28 cm(2)) was attached to the right kidney surface in rats. Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), an organic anion chosen as a model compound, was added into the diffusion cell...
  63. Balaguer A, Salvador A, Chisvert A, Melia M, Herraez M, Diez O. A liquid chromatography-fluorimetric method for the in vitro estimation of the skin penetration of disodium phenyldibenzimidazole tetrasulfonate from sunscreen formulations through human skin. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;385:1225-32 pubmed
  64. Sonia -, Saini R, Singh R, Jaiwal P. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transfer of Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene into mungbean Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek using bar as selectable marker. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:187-98 pubmed
    ..Transgenic plants could be recovered after 8-10 weeks of cocultivation with Agrobacterium. An overall transformation frequency of 1.51% was achieved. ..
  65. Nishida K, Okazaki M, Sakamoto R, Inaoka N, Miyake H, Fumoto S, et al. Change in pharmacokinetics of model compounds with different elimination processes in rats during hypothermia. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:1763-7 pubmed
    ..We chose phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD-4, Mw 4400) as model ..
  66. Miyamoto H, Miyake H, Yoshikawa N, Hirata H, Ohwaki Y, Fumoto S, et al. Evaluation of changes in hepatic disposition of phenolsulfonphthalein, indocyanine green and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran at low temperatures using a rat liver perfusion system. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:848-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Venous outflow dilution patterns and biliary excretion rate patterns of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD-4, MW 4400) after the ..
  67. Onal Okyay T, Frigi Rodrigues D. High throughput colorimetric assay for rapid urease activity quantification. J Microbiol Methods. 2013;95:324-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This method reduces significantly sample processing time and allows real-time investigations. This method is rapid, sensitive, easy, cost-effective, and does not use any toxic chemical reagents. ..
  68. Brito D, Domingues S, Silva J, Wu X, Santos R, Pieczarka J. Detrimental Effect of Phenol Red on the Vitrification of Cat (Felis catus) Ovarian Tissue. Biopreserv Biobank. 2016;14:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that vitrification of feline ovarian tissue should be performed in a phenol red-free medium. Medium supplementation with 50??M of trolox was deleterious for follicular morphology. ..
  69. Brown S, Groves C, Barsanti J, Finco D. Determination of excretion of inulin, creatinine, sodium sulfanilate, and phenolsulfonphthalein to assess renal function in goats. Am J Vet Res. 1990;51:581-6 pubmed
    Excretion of creatinine, sodium sulfanilate (SS), and phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) was studied in healthy goats. In conscious goats, mean (+/- SEM) inulin clearance was 2.26 +/- 0.08 ml/min/kg of body weight...
  70. Duggleby R, Northrop D. Quantitative analysis of absorption spectra and application to the characterization of ligand binding curves. Experientia. 1989;45:87-92 pubmed
    ..The method is illustrated using the model system of phenol red protonation and is applied to the characterization of the binding of azide ions to cobalt-substituted carbonic anhydrase. ..
  71. Hofland L, van Koetsveld P, Koper J, den Holder A, Lamberts S. Weak estrogenic activity of phenol red in the culture medium: its role in the study of the regulation of prolactin release in vitro. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1987;54:43-50 pubmed
  72. Fleck C, Thong N, Braunlich H. Relation between renal and hepatic excretion in drugs. VIII. Influence of triiodothyronine on maturation of phenol red excretion in rats. Exp Pathol. 1988;34:89-98 pubmed
    ..In contrast, total hepatic accumulation was reduced independently of age. ..
  73. Drake P, Krieg E, Teass A, Vallyathan V. Two assays for urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase compared. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1604-5 pubmed
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    ..Our results were obtained in metal ion-free systems. It therefore appears likely that the claims for a direct melatonin/H(2)O(2) reaction were due to contamination by traces of transition metal ions. ..
  75. Glasson M, Stapleton F, Keay L, Sweeney D, Willcox M. Differences in clinical parameters and tear film of tolerant and intolerant contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:5116-24 pubmed
    ..Contact lens intolerance appears to be best predicted by a combination of clinical variables, including tear film stability, tear volume, and symptom reporting. ..
  76. Meyer T, Leeper E, Bartlett D, Depner T, Lit Y, Robertson C, et al. Increasing dialysate flow and dialyzer mass transfer area coefficient to increase the clearance of protein-bound solutes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1927-35 pubmed
    ..The model accurately predicts the pattern of measured results and shows further that ClPR can be made to approach Qp only by very large increases in both KoAPR and Qd. ..
  77. Itagaki S, Shimamoto S, Hirano T, Iseki K, Sugawara M, Nishimura S, et al. Comparison of urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein in an animal model for Wilson's disease (Long-Evans Cinnamon rats) with that in normal Wistar rats: involvement of primary active organic anion transporter. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004;7:227-34 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the cause of the decline in phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) excretion in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats. The uptake of PSP into rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) was studied...
  78. King B, Liu M, Townsend Nicholson A, Pfister J, Padilla F, Ford A, et al. Antagonism of ATP responses at P2X receptor subtypes by the pH indicator dye, Phenol red. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:313-22 pubmed
    ..Culture media containing these red dyes should be used cautiously in future pharmacological studies of P2XRs. Also, wherever possible, the solvent DMSO should be used with caution. ..
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    ..4 wt% of cationic cosurfactant. The release properties can even be finely tuned by controlling the amounts of the cosurfactant. Salt and pH effects demonstrate the role of electrostatic interactions in sustaining the release. ..
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    ..These results indicate that hemoperfusion over coated granular carbon provides limited clearance of protein-bound solutes. ..
  81. Huang Q, Yan X, Wang J. Improved biovar test for Ralstonia solanacearum. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;88:271-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To differentiate biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, the test can be further simplified and completed in 3 days using a panel of four carbohydrates containing glucose, trehalose, maltose and dulcitol, significantly saving money, space and time. ..
  82. Hernández Garcés H, Castellanos González V, González Fabián L, Infante Velázquez M, Peña K, Andrain Sierra Y. Chromoendoscopy with red phenol in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2012;104:4-9 pubmed
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    ..Perhaps, this paper may offer some important subjects for broadening the application of Cresol Red derivatives in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and sonocatalytic therapy (SCT) technologies for tumor treatment. ..
  84. Dumesic D, Renk M, Kamel F. Estrogenic effects of phenol red on rat pituitary cell responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Life Sci. 1989;44:397-406 pubmed
    This study investigated whether phenolsulfonphthalein (PR), a common pH indicator in tissue culture media, affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from rat pituitary cells or 17 beta-estradiol (E2) augmentation of pituitary ..
  85. Wideback K. Binding of albumin fragments to surface receptor in A, C, and G streptococci. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1987;95:303-7 pubmed
    ..Both the large 45 kDa tryptic fragment and the small 23 kDa fragment could bind to streptococci and could be dissociated by 2 M KSCN. ..
  86. Collado P, Munoz M, Esteller A, Gonzalez J. Influence of bile acids on the biliary transport maximum of phenolsulfonphthalein in the rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1988;15:893-9 pubmed
    ..induced by cholestyramine treatment or taurocholate infusion on the biliary transport maximum (Tm) of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) was studied in Wistar rats. 2. Five hours after oral administration of cholestyramine (1...
  87. Schlein M, Ludvigsen S, Olsen H, Andersen A, Danielsen G, Kaarsholm N. Properties of small molecules affecting insulin receptor function. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13520-8 pubmed
    ..Determination of the binding stoichiometry reveals multiple binding sites for ligands of which one overlaps with the insulin binding site on the receptor. ..
  88. Caselli M, Mangone A, Paolillo P, Traini A. Determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromocresol green and cresol red in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micelles by multiple linear regression and extended principal component analysis. Ann Chim. 2002;92:501-12 pubmed
    ..The pKa corrected for these effects are independent of w0 and are close to the value of the pKa in bulk water. On the basis of a tentative hypothesis it is possible to calculate the true pKa of the buffer in the pool. ..
  89. Johnston M, Hanlon G, Denyer S, Lambert R. Membrane damage to bacteria caused by single and combined biocides. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94:1015-23 pubmed
    ..Patents granted on the basis of analyses using the linear-additive model for combinations of compounds with non-linear dose responses may no longer be supportable. ..
  90. Takahashi M, Onishi H, Machida Y. Development of implant tablet for a week-long sustained release. J Control Release. 2004;100:63-74 pubmed
    ..The present implant tablet is suggested to be useful as a drug delivery system for supplying drugs for approximately 1 week. ..
  91. Hida R, Nishiwaki Dantas M, Hida M, Tsubota K. [Quantitative tear study using the red phenol test in the Brazilian population]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2005;68:433-7 pubmed
    ..Of the 1,120 evaluated eyes, the mean +/- standard deviation result was 19.77+/-7.90 mm. The mean result found in this study was an intermediate value compared to the previously studied populations (Japanese and American). ..
  92. Michelini M, Rosellini A, Mandys V, Simoncini T, Revoltella R. Cytoarchitecture modifications of the human uterine endocervical mucosa in long-term three-dimensional organotypic culture. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;201:679-89 pubmed
    ..The addition of Es and Pg further improved the histology and physiology of the fragments: in DMEM(pr-)(Es+Pg), epithelial cells retained a columnar shape, secreted mucins, and formed areas of squamous hyperplasia. ..